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  1. Acute otitis media has become a rare cause of facial palsy in children. A high index of suspicion is essential to achieve the diagnosis and to properly treat this condition to avoid permanent neurological sequ...

    Authors: Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Sara Torretta, Giada Maria Di Pietro, Annaclara Ciabatta, Pasquale Capaccio, Luca Caschera and Paola Marchisio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:8
  2. Pediatric Mastocytosis is a rare and heterogeneous disease, characterized by accumulation of mast cells in the skin (Cutaneous Mastocytosis) and/or, less frequently, in other organs, mainly liver, spleen, bone...

    Authors: Grazia Bossi, Valeria Brazzelli, Mara De Amici, Daniela Pietra, Chiara Raviola, Matteo Naso, Corrado Regalbuto, Federica Boselli, Valeria Fortina and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:6
  3. Patients who experience cardiorespiratory events usually have to be moved to specialized centers to perform cardiorespiratory studies. To avoid the transfer of these patients to specialized centers, a network ...

    Authors: Cinzia Arzilli, Monica Annunziata, Carola-Maria Ernst, Marta Peruzzi, Chiara Macucci, Saverio Pochesci and Niccolò Nassi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:5
  4. In children with congenital heart disease (CHD) respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection may have a severe course, with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, requiring hospital admission and intensive ...

    Authors: Chiara Ratti, Anna della Greca, Deborah Bertoncelli, Monica Rubini and Bertrand Tchana
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:4
  5. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a kind of vasculitis with unidentified etiology. Given that the current diagnosis and therapeutic strategy of KD are mainly dependent on clinical experiences, further research to explo...

    Authors: Zhengwang Wen, Yuhan Xia, Yingying Zhang, Yuxi He, Chao Niu, Rongzhou Wu, Chunxiang Zhang, Chang Jia, Xing Rong and Maoping Chu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:2
  6. Corticosteroids are widely used in medicine. Few cases of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) have been reported following topical corticosteroid administration. We describe the first case of pediatric CSC ...

    Authors: Stefano Ranno, Liviana Fontanel, Edoardo Ruggiero, Paolo Nucci, Paolo Radice and Simone Donati
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:1
  7. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness of unknown etiology and predictors for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance have been widely explored in recent decades. Neutrophil to lymphocyte plate...

    Authors: Yuyao Lu, Yunjia Tang, Bo Wang, Xuan Li, Qiuqin Xu, Hui Chu, Haitao Lv, Meihua Lu and Yiming Qin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:208
  8. Developmental delay and intellectual disability represent a common pathology in general population, involving about 3% of the pediatric age population, the genetic etiology being often involved. The aim of thi...

    Authors: Diana Miclea, Sergiu Osan, Simona Bucerzan, Delia Stefan, Radu Popp, Monica Mager, Maria Puiu, Cristian Zimbru, Adela Chirita-Emandi and Camelia Alkhzouz
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:207
  9. Osteopathia Striata with Cranial Sclerosis (OS-CS), also known as Horan-Beighton Syndrome, is a rare genetic disease; about 90 cases have been reported to date. It is associated with mutations (heterozygous fo...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Rita Di Pace, Mario Giuffrè, Giusy Morgante, Ettore Piro, Roberto Pirrello, Sergio Salerno, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Vincenzo Verde and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:206
  10. Congenital syphilis (CS) depends on the placental transmission of Treponema pallidum (TP) spirochetes from an infected mother to fetus during pregnancy. It shows a wide clinical variability with cutaneous and vis...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Maurizio Carta, Maria Rita Di Pace, Eleonora La Sala, Ettore Piro, Sergio Salerno, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Alessia Vassallo, Mario Giuffrè and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:205
  11. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystemic complex genetic disorder caused by the loss of paternally expressed genes in the human chromosome region 15q11.2-q13. It is characterized by severe hypotonia and ...

    Authors: Jinying Wu, Meifang Lei, Xuetao Wang, Nan Liu, Xiaowei Xu, Chunyu Gu, Yuping Yu and Wei Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:204

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:32

  12. Approximately 85–90% of congenital cytomegalovirus infections (cCMV) are asymptomatic. Few studies have investigated early and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with asymptomatic cCMV (acCMV), ...

    Authors: Maria Novelli, Fabio Natale, Anna Di Norcia, Arianna Boiani, Sara Temofonte, Francesca Calandriello, Cristina Zitarelli and Barbara Caravale
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:203
  13. The spread of knowledge on the important implications of a diagnosis of genetic disease does not correspond to a sharing of the knowledge and equal rights of children.

    Authors: Federico Marchetti and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:202
  14. Urticarial lesions develop as a result of the activation of mast cells which, through the release of mediators, influence the formation of local inflammatory infiltrates. Changes in the expression of many cyto...

    Authors: Anna Góra, Maciej Przybył, Elżbieta Świętochowska and Edyta Machura
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:201
  15. Here we present the Authors’ answer to the Letter written by Dr. Garazzino and Colleagues with reference to our article “Long COVID-19 in children: an Italian cohort study”.

    Authors: Gianfranco Trapani, Giuseppe Verlato, Enrico Bertino, Giulia Maiocco, Roberta Vesentini, Alessia Spadavecchia, Angelica Dessì and Vassilios Fanos
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:200

    The Research to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:83

  16. FIRES is defined as a disorder that requires a prior febrile infection starting between 2 weeks and 24 h before the onset of the refractory status epilepticus with or without fever at the onset of status epile...

    Authors: Piero Pavone, Giovanni Corsello, Umberto Raucci, Riccardo Lubrano, Enrico Parano, Martino Ruggieri, Filippo Greco, Silvia Marino and Raffaele Falsaperla
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:199
  17. It is reported that the adverse impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on the mental health of children and adolescents may lead to psychologically related disorders during the coronavirus disease 20...

    Authors: Yaqi Tang, Shujing Ma, Gang Luo, Zhixian Ji, Shuiyan Zhao, Yue Cao and Silin Pan
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:198
  18. Both vasovagal syncope (VVS) and epilepsy present with transient loss of consciousness and are often difficult to identify. Hence this study aimed to explore the value of QT interval in the differentiation of ...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Shuo Wang, Haihui Xiao, Runmei Zou, Hong Cai, Liqun Liu, Fang Li, Yuwen Wang, Yi Xu and Cheng Wang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:197
  19. Varicella is considered a mild and self-limiting disease, but, in some cases, it may complicate and require hospitalization. Antibiotics are not the first line therapy but in some cases are prescribed either f...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Silvio Marchesani, Andrea Ficari, Carla Brusco, Giulia Spina, Maria Rosaria Marchili and Stefano Guolo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:196
  20. Nephrotic syndrome is the one of the commonest renal disorders in children. Children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are at a high risk of atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia, hypertension. Carotid intima media...

    Authors: Ashraf Sayed Kamel, Mohamed Mohamed Ezzat AlGhawass, Muhammad Adel Sayed and Sara Aly Roby
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:195
  21. COVID-19 had devastating effects on children’s and adolescents’ life, including neuropsychological impairment, discontinuation of social life and education.

    Authors: Vita Cupertino, Elena Bozzola, Giampaolo De Luca, Emanuela Del Giudice, Giuseppe De Martino, Piero Cannataro, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:194
  22. Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a genetic disease of phosphate wasting that is characterized by defective bone mineralization. The most common cause of the disease is mutations in the phosphate regulating gen...

    Authors: Nahid Tavana, Tzer Hwu Ting, Kaitao Lai, Marina L. Kennerson and Karuppiah Thilakavathy
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:193
  23. US Food and Drug Administration has issued Emergency Use Authorizations for hundreds of serological assays to support Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnosis. The aim of this stu...

    Authors: Elisabetta Venturini, Sabrina Giometto, Agnese Tamborino, Laura Becciolini, Samantha Bosis, Giovanni Corsello, Paolo Del Barba, Silvia Garazzino, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Alessandra Pugi, Sara Signa, Giacomo Stera, Sandra Trapani, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Ersilia Lucenteforte and Luisa Galli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:192
  24. To investigate the resistance-gene mutation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and the clinical characteristics of refractory ...

    Authors: Xiao-Wen Zhan, Li-Ping Deng, Zhi-Yuan Wang, Ju Zhang, Meng-Zhu Wang and Shu-Jun Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:190
  25. In this review, we report the developments across pediatric subspecialties that have been published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2021. We highlight advances in allergy and immunology, critical care,...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Ettore Piro, Simona Basilicata, Valeria Delle Cave, Marilena Cipullo, Sergio Bernasconi and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:189
  26. To investigate the association between maternal and neonatal exposure to the relevant influencing factors and risk of moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and the possible interactions in ...

    Authors: Yiran Wang, Shuying Luo, Kaijuan Wang, Yuwei Hou, Hui Yan and Yaodong Zhang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:188
  27. Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease. Acid alpha−glucosidase (GAA) deficiency leads to glycogen storage in lysosomes, causing skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle lesions. Pompe disease is progr...

    Authors: Hongmin Xi, Xianghong Li, Lili Ma, Xiangyun Yin, Ping Yang and Lulu Zhang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:187
  28. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurocutaneous syndrome, due to heterozygous pathogenic variants in NF1 gene. The main clinical manifestations are multiple café au lait spots, axillary and inguinal freckling,...

    Authors: Ilenia Chillura, Giulia Angela Restivo, Simonetta Callari, Sabrina Cibella, Maria Michela D’Alessandro, Ciro Corrado, Mario Vallone, Vincenzo Antona and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:186
  29. The aim of this research is to identify and study the role of social, demographic and territorial factors in the late detection of children with hip dysplasia.

    Authors: Zhanna Tastanbekova, Roza Karabekova, Vassiliy Lozovoy, Aleksandr Angelov, Zhomart Suleimenov and Rimma Khuzhakhmedova
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:185
  30. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by absent or incomplete puberty and infertility. Clinical characteristics are secondary to ins...

    Authors: Darja Šmigoc Schweiger, Maja Davidović Povše, Katarina Trebušak Podkrajšek, Tadej Battelino and Magdalena Avbelj Stefanija
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:184
  31. Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a rare condition in pediatrics; LyP histological type D has been reported in only 7 children. The differential diagnosis of LyP in the spectrum of lymphoid proliferation remains...

    Authors: Valeria Calcaterra, Riccardo Cavalli, Giorgio A. Croci, Laura Fiori, Antonella Fabiano, Luisa Lunardon, Maria Antonietta Avanzini, Emilio Berti and Gianvincenzo Zuccotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:183
  32. Hao-Fountain syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, variably impaired intellectual development with significant speech delay and, in some males patients, it has ...

    Authors: Nicola Zampieri, Rebecca Pulvirenti, Eleonora Pedrazzoli and Francesco Saverio Camoglio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:182
  33. A 13-year-old Chinese girl attended to our Pediatric Dermatology Unit for the appearance of itchy targetoid lesions on the trunk, face and upper limbs. A skin biopsy showed histological findings typical of ery...

    Authors: Francesco Messina, Laura Fagotto, Francesca Caroppo, Roberto Salmaso and Anna Belloni Fortina
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:181
  34. Sengers syndrome is characterized by congenital cataract, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitochondrial myopathy, and lactic acidosis associated with mutations in AGK gene. Clinical course ranges from a severe fatal...

    Authors: Chiara Panicucci, Maria Cristina Schiaffino, Claudia Nesti, Maria Derchi, Gianluca Trocchio, Mariasavina Severino, Nicola Stagnaro, Enrico Priolo, Federico Zara, Filippo M. Santorelli and Claudio Bruno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:180
  35. Neonatal jaundice is a transitional phenomenon affecting three out of five full-term newborns globally. Ursodeoxycholic acid could be beneficial in neonatal jaundice needing phototherapy. 

    Authors: Glen Lazarus, Jerrell Francie, Rosalina Dewi Roeslani, Siti Rizny Fitriana Saldi and Hanifah Oswari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:179
  36. Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) are a large group of inborn errors of metabolism with more than 140 different CDG types reported to date (1). The first characterized, PMM2-CDG, with an autosomal re...

    Authors: E. Lebredonchel, A. Riquet, D. Neut, F. Broly, G. Matthijs, A. Klein and F. Foulquier
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:178
  37. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BOR) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by deafness, branchiogenic malformations and renal abnormalities. Pathogenic variants in EYA1, SIX1 and SIX5 genes cause almost ha...

    Authors: Elena Cacciatori, Sebastiano Aleo, Giulietta Scuvera, Chiara Rigon, Paola Giovanna Marchisio, Matteo Cassina and Donatella Milani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:177
  38. Cholestasis in extremely premature infants (EPI) constitutes a nutritional challenge and maltodextrins have been reported as a possible strategy for hypoglycaemia. We aim to describe the nutritional management...

    Authors: Irene Degrassi, Martina Chiara Pascuzzi, Enza D’Auria, Laura Fiori, Dario Dilillo, Gianluca Lista, Francesca Maria Castoldi, Francesco Cavigioli, Alessandra Bosetti, Alessandro Pellegrinelli, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti and Elvira Verduci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:175
  39. Pregnant women are one of the most vulnerable groups in the Covid-19 pandemic. Due to the lack of knowledge about fetal and perinatal complications following Covid-19 infection, the association of Covid-19 pan...

    Authors: Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Mahshid Taheri, Zohreh Mazaheripour and Fariba Abbasi-Khameneh
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:174
  40. Healthy sleep is essential for the cognitive, behavioral and emotional development of children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the behavioral consequences of sleep disturbances by examining children wit...

    Authors: Eszter Csábi, Veronika Gaál, Emese Hallgató, Rebeka Anna Schulcz, Gábor Katona and Pálma Benedek
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:173
  41. Nutrition has a central role in child growth with long-term effects, and nutrition management in gastrointestinal disorders has great importance for child health and disease outcomes. Breast milk is the first ...

    Authors: Giulio Pulvirenti, Vincenzo Sortino, Sara Manti, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Maria Papale, Alessandro Giallongo and Salvatore Leonardi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:172
  42. The relative high frequency of menstrual irregularities in the first two–three years after menarche may lead to the risk of underestimation of associated pathological conditions, which are always to be accurat...

    Authors: Arianna Barbero, Manuela Pagano, Gerdi Tuli, Raffaele Buganza, Luisa de Sanctis and Claudia Bondone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:171
  43. Cat eye syndrome (CES) is a rare chromosomal disease, with estimated incidence of about 1 in 100,000 live newborns. The classic triad of iris coloboma, anorectal malformations, and auricular abnormalities is p...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Clara Giambrone, Vincenzo Antona, Francesca Cardella, Maurizio Carta, Marcello Cimador, Giovanni Corsello, Mario Giuffrè, Vincenzo Insinga, Maria Cristina Maggio, Marco Pensabene, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz and Ettore Piro
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:170
  44. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) constitutes a heterogeneous neurodegenerative/neurodevelopmental disorder of the pons and cerebellum with onset in the prenatal period. Our study aimed to present different cli...

    Authors: Serap Bilge, Gülen Gül Mert, Özlem Hergüner, Duygu Özcanyüz, Sevcan Tuğ Bozdoğan, Ömer Kaya and Cengiz Havalı
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:169
  45. Childhood obesity and its associated comorbidities are highly prevalent diseases that may add to any other possible health problem commonly affecting the pediatric age. Uncertainties may arise concerning drug ...

    Authors: Francesca Gaeta, Valeria Conti, Angela Pepe, Pietro Vajro, Amelia Filippelli and Claudia Mandato
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:168
  46. Breathing disturbances are often a primary clinical concern especially during wakefulness of the classic form of Rett syndrome, but data for atypical forms are lacking.

    Authors: Sergio Ghirardo, Letizia Sabatini, Alessandro Onofri, Maria Beatrice Chiarini Testa, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Daria Diodato, Lorena Travaglini, Fabrizia Stregapede, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Claudio Cherchi and Renato Cutrera
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:167

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