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Table 2 Differences in nephrotic syndrome incidences and associated HRs in participants exposed to various daily average concentrations of air pollutants in 2000–2012

From: Association between gaseous air pollutants and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children: a 12-year population-based cohort study

Year 2000–2012 Event PYa IRb cHRc 95%CI aHRd 95% CIe
SO2
 Quartile 1, < 3.38 ppb 33 431,707 0.76 Reference group Reference group
 Quartile 2, 3.38–4.32 ppb 39 589,450 0.66 0.87 (0.55, 1.38) 0.89 (0.56, 1.42)
 Quartile 3, 4.32–6.03 ppb 83 914,846 0.91 1.19 (0.80, 1.78) 1.24 (0.82, 1.87)
 Quartile 4, > 6.03 ppb 109 826,014 1.32 1.73 (1.17, 2.55)** 1.78 (1.20,2.64)**
THC
 Quartile 1, < 2.29 ppm 31 780,924 0.40 Reference group Reference group
 Quartile 2, 2.29–2.38 ppm 48 583,193 0.82 2.08 (1.32, 3.26)** 2.09 (1.33, 3.29)**
 Quartile 3, 2.38–2.60 ppm 121 889,830 1.36 3.47 (2.34, 5.16)*** 3.61 (2.42,5.37)***
 Quartile 4, > 2.60 ppm 64 508,071 1.26 3.25 (2.12, 5.00)*** 3.49 (2.24,5.42)***
CH4
 Quartile 1, < 2.01 ppm 23 708,759 0.32 Reference group Reference group
 Quartile 2, 2.01–2.06 ppm 30 765,925 0.39 1.20 (0.70, 2.07) 1.21 (0.70, 2.08)
 Quartile 3, 2.06–2.11 ppm 77 726,349 1.06 3.29 (2.06, 5.24)*** 3.33 (2.09,5.31)***
 Quartile 4, > 2.11 ppm 134 560,985 2.39 7.68 (4.93, 12.0)*** 7.83 (5.02,12.2)***
  1. aPY person-years, bIR incidence rate, (per 10,000 person-years), ccHR crude hazard ratio, daHR adjusted hazard ratio, adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, and urbanization level, eCI confidence interval; **p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001