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  1. Besides major clinical/biochemical features, neutropenia and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitute common complications of Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD Ib). However, their management is still ch...

    Authors: Alessandro Rossi, Erasmo Miele, Simona Fecarotta, Maria Veiga-da-Cunha, Massimo Martinelli, Carmine Mollica, Maria D’Armiento, Enza Mozzillo, Pietro Strisciuglio, Terry G. J. Derks, Annamaria Staiano and Giancarlo Parenti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:149
  2. In 1973, Petrea Jacobsen described the first patient showing dysmorphic features, developmental delay and congenital heart disease (atrial and ventricular septal defect) associated to a 11q deletion, inherited...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Luigi Memo, Vincenzo Antona, Giovanni Corsello, Valentina Favero, Paola Lago and Mario Giuffrè
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:147
  3. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs) are a group of heterogenous, acquired, autoimmune disorders that affect the muscle. While the association between IIMs and malignancy has been widely reporte...

    Authors: Simone Benvenuto, Giulia Gortani, Rossana Bussani, Federico Poropat, Flora Maria Murru, Marco Carrozzi, Alberto Tommasini and Andrea Taddio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:146
  4. A few studies have suggested that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was present in Northern Italy several weeks before its official detection on February 21, 2020. On the other h...

    Authors: Gregorio P. Milani, Giovanni Casazza, Antonio Corsello, Paola Marchisio, Alessia Rocchi, Giulia Colombo, Carlo Agostoni and Giorgio Costantino
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:145
  5. The prevalence of oral ulcers in children is reported to be 9%, however diagnosis of oral lesions can be challenging, being an unspecific symptom of several diseases. Differential diagnosis can range from clas...

    Authors: Corinne Légeret and Raoul Furlano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:144
  6. Congenital anomaly is a partial or complete structural and/or functional defect during intrauterine life. Globally, major congenital anomalies account for 6% of all newborns among which about 94% of cases occu...

    Authors: Sudi Jemal, Engidaw Fentahun, Mohammed Oumer and Abebe Muche
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:143
  7. To control the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Chinese government encouraged people to stay at home. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of home confinement on the occurrence of f...

    Authors: Jun Li, Xiaowei Yuan, Yinqiang Cao, Tao Liu, Pan Gou, Xiang Li, Ming Li and Xing Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:142
  8. Sactosalpinx means a collection of fluid (serum, blood or pus) in the fallopian tube. CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) is a typical 46XX DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) due to a steroidogenic enzymatic d...

    Authors: Maria-Grazia Scarpa, Marianna Iaquinto, Daniela Codrich and Jürgen Schleef
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:141
  9. Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a complex hip joint deformity with effects ranging from acetabulum malformation to irreversible hip dislocation. Previous studies suggest a significant association o...

    Authors: Xiaowen Xu, Binbin Wang, Yufan Chen, Weizheng Zhou and Lianyong Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:140
  10. The analysis of interregional healthcare mobility represents one of the main criteria for evaluating Regional Healthcare Systems, both in terms of its economic-financial relevance and the quality and satisfact...

    Authors: Mario De Curtis, Francesco Bortolan, Davide Diliberto and Leonardo Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:139
  11. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare genetic disease due to the peripheral resistance to aldosterone. Its clinical spectrum includes neonatal salt loss syndrome with hyponatremia and hypochloraemia,...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Michela D’Alessandro, Maria Cristina Maggio, Vincenzo Verde and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:138
  12. Eating epilepsy (EE) is a form of reflex epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by eating. It is a rare condition but a high prevalence has been reported in Sri Lanka. In EE, the ictal semiology includes foc...

    Authors: Fabiana Vercellino, Laura Siri, Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Scala, Antonella Riva, Mariasavina Severino and Pasquale Striano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:137
  13. Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis (CSHRH), also called Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare and benign variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by cutaneous lesions without extracut...

    Authors: Alessandra Rizzoli, Simona Giancristoforo, Cristina Haass, Rita De Vito, Stefania Gaspari, Eleonora Scapillati, Andrea Diociaiuti and May El Hachem
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:135
  14. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. It is known for high heterogeneity and concealed onset. In recent years, the mechanism of its occurrence and development has been gra...

    Authors: Chi-yi Jiang, Xiao Xu, Bing-lin Jian, Xue Zhang, Zhi-xia Yue, Wei Guo and Xiao-li Ma
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:134
  15. Positional plagiocephaly frequently affects healthy babies. It is hypothesized that manual therapy tailored to pediatrics is more effective in improving plagiocephalic cranial asymmetry than just repositioning...

    Authors: Iñaki Pastor-Pons, María Orosia Lucha-López, Marta Barrau-Lalmolda, Iñaki Rodes-Pastor, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, César Hidalgo-García and Jose Miguel Tricás-Moreno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:132
  16. Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COV...

    Authors: Manola Comar, Simone Benvenuto, Marzia Lazzerini, Giorgio Fedele, Egidio Barbi, Alessandro Amaddeo, Francesco Maria Risso, Tamara Strajn, Paola Di Rocco, Paola Stefanelli and Giovanni Rezza
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:131
  17. Measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic led to significant lifestyle changes for children and adolescents mainly related to the closure of schools and recreational activities, reduced social interaction, and...

    Authors: Arianna Dondi, Anna Fetta, Jacopo Lenzi, Francesca Morigi, Egidio Candela, Alessandro Rocca, Duccio Maria Cordelli and Marcello Lanari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:130
  18. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is strongly associated with premature birth, but it can also affect term neonates. Unlike the extent of research in preterm neonates, risk factors associated with ...

    Authors: Paraskevi Stylianou-Riga, Theodora Boutsikou, Panayiotis Kouis, Paraskevi Kinni, Marina Krokou, Andriani Ioannou, Tania Siahanidou, Zoi Iliodromiti, Thalia Papadouri, Panayiotis K. Yiallouros and Nicoletta Iacovidou
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:129
  19. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HED) is a genetic disorder which affects structures of ectodermal origin. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of disease. XLHED is char...

    Authors: Mario Tumminello, Antonella Gangemi, Federico Matina, Melania Guardino, Bianca Lea Giuffrè and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:128
  20. Type 1 diabetes mellitus could be associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid disease, celiac disease, but the association with Familial Mediterranean Fever is rare, we describe a cas...

    Authors: Maria Francesca Gicchino, Dario Iafusco, Angela Zanfardino, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Alma Nunzia Olivieri
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:127
  21. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) or autoimmune polyglandular syndrome Type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome. The disorder is caused by mutations in the AIRE (AutoImm...

    Authors: Alessandra Fierabracci, Mariafrancesca Lanzillotta, Ivana Vorgučin, Alessia Palma, Dragan Katanić and Corrado Betterle
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:126
  22. Acute pediatric poisoning is an emerging health and social problem. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of a large pediatric cohort exposed to xenobiotics, through the analysis of a Pediat...

    Authors: M. Marano, F. Rossi, L. Ravà, M. Khalil Ramla, M. Pisani, G. Bottari, L. Genuini, G. Zampini, J. Nunziata, A. Reale, M. A. Barbieri, F. Celeani, M. Di Nardo, C. Cecchetti, F. Stoppa, A. Villani…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:125
  23. To describe clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, radiological data and outcome of pediatric cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by neurological involvement.

    Authors: L. Siracusa, A. Cascio, S. Giordano, A. A. Medaglia, G. A. Restivo, I. Pirrone, G. F. Saia, F. Collura and C. Colomba
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:123
  24. Numerous studies described the epidemiological link and main clinical features of pediatric COVID-19, during the first pandemic period. Our study encompasses several different phases since the National Lockdow...

    Authors: Francesca Crea, Filippo Maria Panfili, Maria Elisa Amodeo, Danilo Fintini, Francesco Paolo Rossi, Italo Trenta, Alessandra Menichella, Chiara Ossella, Andrea Deidda, Roberta Lidano, Giulia Macchiarulo, Caterina Lambiase, Maria Antonietta Barbieri and Massimiliano Raponi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:122
  25. Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). A worsening of clinical conditions appears before CFRD. It has been demonstrated a decline in pulmonary ...

    Authors: Francesco Maria Rosanio, Enza Mozzillo, Chiara Cimbalo, Alberto Casertano, Angela Sepe, Valeria Raia, Adriana Franzese and Antonella Tosco
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:121
  26. Children affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed various manifestations. Some of them were severe cases presenting with multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) causing multiple organ dysfunct...

    Authors: Houda Ajmi, Wissem Besghaier, Wafa Kallala, Abdelhalim Trabelsi and Saoussan Abroug
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:120
  27. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties.

    Authors: Vitangelo Clemente, Costanza Tripiciano, Patrizio Moras, Daniele Deriu, Martina Di Giuseppe, Anna Lucia Piscitelli, Michela Cammerata, Maria Antonietta De Ioris, Francesca Ippolita Calò Carducci, Stefania Bernardi, Andrea Campana, Patrizia D’Argenio and Paolo Rossi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:119
  28. In-hospital cardiac arrest is a major public health issue. It is a serious condition; most probably end up with death within a few minutes even with corrective measures. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation ...

    Authors: Melaku Bimerew, Adam Wondmieneh, Getnet Gedefaw, Teshome Gebremeskel, Asmamaw Demis and Addisu Getie
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:118
  29. Regular blood transfusion has improved the overall survival and quality of life for patients with hereditary hemolytic anemias. Nevertheless, it carries a real risk of acquisition of blood-borne virus infectio...

    Authors: Laila M. Sherief, Seham M. Ragab, Mohamed A. Helwa, Naglaa M. Kamal, Mona R. Afify, Rasha T. S. Mohammed, Ghada Abd Elmoniem Mokhtar and Hanan S. Sherbiny
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:117
  30. Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) is a rare disease characterized by profound vascular leakage and presents as a classic triad of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia and hemoconcentration. Severe CLS is mostly induced by...

    Authors: Li-Fen Yang, Jia-Chang Ding, Ling-Ping Zhu, Li-Xia Li, Meng-Qi Duan, Zhuang-gui Chen, Xin-Yi Tang and Ya-Ting Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:116
  31. Delayed cord clamping in full-term neonates is widely recommended, while in practice, it is rarely implemented in cesarean section due to the fear of neonatal jaundice and excessive maternal blood loss. The op...

    Authors: Hailing Shao, Shichu Gao, Qiujing Lu, Xiaomin Zhao, Ying Hua and Xiaomei Wang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:115
  32. Trachoma is an infectious disease of the eye caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and transmitted via contact with eye discharge from infected persons and leading to blindness worldwide. Children less than 9 years of ...

    Authors: Kessete Ayelgn, Tadesse Guadu and Atalay Getachew
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:114
  33. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a group of conditions resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Patients with FASD experience a variety of neuropsychological symptoms resulting from central ne...

    Authors: Katarzyna Anna Dylag, Bożena Bando, Zbigniew Baran, Paulina Dumnicka, Katarzyna Kowalska, Paulina Kulaga, Katarzyna Przybyszewska, Jakub Radlinski, Sylvia Roozen and Leopold Curfs
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:113
  34. The sweat chloride test (ST) is the gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis in symptomatic patients, within the newborn screening and in the follow-up of CF patients during molecular therapies. Howeve...

    Authors: C. Cimbalo, A. Tosco, V. Terlizzi, A. Sepe, A. Castaldo, L. Salvadori and V. Raia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:112
  35. Tooth decay is one of the diseases that is closely related to people’s behaviors and it can have adverse effects on their performance and their success in the future. Brushing twice a day is the simplest and m...

    Authors: Robabeh Haghi, Asieh Ashouri, Mahmood Karimy, Nooshin Rouhani-Tonekaboni, Parisa Kasmaei, Farahnaz Pakdaman and Iraj Zareban
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:111
  36. Children with medical complexity (CMC) have been defined (Cohen et al., Pediatrics 127: 529–538, 2011.) as an emerging population potentially eligible for PPC. The current study investigated the prevalence of ...

    Authors: S. Amarri, A. Ottaviani, A. Campagna and L. De Panfilis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:110
  37. Congenital hypothyroidism is an endocrine disease with a significant incidence in the general population (1:2000–1:3000 newborns in Italy) and a different geographical distribution, partially explained by ende...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Saveria Sabrina Ragusa, Tommaso Silvano Aronica, Orazia Maria Granata, Eleonora Gucciardino and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:108
  38. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy in which HLA-DQ haplotypes define susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate if belonging to a certain HLA-DQ class risk could be associated to the clinical, serol...

    Authors: Carlo Tolone, Marisa Piccirillo, Pasquale Dolce, Salvatore Alfiero, Mattia Arenella, Marina Sarnataro, Patrizia Iardino, Alessia Pucciarelli and Caterina Strisciuglio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:107
  39. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest and healthiest option of feeding among infants in the first 6 months throughout the world. Thus, promotion of EBF is essential to prevent complex infant health probl...

    Authors: Shambel Aychew Tsegaw, Yeshimebet Ali Dawed and Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:106
  40. Child abuse and neglect, or maltreatment, is a serious public health problem, which may cause long-term effects on children’s health and wellbeing and expose them to further adulthood vulnerabilities. Studies ...

    Authors: Paola Nigri, Giovanni Corsello, Luigi Nigri, Donjeta Bali, Giorgina Kuli-Lito, Doina Plesca, Tudor Lucian Pop, Angel Carrasco-Sanz, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Julije Mestrovic, Mehmet Vural, Ida Giardino, Laszlo Losonczi, Eli Somekh, Maria Teresa Balducci, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:105
  41. Although many studies emphasize the importance of using oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets in the NICUs, there is a wide variability in used saturation ranges among centers. Primary aim was to draw a representative...

    Authors: Serafina Perrone, Maurizio Giordano, Giuseppe De Bernardo, Paola Lugani, Pasquale Sarnacchiaro, Gemma Stazzoni, Giuseppe Buonocore, Susanna Esposito and Maria Luisa Tataranno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:104
  42. Although with exceptions, evidence seems to indicate that children have lower susceptibility than adults to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. When infected, children gener...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Fabio Caramelli and Nicola Principi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:103
  43. Stunting is a critical public health problem of developing countries like Ethiopia. Different interventions like irrigation activity have been carried out by the government of Ethiopia to improve the nutrition...

    Authors: Balew Sema, Muluken Azage and Mulat Tirfie
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:102
  44. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal therapy for IgE-mediated allergy. There is less evidence about the safety and efficacy of AIT especially subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in children under 5 ye...

    Authors: Yaqi Yang, Dongxia Ma, Nan Huang, Wenjing Li, Qing Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Lin Yang and Rongfei Zhu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:101
  45. Risk factors that predispose the development of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among pediatric CAP patients of different age ranges are yet to be identified.

    Authors: Lumin Chen, Chong Miao, Yanling Chen, Xian Han, Ziying Lin, Hong Ye, Chengyi Wang, Huijie Zhang, Jingjing Li, Qiuyu Tang, Yuan Dong, Meng Bai, Yibing Zhu and Guanghua Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:100

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