Skip to main content

Table 3 Neurodevelopmental outcomes, perinatal and socio-demographic characteristics of infants conceived by MAR and naturally (means, p-values)

From: Effect of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) and pregnancy planning on Bayley-III Screening Test subscales in preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age: a cross-sectional study

 

Mean subscale scores

p-values (test statistics)

 

MAR

(n = 47)

Natural conception (n = 124)

Mann–Whitney test

p-value (U)

t-test

p-value (t)

Neurodevelopmental outcomes

 Cognitive Subscale

17.10

16.76

0.065 (2393.0)

0.172 (1.371)

 Receptive Language Subscale

12.00

11.26

0.004 (2096.5)*

0.003 (3.076)*

 Expressive Language Subscale

11.21

10.70

0.101 (2449.0)

0.111 (1.603)

 Fine Motor Subscale

12.55

12.34

0.320 (2632.5)

0.441 (0.772)

 Gross Motor Subscale

16.02

15.14

0.004 (2114.5)*

0.004 (2.893)*

 

Perinatal and socio-demographic characteristics

p-values of t-tests or χ^2 tests

 

Perinatal data

 Gestational age (weeks), n (%)

  

0.135

 

  very early (< 28 weeks)

2 (4.25)

18 (14.51)

  

  early (28–31 weeks)

8 (17.02)

20 (16.12)

  

  moderate (32–33 weeks)

16 (34.04)

26 (20.96)

  

  late (34–36 weeks)

21 (44.68)

60 (48.38)

  

 Birth weight (g), n (%)

  

0.017*

 

  LBW (1500–2499 g)

34 (72.34)

74 (59.67)

  

  VLBW (1000–1499 g)

12 (25.53)

26 (20.96)

  

  ELBW (< 1000 g)

1 (2.12)

24 (19.35)

  

 Mode of delivery, n (%)

  

0.234

 

  Sectio caesarea

36 (76.59)

82 (66.12)

  

  Per vias naturales

11 (23.40)

40 (32.25)

  

 Apgar scores, M ± SD

  1 min

8.11 ± 1.34

7.51 ± 1.68

0.037*

 

  5 min

9.16 ± 0.81

8.67 ± 1.16

0.03*

 

  10 min

9.5 ± 0.58

9.19 ± 0.76

0.069

 

 Intensive care

  

0.516

 

  NICU-admission, n (%)

41 (87.23)

102 (82.25)

  

  Sub-intensive care, n (%

5 (10.63)

14 (11.29)

  

 Chronic neonatal morbidities, n (%)

  BPD

0

12 (9.67)

 

  ROP

0

6 (4.83)

 

  IVH

2 (4.25)

3 (2.41)

 

  NEC

1 (2.12)

0

 

  PDA

1 (2.12)

11 (8.87)

 

  ASD

0

2 (1.61)

 

  VSD

0

2 (1.61)

 

Socio-demographic data

 Maternal age at childbirth (years), M ± SD

32.78 ± 4.61

30.04 ± 6.44

0.003*

 

 Maternal education, n (%)

  

0.035*

 

  Primary

2 (4.25)

22 (17.74)

  

  Secondary technical education

4 (8.51)

21 (16.93)

  

  Secondary vocational education

6 (12.76)

20 (16.12)

  

  Secondary grammar education

5 (10.63)

14 (11.29)

  

  College

15 (31.91)

23 (18.54)

  

  University

14 (29.78)

19 (15.32)

  

 Marital status, n (%)

  

0.030*

 

  Single

0

9 (7.25)

  

  Married

34 (72.34)

71 (57.25)

  

  Cohabiting

12 (25.53)

27 (21.77)

  

  In a relationship

0

11 (8.87)

  

 Social status, n (%)

  

0.043*

 

  Above-average

26 (55.31)

42 (33.87)

  

  Average

15 (31.91)

61 (49.19)

  

  Below-average

6 (12.76)

11 (8.87)

  
  1. * p < 0.05, in case of t-test either the independent sample one or the Welch statistic. Note that for some variables the joint frequencies are very low or equal to zero in several (too many) cells, hence the test and its p-value would not be meaningful in case of such an asymptotic test. In these cases (denoted by –) we omit to show the p-values