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Table 4 Neurodevelopmental outcomes, perinatal and socio-demographic characteristics of planned and unplanned infants (means, p-values)

From: Effect of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) and pregnancy planning on Bayley-III Screening Test subscales in preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age: a cross-sectional study

  Mean subscale scores p-values (test statistics)
  Planned
(n = 149)
Unplanned (n = 17) Mann–Whitney test
p-value (U)
t-test
p-value (t)
Neurodevelopmental outcomes
 Cognitive Subscale 16.95 16.17 0.027 (861.5)* 0.036 (2.109)*
 Receptive Language Subscale 11.63 10.17 0.001 (629.5)* 0.000 (3.623)*
 Expressive Language Subscale 10.93 10.05 0.015 (816.5)* 0.069 (1.830)
 Fine Motor Subscale 12.46 12.05 0.269 (1063.5) 0.312 (1.014)
 Gross Motor Subscale 15.46 14.52 0.089 (956.5) 0.044 (2.029)*
  Perinatal and socio-demographic characteristics p-values of t-tests or χ^2 tests  
Perinatal data
 Gestational age (weeks), n (%)    0.892  
  very early (< 28 weeks) 18 (12.08) 2 (11.76)   
  early (28–31 weeks) 24 (16.10) 4 (23.52)   
  moderate (32–33 weeks) 37 (24.83) 4 (23.52)   
  late (34–36 weeks) 70 (46.97) 7 (41.17)   
 Birth weight (g), n (%)    0.324  
  LBW (1500–2499 g) 96 (64.42) 8 (47.05)   
  VLBW (1000–1499 g) 31 (20.80) 6 (35.29)   
  ELBW (< 1000 g) 22 (14.76) 3 (17.64)   
 Mode of delivery, n (%)    0.497  
  Sectio caesarea 102 (68.45) 13 (76.47)   
  Per vias naturales 47 (31.54) 4 (23.52)   
 Apgar scores, M ± SD     
  1 min 7.68 ± 1.55 7.26 ± 2.18 0.340  
  5 min 8.78 ± 1.11 8.73 ± 0.96 0.869  
  10 min 9.25 ± 0.74 9.2 ± 0.63 0.839  
 Intensive care    
  NICU-admission, n (%) 125 (83.89) 15 (88.23)   
  Sub-intensive care, n (% 16 (10.73) 1 (5.88)   
 Chronic neonatal morbidities, n (%)
  BPD 12 (8.05) 0  
  ROP 5 (3.35) 1 (5.88)  
  IVH 5 (3.35) 0  
  NEC 1 (0.67) 0  
  PDA 11 (7.38) 1 (5.88)  
  ASD 0 2 (11.76)  
  VSD 1 (0.67) 1 (5.88)  
Socio-demographic data
 Maternal age at childbirth (years), M ± SD 31.34 ± 5.71 26.94 ± 7.80 0.037*  
 Maternal education, n (%)    0.159  
  Primary 17 (11.40) 5 (29.41)   
  Secondary technical education 21 (14.09) 4 (23.52)   
  Secondary vocational education 23 (15.43) 3 (17.64)   
  Secondary grammar education 17 (11.40) 2 (11.76)   
  College 37 (24.83) 1 (5.88)   
  University 32 (21.47) 1 (5.88)   
 Marital status, n (%)    0.000*  
  Single 3 (2.01) 4 (23.52)   
  Married 101 (67.78) 4 (23.52)   
  Cohabiting 33 (22.14) 6 (35.29)   
  In a relationship 9 (6.04) 2 (11.76)   
 Social status, n (%)    
  Above-average 67 (44.96) 1 (5.88)   
  Average 63 (42.28) 11 (64.70)   
  Below-average 16 (10.73) 1 (5.88)   
  1. * p < 0.05, in case of t-test either the independent sample one or the Welch statistic. Note that for some variables the joint frequencies are very low or equal to zero in several (too many) cells, hence the test and its p-value would not be meaningful in case of such an asymptotic test. In these cases (denoted by –) we omit to show the p-values