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  1. Regular blood transfusion has improved the overall survival and quality of life for patients with hereditary hemolytic anemias. Nevertheless, it carries a real risk of acquisition of blood-borne virus infectio...

    Authors: Laila M. Sherief, Seham M. Ragab, Mohamed A. Helwa, Naglaa M. Kamal, Mona R. Afify, Rasha T. S. Mohammed, Ghada Abd Elmoniem Mokhtar and Hanan S. Sherbiny
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:117
  2. Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) is a rare disease characterized by profound vascular leakage and presents as a classic triad of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia and hemoconcentration. Severe CLS is mostly induced by...

    Authors: Li-Fen Yang, Jia-Chang Ding, Ling-Ping Zhu, Li-Xia Li, Meng-Qi Duan, Zhuang-gui Chen, Xin-Yi Tang and Ya-Ting Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:116
  3. Delayed cord clamping in full-term neonates is widely recommended, while in practice, it is rarely implemented in cesarean section due to the fear of neonatal jaundice and excessive maternal blood loss. The op...

    Authors: Hailing Shao, Shichu Gao, Qiujing Lu, Xiaomin Zhao, Ying Hua and Xiaomei Wang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:115
  4. Trachoma is an infectious disease of the eye caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and transmitted via contact with eye discharge from infected persons and leading to blindness worldwide. Children less than 9 years of ...

    Authors: Kessete Ayelgn, Tadesse Guadu and Atalay Getachew
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:114
  5. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a group of conditions resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Patients with FASD experience a variety of neuropsychological symptoms resulting from central ne...

    Authors: Katarzyna Anna Dylag, Bożena Bando, Zbigniew Baran, Paulina Dumnicka, Katarzyna Kowalska, Paulina Kulaga, Katarzyna Przybyszewska, Jakub Radlinski, Sylvia Roozen and Leopold Curfs
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:113
  6. The sweat chloride test (ST) is the gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis in symptomatic patients, within the newborn screening and in the follow-up of CF patients during molecular therapies. Howeve...

    Authors: C. Cimbalo, A. Tosco, V. Terlizzi, A. Sepe, A. Castaldo, L. Salvadori and V. Raia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:112
  7. Tooth decay is one of the diseases that is closely related to people’s behaviors and it can have adverse effects on their performance and their success in the future. Brushing twice a day is the simplest and m...

    Authors: Robabeh Haghi, Asieh Ashouri, Mahmood Karimy, Nooshin Rouhani-Tonekaboni, Parisa Kasmaei, Farahnaz Pakdaman and Iraj Zareban
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:111
  8. Children with medical complexity (CMC) have been defined (Cohen et al., Pediatrics 127: 529–538, 2011.) as an emerging population potentially eligible for PPC. The current study investigated the prevalence of ...

    Authors: S. Amarri, A. Ottaviani, A. Campagna and L. De Panfilis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:110
  9. Congenital hypothyroidism is an endocrine disease with a significant incidence in the general population (1:2000–1:3000 newborns in Italy) and a different geographical distribution, partially explained by ende...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Saveria Sabrina Ragusa, Tommaso Silvano Aronica, Orazia Maria Granata, Eleonora Gucciardino and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:108
  10. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy in which HLA-DQ haplotypes define susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate if belonging to a certain HLA-DQ class risk could be associated to the clinical, serol...

    Authors: Carlo Tolone, Marisa Piccirillo, Pasquale Dolce, Salvatore Alfiero, Mattia Arenella, Marina Sarnataro, Patrizia Iardino, Alessia Pucciarelli and Caterina Strisciuglio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:107
  11. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest and healthiest option of feeding among infants in the first 6 months throughout the world. Thus, promotion of EBF is essential to prevent complex infant health probl...

    Authors: Shambel Aychew Tsegaw, Yeshimebet Ali Dawed and Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:106
  12. Child abuse and neglect, or maltreatment, is a serious public health problem, which may cause long-term effects on children’s health and wellbeing and expose them to further adulthood vulnerabilities. Studies ...

    Authors: Paola Nigri, Giovanni Corsello, Luigi Nigri, Donjeta Bali, Giorgina Kuli-Lito, Doina Plesca, Tudor Lucian Pop, Angel Carrasco-Sanz, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Julije Mestrovic, Mehmet Vural, Ida Giardino, Laszlo Losonczi, Eli Somekh, Maria Teresa Balducci, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:105
  13. Although many studies emphasize the importance of using oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets in the NICUs, there is a wide variability in used saturation ranges among centers. Primary aim was to draw a representative...

    Authors: Serafina Perrone, Maurizio Giordano, Giuseppe De Bernardo, Paola Lugani, Pasquale Sarnacchiaro, Gemma Stazzoni, Giuseppe Buonocore, Susanna Esposito and Maria Luisa Tataranno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:104
  14. Although with exceptions, evidence seems to indicate that children have lower susceptibility than adults to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. When infected, children gener...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Fabio Caramelli and Nicola Principi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:103
  15. Stunting is a critical public health problem of developing countries like Ethiopia. Different interventions like irrigation activity have been carried out by the government of Ethiopia to improve the nutrition...

    Authors: Balew Sema, Muluken Azage and Mulat Tirfie
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:102
  16. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal therapy for IgE-mediated allergy. There is less evidence about the safety and efficacy of AIT especially subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in children under 5 ye...

    Authors: Yaqi Yang, Dongxia Ma, Nan Huang, Wenjing Li, Qing Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Lin Yang and Rongfei Zhu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:101
  17. Risk factors that predispose the development of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among pediatric CAP patients of different age ranges are yet to be identified.

    Authors: Lumin Chen, Chong Miao, Yanling Chen, Xian Han, Ziying Lin, Hong Ye, Chengyi Wang, Huijie Zhang, Jingjing Li, Qiuyu Tang, Yuan Dong, Meng Bai, Yibing Zhu and Guanghua Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:100
  18. Appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior and access to the health care facility is key to improving health service utilization. Although the accessibility of comprehensive childhood disease intervention service...

    Authors: Martha Bellete, Moges Muluneh Boke and Melaku Kindie Yenit
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:99
  19. Despite ibuprofen widely recognized safety profile, an increase of suspected adverse events has been reported in the last decade in parallel with its growing over-the-counter use. The aims of this study were t...

    Authors: Massimo Martinelli, Lucia Quaglietta, Giuseppe Banderali, Pietro Ferrara, Claudio Romano and Annamaria Staiano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:98
  20. In 2019, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from eight Italian scientific paediatric societies developed a consensus document for the use of inhaled corticosteroids in the management and prevention of the mo...

    Authors: Marzia Duse, Francesca Santamaria, Maria Carmen Verga, Marcello Bergamini, Giovanni Simeone, Lucia Leonardi, Giovanna Tezza, Annamaria Bianchi, Annalisa Capuano, Fabio Cardinale, Giovanni Cerimoniale, Massimo Landi, Monica Malventano, Mariangela Tosca, Attilio Varricchio, Anna Maria Zicari…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:97

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:35

  21. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of unknown origin of small and medium caliber blood vessels, especially involving coronary arteries and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood in deve...

    Authors: Alice Annalisa Medaglia, Lucia Siracusa, Claudia Gioè, Salvatore Giordano, Antonio Cascio and Claudia Colomba
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:95
  22. Genetic diseases are chronic conditions with relevant impact on the lives of patients and their families. In USA and Europe it is estimated a prevalence of 60 million affected subjects, 75% of whom are in deve...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Luigi Memo, Alessandra Coscia, Mario Giuffré, Ambra Iuculano, Mariano Lanna, Diletta Valentini, Anna Contardi, Sauro Filippeschi, Tiziana Frusca, Fabio Mosca, Luca A. Ramenghi, Corrado Romano, Annalisa Scopinaro, Alberto Villani, Giuseppe Zampino…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:94
  23. Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a kind of common neurally mediated syncope in children and adolescents. Decreased blood volume is one of the pathogenesis of VVS. The diagnosis of VVS is mainly based on head-up tilt...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Xingfang Zeng, Wanzhen Mei, Yuwen Wang, Runmei Zou and Cheng Wang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:93
  24. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common immune-mediated skin disease in childhood. Several treatment options for pediatric AD, both topical and systemic, are currently available. We carried out a single-cent...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Manuela Pace, Francesca Mori, Elio Novembre, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:92
  25. Several studies have investigated the efficacy of balneotherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD), including a pediatric open randomized clinical trial conducted at the Comano thermal spring water center, which showed...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Ezio Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Stefania Farina, Manuela Pace, Cesare Filippeschi, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:91
  26. Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and ad...

    Authors: Isabella Tarissi De Jacobis, Rosa Vona, Camilla Cittadini, Alessandra Marchesi, Laura Cursi, Lucrezia Gambardella, Alberto Villani and Elisabetta Straface
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:90
  27. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

  28. The increased intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome may emerge depending on many different neurological factors and the early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of neurologic damage and re...

    Authors: Didar Arslan, Dinçer Yıldızdaş, Özden Özgür Horoz, Nagehan Aslan and Faruk İncecik
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:88
  29. Cystic Fibrosis newborn screening (CFNBS) is the optimal method to diagnose the disease during the asymptomatic period. The aim of the study was to determine how CFNBS affects long term clinical outcomes.

    Authors: M. Olszowiec-Chlebna, E. Mospinek and J. Jerzynska
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:87
  30. Several studies have shown that during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, emotional symptoms increased in the general population. Less is known about youths.

    Authors: Simone Pisano, Gennaro Catone, Antonella Gritti, Luisa Almerico, Anna Pezzella, Pia Santangelo, Carmela Bravaccio, Raffaella Iuliano and Vincenzo Paolo Senese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:86
  31. The existing treatment options for neonatal seizures have expanded over the last few decades, but no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal therapeutic protocols. We systematically reviewed the avail...

    Authors: Raffaele Falsaperla, Bruna Scalia, Andrea Giugno, Piero Pavone, Milena Motta, Martina Caccamo and Martino Ruggieri
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:85
  32. Despite the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy, virologic failure has become global public health concern and challenge, especially in developing countries. Viral load monitoring is an important approach...

    Authors: Belete Gelaw, Getasew Mulatu, Getasew Tesfa, Chalie Marew, Bogale Chekole and Animut Alebel
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:84
  33. To evaluate cyclosporine A (CSA)-related neurotoxicity after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HID-HSCT) in children with hematopathy.

    Authors: Yong Wang, Yongzhi Zheng, Jingjing Wen, Jinhua Ren, Xiaohong Yuan, Ting Yang and Jianda Hu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:83
  34. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is approved in Europe as a treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA) since 2003. However, no study evaluated the prevalence of SGA children with ...

    Authors: Gianluca Tamaro, Mariagrazia Pizzul, Giuliana Gaeta, Raffaella Servello, Marina Trevisan, Patricia Böhm, Paola Manera Ada Materassi, Anna Macaluso, Denis Valentini, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:82
  35. De novo pathogenic variants in the DDX3X gene are reported to account for 1–3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) in females, leading to the rare disease known as DDX3X syndrome (MRXSSB, OMIM #300958). B...

    Authors: Giada Moresco, Jole Costanza, Carlo Santaniello, Ornella Rondinone, Federico Grilli, Elisabetta Prada, Simona Orcesi, Ilaria Coro, Anna Pichiecchio, Paola Marchisio, Monica Miozzo, Laura Fontana and Donatella Milani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:81
  36. Intestinal Ganglioneuromatosis (IG) is a rare disorder of the enteric nervous system. In pediatric age it is often associated with genetic syndromes such as Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), multiple endocrine neopla...

    Authors: Angela Mauro, Letizia Zenzeri, Francesco Esposito, Giovanni Gaglione, Caterina Strisciuglio, Emanuela Pilozzi, Vito Domenico Corleto, Chiara Ziparo and Giovanni Di Nardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:80
  37. Despite the substantial efforts to improve timely/early initiation of breastfeeding, avoidance of colostrum, and delayed initiation of breastfeeding remains a big challenge in developing countries. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Tilahun Yemanu Birhan, Wullo Sisay Seretew and Muluneh Alene
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:77
  38. National service systems in child healthcare are characterized by diversity and complexity. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary healthcare services create complex networks covering pediatric subspecial...

    Authors: Jochen Ehrich, Jürgen Manemann, Velibor Tasic and Natale Gaspare DeSanto
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:76
  39. Children and adolescents affected by somatization and somatic symptom disorder commonly refer to emergency services. Due to the absence of specific guidelines for the emergency setting and to a possible lack o...

    Authors: Giorgio Cozzi, Annunziata Lucarelli, Fabio Borrometi, Ilaria Corsini, Eva Passone, Sara Pusceddu, Giuliana Morabito, Egidio Barbi and Franca Benini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:74
  40. According to most early-onset sepsis (EOS) management guidelines, approximately 10% of the total neonatal population are exposed to antibiotics in the first postnatal days with subsequent increase of neonatal ...

    Authors: Gianluigi Laccetta, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Cristina Tuoni, Emilio Sigali, Mario Miccoli and Armando Cuttano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:73
  41. COVID-19 pandemic was responsible for disrupting routine immunization activities all over the world. Aim of the study was to investigate the reduced adherence to the national children vaccination schedule duri...

    Authors: Rocco Russo, Elena Bozzola, Paolo Palma, Giovanni Corsello and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:72
  42. Gastrointestinal diseases such as celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), inflammatory bowel disease (IBDs) and acute or chronic diarrhea are quite frequent in the pediatric population. ...

    Authors: Valeria Dipasquale, Stefano Passanisi, Ugo Cucinotta, Antonio Cascio and Claudio Romano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:71
  43. Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are malformations in the septum separating the heart’s ventricles. VSDs may present as a single anomaly (isolated/nonsyndromic VSD) or as part of a group of phenotypes (syndromic

    Authors: Sumbal Sarwar, Farah Ehsan, Shabana, Amna Tahir, Mahrukh Jamil, Saleem Ullah Shahid, Asim Khan and Shahida Hasnain
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:70
  44. Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. According to the current clinical recommendations, its use during pregnancy should be ca...

    Authors: Elisabetta Godano, Fabio Barra, Alessandra Allodi, Antonella Ferraiolo, Alice Laroni, Giovanni Novi, Giovanni Luigi Mancardi, Claudio Gustavino and Cesare Arioni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:69
  45. Recent guidelines advocate the use of real-time ultrasound to locate umbilical venous catheter tip. So far, training programs are not well established.

    Authors: Serena Antonia Rubortone, Simonetta Costa, Alessandro Perri, Vito D’Andrea, Giovanni Vento and Giovanni Barone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:68

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