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  1. Potential overlaps exist between psychopathological features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The impact of malnutrition on autistic traits in patients with AN should be considered....

    Authors: Jacopo Pruccoli, Altea Solari, Letizia Terenzi, Elisabetta Malaspina, Marida Angotti, Veronica Pignataro, Paola Gualandi, Leonardo Sacrato, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Emilio Franzoni and Antonia Parmeggiani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:59

    Content type: Research

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  2. Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a self-limited syndrome associated with viral infections characterized by symmetric lower extremity pain typically affecting school-aged children. Evolution in rhabdom...

    Authors: Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Mariani, Daniela Pirlo, Marta Romanengo, Angela Pistorio, Alberto Gaiero, Chiara Panicucci, Emanuela Piccotti and Claudio Bruno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:57

    Content type: Research

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  3. To verify the prevalence of novel definitions of familial short stature on a cross-sectional cohort of children referred for short stature when their height and that of both parents were measured.

    Authors: Veronica Grigoletto, Alessandro Agostino Occhipinti, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Fabio Sirchia, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:56

    Content type: Research

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  4. Lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half-year of life is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, less than 40% of infants below 6 months are exclusively breas...

    Authors: Alemnesh Abebe Taye, Wondwosen Asegidew, Mitku Mammo Taderegew, Yonas Girma Bizuwork and Betregiorgis Zegeye

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:55

    Content type: Research

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  5. Transcobalamin deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of cobalamin transport (prevalence: < 1/1000000) which clinically manifests in early infancy.

    Authors: Francesco Martino, Alessandra Magenta, Maria Letizia Troccoli, Eliana Martino, Concetta Torromeo, Carolina Putotto and Francesco Barillà

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:54

    Content type: Case report

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  6. The Neonatal Assessment Manual scorE (NAME) was developed to assist in the clinical management of infants in the neonatal ward by assessing their body’s compliance and homogeneity. The present study begins its...

    Authors: Andrea Manzotti, Marco Chiera, Matteo Galli, Erica Lombardi, Simona La Rocca, Pamela Biasi, Jorge Esteves, Gianluca Lista and Francesco Cerritelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:53

    Content type: Research

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  7. At the end of 2019, an emerging atypical pneumonia called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), caused by the novel coronavirus defined as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), was first...

    Authors: Martina Verzani, Carla Bizzarri, Laura Chioma, Giorgia Bottaro, Stefania Pedicelli and Marco Cappa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:52

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  8. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in Italy. Hypercholesterolemia is a modifiable CVD risk factor. The detection and treatment of hypercholesterolemia can modify ...

    Authors: Maria Elena Capra, Cristina Pederiva, Giuseppe Banderali and Giacomo Biasucci

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:51

    Content type: Research

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  9. Central precocious puberty is a condition characterized by precocious activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to organic causes, including syndromes such as Neu...

    Authors: Valentina Orlandi, Paolo Cavarzere, Laura Palma, Rossella Gaudino and Franco Antoniazzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:50

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), also known as 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, is a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome resulting from a deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

    Content type: Case report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

  11. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) represents a heterogeneous group of rare endocrine disorders caused by (epi) genetic abnormalities affecting the GNAS locus. It is mainly characterized by resistance to PTH and T...

    Authors: Daniele Tessaris, Elisa Bonino, Giovanna Weber, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Domenico Corica, Marco Pitea, Giuseppe Scirè, Manuela Caruso-Nicoletti, Danilo Fintini and Luisa de Sanctis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:48

    Content type: Research

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  12. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVI...

    Authors: Valentina Talarico, Luciano Pinto, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Antonella Centonze, Concetta Cristofaro, Rocco Reina, Agostino Nocerino, Riccardo Lubrano and Stefania Zampogna

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:47

    Content type: Research

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  13. Glucocorticoid treatment is used in children with Graves’ disease (GD) only in cases of exophthalmos. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of glucocorticoid pulse therapy on thyroid function an...

    Authors: Yanyan Hu, Yulin Man, Xuemei Sun and Yongzhen Xue

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:46

    Content type: Research

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  14. The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian...

    Authors: Riccardo Davanzo, Massimo Agosti, Irene Cetin, Antonio Chiantera, Giovanni Corsello, Luca A. Ramenghi, Annamaria Staiano, Marcello Tavio, Alberto Villani, Elsa Viora and Fabio Mosca

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:45

    Content type: Commentary

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  15. Serious bacterial infection (SBI) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamically increased value of the red cell distribut...

    Authors: Bin-Fang Guo and Su-Zhen Sun

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:44

    Content type: Research

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  16. Home chemotherapy programs for children with cancer are safe and feasible, and their impact on the quality of life has been reported in different countries. A home chemotherapy program was implemented between ...

    Authors: Lucia De Zen, Irene Del Rizzo, Luca Ronfani, Francesca Barbieri, Marco Rabusin, Roberto Dall’Amico, Egidio Barbi and Margherita Robazza

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:43

    Content type: Research

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  17. We aimed to evaluate the degree of realism and involvement, stress management and awareness of performance improvement in practitioners taking part in high fidelity simulation (HFS) training program for delive...

    Authors: Mariachiara Martina Strozzi, Alessandro Varrica, Micaela Colivicchi, Claudia Pelazzo, Rossana Negri, Anna Galante, Patrizia Ianniello, Rossella Sterpone, Priscilla Nannini, Daniela Leo, Francesca Mannarino, Manuel Striani, Stefania Montani and Diego Gazzolo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:42

    Content type: Research

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  18. Positional plagiocephaly (PP) is a cranial deformation frequent amongst children and consisting in a flattened and asymmetrical head shape. PP is associated with excessive time in supine and with congenital mu...

    Authors: Iñaki Pastor-Pons, César Hidalgo-García, María Orosia Lucha-López, Marta Barrau-Lalmolda, Iñaki Rodes-Pastor, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández and José Miguel Tricás-Moreno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:41

    Content type: Research

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  19. The year 2020 will be remembered as the “year of the COVID-19 pandemic”. The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the...

    Authors: Giuseppina Salzano, Stefano Passanisi, Francesco Pira, Lacrima Sorrenti, Giuseppa La Monica, Giovanni Battista Pajno, Maria Pecoraro and Fortunato Lombardo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:40

    Content type: Research

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  20. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that causes vision loss, vision impairment, and blindness, most frequently manifesting among preterm infants. ROPScore and CHOP ROP (Children’s Hospital of Philade...

    Authors: Huiqing Sun, Yubin Dong, Yanxia Liu, Qingqin Chen, Yanxi Wang, Bin Cheng, Shaobo Qin, Liping Meng, Shanxiu Li, Yanlun Zhang, Aiguo Zhang, Weiling Yan, Yuhong Dong, Shuyi Cheng, Mingchao Li and Zengyuan Yu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:39

    Content type: Research

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  21. Isolated Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome (HHS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by elevated serum glucose concentrations and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis. It is often described...

    Authors: Angelika Mohn, Nella Polidori, Valeria Castorani, Laura Comegna, Cosimo Giannini, Francesco Chiarelli and Annalisa Blasetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:38

    Content type: Case report

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  22. The aim of this study was to collect consistent data on the efficacy and safety and evaluation hepatotoxicity of intravenous acetaminophen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants.

    Authors: Reza Bahrami, Aida Ezzatabadi, Nima Mehdizadegan, Hamid Mohammadi, Hamid Amoozgar and Mohammadreza Edraki

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:37

    Content type: Research

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  23. Technology-enhanced simulation has emerged as a great educational tool for pediatric education. Indeed, it represents an effective method to instruct on technical and non-technical skills, employed by a large ...

    Authors: Manuela Spadea, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Nicoletta Fossati and Armando Cuttano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:36

    Content type: Commentary

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  24. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia is frequently encountered during neonatal period. Although it has different causes, in some cases it can’t be explained. Previous studies have illustrated that jaundice could be a m...

    Authors: Ahmed Mahrous Kamal Baz, Osama Abd El-Fattah El-Agamy and Ashraf Mohamed Ibrahim

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:35

    Content type: Research

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  25. A national consensus document on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use in childhood, produced by the main Italian pediatric scientific societies, has been recently released. The aim of this study was to gather inf...

    Authors: Giovanni Cerimoniale, Paolo Becherucci, Maria Carmen Verga, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Luciana Indinnimeo, Alberto Villani, Mariangela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Marzia Duse, Paolo Biasci, Mattia Doria, Diego Peroni, Giorgio Piacentini, Maria Di Cicco, Gabriella Pozzobon and Riccardo Lubrano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:34

    Content type: Research

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  26. The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immun...

    Authors: Giorgio Costagliola, Erika Spada, Pasquale Comberiati and Diego G. Peroni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:32

    Content type: Debate

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  27. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common genomic disorders, characterized by the variable presence of facial dysmorphisms, congenital cardiac defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency/cleft palate, thym...

    Authors: Erica Rosina, Berardo Rinaldi, Rosamaria Silipigni, Luca Bergamaschi, Giovanna Gattuso, Stefano Signoroni, Silvana Guerneri, Alessandra Carnevali, Paola Giovanna Marchisio and Donatella Milani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:31

    Content type: Case report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:185

  28. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13052-019-0697-8

    Authors: Jun Tian, Peifang Shen, Kaiyu Pan and Qiong Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:30

    Content type: Retraction Note

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    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:108

  29. Suspending ordinary care activities during the COVID-19 pandemic made it necessary to find alternative routes to comply with care recommendations not only for acute health needs but also for patients requiring...

    Authors: Eugenio Mercuri, Giuseppe Zampino, Alisha Morsella, Marika Pane, Roberta Onesimo, Carmen Angioletti, Piero Valentini, Claudia Rendeli, Antonio Ruggiero, Lorenzo Nanni, Antonio Chiaretti, Giovanni Vento, David Korn, Emilio Meneschincheri, Paolo Sergi, Giovanni Scambia…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:29

    Content type: Research

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  30. Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is one of the most challenging complications in children undergoing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment, but acute fungal osteomyelitis (OM) is rarely encountered.

    Authors: Lichun Xie, Qingling Long, Guichi Zhou, Sixi Liu and Fei-Qiu Wen

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:27

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Hookworm infections (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale) are common in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Human acquisition results from direct percutaneous invasion of infective larvae fro...

    Authors: G. Umbrello, R. Pinzani, A. Bandera, F. Formenti, G. Zavarise, M. Arghittu, D. Girelli, A. Maraschini, A. Muscatello, P. Marchisio and S. Bosis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:26

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Italy was the first Western country to be hit by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. There is now mounting evidence that a minority of children infected with SARS-CoV2 may experience a severe multisystem inflammatory syn...

    Authors: Marco Cattalini, Andrea Taddio, Claudia Bracaglia, Rolando Cimaz, Sara Della Paolera, Giovanni Filocamo, Francesco La Torre, Bianca Lattanzi, Alessandra Marchesi, Gabriele Simonini, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Fiammetta Zunica, Alberto Villani and Angelo Ravelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:24

    Content type: Debate

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  33. During the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic phase, the sudden closure of schools was one of the main measures to minimize the spread of the virus. In the second phase, several safety procedures were implemented to av...

    Authors: Alberto Villani, Luana Coltella, Stefania Ranno, Federico Bianchi di Castelbianco, Paola Maria Murru, Rossella Sonnino, Teresa Mazzone, Livia Piccioni, Giulia Linardos, Stefano Chiavelli, Fabrizio Pontarelli, Giovanni Corsello, Massimiliano Raponi, Carlo Federico Perno and Carlo Concato

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:23

    Content type: Research

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  34. Acute Cerebral Nervous System Infections (ACNS) may cause death or severe complications even to promptly treated children. The role of the immune system in influencing the course and the outcome of meningitis ...

    Authors: Giulia Spina, Bozzola Elena, Carsetti Rita, Piano Mortari Eva, Cristina Mascolo, Marco Roversi and Villani Alberto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:22

    Content type: Research

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  35. Italy was the first country in Europe affected by COVID-19: the emergency started on February 20, 2020, culminating with national lockdown on March 11, which terminated on May 4, 2020. We describe how the pand...

    Authors: Umberto Raucci, Anna Maria Musolino, Domenico Di Lallo, Simone Piga, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Mara Pisani, Francesco Paolo Rossi, Antonino Reale, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Alberto Villani and Massimiliano Raponi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:21

    Content type: Research

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  36. Despite its recognized efficacy and tolerability profile, during the last decade a rise of adverse events following ibuprofen administration in children has been reported, including a possible role in worsenin...

    Authors: Lucia Quaglietta, Massimo Martinelli and Annamaria Staiano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:20

    Content type: Review

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  37. COVID-19 pandemic has markedly affected emergency care, due to sudden limitation of health care capacity by general practitioners (GP) and urgent need for infection control strategies. We evaluated the activit...

    Authors: Angela Mauro, Nicola Improda, Letizia Zenzeri, Francesco Valitutti, Erica Vecchione, Sara Esposito and Vincenzo Tipo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:19

    Content type: Research

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  38. Transition from pediatric to adult care of patients affected by Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a critical step that needs specific care and multidisciplinary involvement. The aim of our study was to evalu...

    Authors: Antonio Corsello, Daniela Pugliese, Fiammetta Bracci, Daniela Knafelz, Bronislava Papadatou, Marina Aloi, Salvatore Cucchiara, Luisa Guidi, Antonio Gasbarrini and Alessandro Armuzzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:18

    Content type: Research

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  39. Post-Infectious Neurological Syndromes (PINS) are heterogeneous neurological disorders with post or para-infectious onset. PINS diagnosis is complex, mainly related to the absence of any recognized guidelines ...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Giulia Spina, Massimiliano Valeriani, Laura Papetti, Fabiana Ursitti, Rino Agostiniani, Cristina Mascolo, Margherita Ruggiero, Chiara Di Camillo, Anna Quondamcarlo, Luigi Matera, Davide Vecchio, Luigi Memo and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:17

    Content type: Research

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  40. Aim of these revised recommendations for the general management of Kawasaki disease is to encourage its prompter recognition and warrant the most appropriate therapy, based on ascertained scientific data, rais...

    Authors: Alessandra Marchesi, Donato Rigante, Rolando Cimaz, Angelo Ravelli, Isabella Tarissi de Jacobis, Alessandro Rimini, Fabio Cardinale, Marco Cattalini, Andrea De Zorzi, Rosa Maria Dellepiane, Patrizia Salice, Aurelio Secinaro, Andrea Taddio, Paolo Palma, Maya El Hachem, Elisabetta Cortis…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:16

    Content type: Review

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  41. Growth monitoring is an essential part of primary health care in children and short stature is frequently regarded as a relatively early sign of poor health. The association of short stature and dysmorphic fea...

    Authors: Davide Mattei, Paolo Cavarzere, Rossella Gaudino, Franco Antoniazzi and Giorgio Piacentini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:15

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Suicide attempts and self-harm in adolescence are a major public health concern: they are among the main causes of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide, with severe long-term health consequences in terms o...

    Authors: Caterina Zanus, Sara Battistutta, Renata Aliverti, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Luca Ronfani and Marco Carrozzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:14

    Content type: Research

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  43. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare and underdiagnosed neurometabolic disorder resulting in a complex neurological and non-neurological phenotype, posing diagnostic challenges resul...

    Authors: Carlo Fusco, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Pasquale Striano, Roberta Battini, Alberto Burlina and Carlotta Spagnoli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:13

    Content type: Research

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  44. Observation Units (OU), as part of emergency department (ED), are areas reserved for short-term treatment or observation of patients with selected diagnoses to determine the need for hospitalization or home re...

    Authors: Antonio Gatto, Serena Rivetti, Lavinia Capossela, Davide Pata, Marcello Covino and Antonio Chiaretti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:11

    Content type: Research

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