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  1. Post-Infectious Neurological Syndromes (PINS) are heterogeneous neurological disorders with post or para-infectious onset. PINS diagnosis is complex, mainly related to the absence of any recognized guidelines ...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Giulia Spina, Massimiliano Valeriani, Laura Papetti, Fabiana Ursitti, Rino Agostiniani, Cristina Mascolo, Margherita Ruggiero, Chiara Di Camillo, Anna Quondamcarlo, Luigi Matera, Davide Vecchio, Luigi Memo and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:17
  2. Suicide attempts and self-harm in adolescence are a major public health concern: they are among the main causes of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide, with severe long-term health consequences in terms o...

    Authors: Caterina Zanus, Sara Battistutta, Renata Aliverti, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Luca Ronfani and Marco Carrozzi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:14
  3. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare and underdiagnosed neurometabolic disorder resulting in a complex neurological and non-neurological phenotype, posing diagnostic challenges resul...

    Authors: Carlo Fusco, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Pasquale Striano, Roberta Battini, Alberto Burlina and Carlotta Spagnoli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:13
  4. Observation Units (OU), as part of emergency department (ED), are areas reserved for short-term treatment or observation of patients with selected diagnoses to determine the need for hospitalization or home re...

    Authors: Antonio Gatto, Serena Rivetti, Lavinia Capossela, Davide Pata, Marcello Covino and Antonio Chiaretti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:11
  5. Association between persistency of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and morbidity in preterm newborns is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the relation between PDA and morbidity in a large retrospec...

    Authors: Gianluca Terrin, Maria Di Chiara, Giovanni Boscarino, Valentina Metrangolo, Francesca Faccioli, Elisa Onestà, Antonella Giancotti, Violante Di Donato, Viviana Cardilli and Mario De Curtis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:9
  6. The literature agrees on the impact of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of seriously ill children but there is less clarity about the real extent and gender differences of this psychopathological risk...

    Authors: Martina Corsi, Alessandro Orsini, Virginia Pedrinelli, Andrea Santangelo, Carlo Antonio Bertelloni, Niccolò Carli, Rodolfo Buselli, Diego Peroni, Pasquale Striano, Liliana Dell’Osso and Claudia Carmassi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:8
  7. Neonatal thrombocytopenia (NT) (platelet count < 150 × 109/L) is a common finding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of...

    Authors: Amira M. Saber, Shereen P. Aziz, Al Zahraa E. Almasry and Ramadan A. Mahmoud
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:7
  8. Although several studies have tried to evaluate the real efficacy of school closure for pandemic control over time, no definitive answer to this question has been given. Moreover, it has not been clarified whe...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Nicola Cotugno and Nicola Principi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:6
  9. Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) loss of function mutations have been described as cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In 2017, a first case of central precocious puberty (CPP) caused by PROKR2 heterozygous g...

    Authors: Francesca Aiello, Grazia Cirillo, Alessandra Cassio, Raffaella Di Mase, Gianluca Tornese, Giuseppina R. Umano, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Anna Grandone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:5
  10. Pediatric palliative care (PPC) addresses the physical and psychological needs of children suffering from life-limiting diseases. To define prevention and educational plans and to properly allocate resources, ...

    Authors: Franca Benini, Mariadonata Bellentani, Laura Reali, Pierina Lazzarin, Lucia De Zen, Federico Pellegatta, Pierangelo Lora Aprile and Gianlorenzo Scaccabarozzi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:4
  11. This study aimed to compare the clinical features and laboratory tests of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 1–3-year-old children and to expl...

    Authors: Jinjin Shi, Chu Chu, Min Yu, Dandan Zhang, Yuqin Li, Yujie Fan, Yixue Yu, Yali Luo and Weifang Zhou
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:3
  12. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disease affecting about 1:3000 newborns in Caucasian populations. The introduction of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF NBS) has improved the clinical outcome...

    Authors: Matteo Botti, Vito Terlizzi, Michela Francalanci, Daniela Dolce, Maria Chiara Cavicchi, Anna Silvia Neri, Valeria Galici, Gianfranco Mergni, Lucia Zavataro, Claudia Centrone, Filippo Festini and Giovanni Taccetti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:2
  13. Children with medical complexity represent a big challenge for the physicians, their families and the society as well. Although there is no clear definition of this type of patients, they are affected by a chr...

    Authors: Manuela Gallo, Rino Agostiniani, Roberta Pintus and Vassilios Fanos
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:1
  14. As health care workers (HCWs) who care for children, who usually demonstrate milder symptoms than adults, family paediatricians have an increased risk of exposure to coronavirus. In April 2020, the Sindacato M...

    Authors: Rinaldo Missaglia, Michael Belingheri, Laura Antolini, Monica de’ Angelis, Luca Brivio, Michele Augusto Riva and Simonetta Genovesi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:184
  15. Thromboembolism is a life-threatening, limb-threatening or organ-threatening complication that occurs in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS). There are few studies on the spectrum, complications and ...

    Authors: Yan-Li Lv, Na Guan, Jie Ding, Yong Yao, Hui-Jie Xiao, Xu-Hui Zhong, Fang Wang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Hong-Wen Zhang, Bai-Ge Su and Ke Xu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:182
  16. A practical guidance on the management of children with COVID-19 to insure homogeneous criteria for referral to a higher-level facility, according to the disease severity, is pivotal in the pandemic era. A pan...

    Authors: Carlotta Montagnani, Elisabetta Venturini, Manuela L’Erario, Chiara Tersigni, Barbara Bortone, Leila Bianchi, Francesca Menegazzo, Giuseppe Indolfi, Elena Chiappini and Luisa Galli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:181
  17. Lately, one of the major clinical and public health issues has been represented by Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy and the risk of transmission of the infection from mother to child. De...

    Authors: Nicole Olivini, Francesca Ippolita Calò Carducci, Veronica Santilli, Maria Antonietta De Ioris, Alessia Scarselli, Dario Alario, Caterina Geremia, Mary Haywood Lombardi, Caterina Marabotto, Rosanna Mariani, Raffaele Edo Papa, Emanuela Peschiaroli, Raffaella Scrocca, Serena Sinibaldi, Andrea Smarrazzo, Pietro Stella…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:180
  18. Iatrogenic severe hyperglycemia (ISH) caused by glucose-containing i.v. solution is a potentially fatal treatment error. The objective of this study was to investigate the causes, circumstances, course of dise...

    Authors: Nora Bruns, Anja Große Lordemann, Tobias Rasche, Jochen Meyburg, Marcus Krüger, Christian Wieg, Alexander Gratopp, Marc Hoppenz, Friedhelm Heitmann, Thomas Hoppen, Günther Löffler, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser and Christian Dohna-Schwake
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:179
  19. Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with predominantly autosomal dominant inheritance, with ocular, auditory and joint involvement.

    Authors: Roberta Onesimo, Cristina De Rose, Clelia Cipolla, Silvia Della Casa, Chiara Leoni, Annabella Salerni, Daniela Ricci and Giuseppe Zampino
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:178
  20. Skilled health professional assisted delivery is an effective strategy to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Skilled assistant delivery can prevent about 16–33% of maternal and newborn mortality. Despite t...

    Authors: Zemenu Tadesse Tessema and Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:177
  21. This paper runs through key progresses in epidemiology, pathomechanisms and therapy of various diseases in children that were issued in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics at the end of last year. Novel research...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Angelica Santoro, Michela Procaccianti, Fabio Castellano, Francesca Fiori Nastro, Alberto Villani, Sergio Bernasconi and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:176
  22. Globally, over 65% of maternal deaths occur during the first 42 days of postpartum while the same proportion of neonatal deaths occur during the first 7 days of life. In sab- Saharan Africa, 4.7 million mother...

    Authors: Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Lake Yazachew, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema and Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:175
  23. Even though neonatal mortality reduction is the major goal needed to be achieved by 2030, it is still unacceptably high especially in Ethiopia. In the other hand, low birth weight is the major cause of neonata...

    Authors: Temesgen Getaneh, Ayenew Negesse, Getenet Dessie and Melaku Desta
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:174
  24. Although children with special health care needs (CSHCN) represent a minority of the population, they go through more hospitalizations, more admissions to the Emergency Department (ED), and receive a major num...

    Authors: Paola Cianci, Valeria D’Apolito, Alex Moretti, Massimo Barbagallo, Sabrina Paci, Maria Teresa Carbone, Riccardo Lubrano, Antonio Urbino, Carlo Dionisi Vici, Luigi Memo, Giuseppe Zampino, Giancarlo La Marca, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello and Angelo Selicorni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:173
  25. Lyme neuroborreliosis can cause a variety of neurological manifestations. European children usually present facial nerve palsy, other cranial nerve palsies and aseptic meningitis.

    Authors: Salvatore Savasta, Ivan Fiorito, Thomas Foiadelli, Anna Pichiecchio, Patrizia Cambieri, Bianca Mariani, Piero Marone and Gianluigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:172
  26. In comparison with adults, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children has a milder course. The management of children with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease (COVI...

    Authors: Francesco Nunziata, Eugenia Bruzzese, Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Andrea Catzola, Gian Paolo Ciccarelli, Edoardo Vassallo, Emma Montella, Andrea Lo Vecchio and Alfredo Guarino
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:170
  27. SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustolosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome is a rare autoinflammatory chronic disorder, presenting with non-infectious osteitis, sterile joint inflammation and skin manifestations ...

    Authors: Michele Luzzati, Gabriele Simonini, Cesare Filippeschi, Teresa Giani and Sandra Trapani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:169
  28. Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTH) is an autosomal dominant or recessive genetic disease caused by mutation of either the thyroid hormone receptorβ (THR-β) gene or the thyroid hormone receptorα (THR-...

    Authors: Hongping Sun, Lin Cao, Rendong Zheng, Shaofeng Xie and Chao Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:168
  29. Family Accommodation (FA) refers to the involvement of family members (especially parents) in the compulsive behaviors of children and adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (e.g. modifying family rout...

    Authors: Maria Pontillo, Francesco Demaria, Maria Cristina Tata, Roberto Averna, Prisca Gargiullo, Maria Laura Pucciarini, Ornella Santonastaso, Tommaso Boldrini, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi and Stefano Vicari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:167
  30. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease associated with severe muscle atrophy and weakness in the limbs and trunk. The discovery of mutated genes is helpful in diagnosis and ...

    Authors: Ruiping Zhang, Chunyu Gu, Linjie Pu, Yingtao Meng, Jianbo Shu and Chunquan Cai
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:166
  31. The timing of puberty in girls is occurring at an increasingly early age. While a positive family history is recognised as a predisposing factor for early or precocious puberty, the role of environmental facto...

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Salvatore De Masi, Erica Bencini, Stefania Losi, Silvia Paci, Maria Parpagnoli, Franco Ricci, Daniele Ciofi and Chiara Azzari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:165
  32. Recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with known diabetes mellitus remains a relevant problem in pediatrics with an incidence of 1–10% per patient. Children may die because of cerebral edema and had a si...

    Authors: Birtukan Assefa, Haymanot Zeleke, Rajalakshmi Murugan and Kalkidan Wondwossen
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:164
  33. The phenotypic features of SHOX deficiency (SHOX-D) are highly variable and can be very mild, especially in young children. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate auxological and radiological indi...

    Authors: Silvia Vannelli, Maria Baffico, Raffaele Buganza, Francesca Verna, Giulia Vinci, Daniele Tessaris, Gianpaolo Di Rosa, Alberto Borraccino and Luisa de Sanctis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:163
  34. Every year, 1.3 million young people reported to die from preventable causes of death. Parent-adolescent communication on sexuality is critical in informing youth about risk and protective behaviors which in t...

    Authors: Maru Mekie, Dagne Addisu, Abenezer Melkie and Wubet Taklual
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:162
  35. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the defect in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. This defect leads to the deficiency of cholesterol biosynthesis with ...

    Authors: Maurizio Delvecchio, Biagio Rapone, Simonetta Simonetti, Simona Fecarotta, Graziana De Carlo, Elvira Favoino, Maria Teresa Loverro, Anna Maria Isdraele Romano, Federica Taurino, Edoardo Di Naro and Antonio Gnoni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:161
  36. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis in infants, with long term neurodevelopmental sequelae. GBS may be associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including spontane...

    Authors: Alberto Berardi, Tiziana Cassetti, Roberta Creti, Caterina Vocale, Simone Ambretti, Mario Sarti, Fabio Facchinetti, Stephen Cose, Paul Heath and Kirsty Le Doare
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:160
  37. In the recent years, clinical progress and better medical assistance for pregnant women, together with the introduction of new complex technologies, has improved the survival of preterm infants. However, this ...

    Authors: Antonella del Vecchio, Sergio Salerno, Massimo Barbagallo, Gaetano Chirico, Mauro Campoleoni, Vittorio Cannatà, Elisabetta Genovese, Claudio Granata, Andrea Magistrelli and Paolo Tomà
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:159
  38. A number of genetic syndromes associated with variants in the BSCL2/seipin gene have been identified. Variants that cause skipping of exon 7 are associated with progressive encephalopathy with/without lipodystrop...

    Authors: Stefania Pedicelli, Luca de Palma, Caterina Pelosini and Marco Cappa
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:158
  39. Thyroid hemangioma mostly occurs in adults and is extremely rare in infants. So far, only four pediatric cases of thyroid hemangioma have been reported, one of which has only been clinically diagnosed. Most of...

    Authors: Yujian Liang, Ronghui Pu, Xueqiong Huang, Suping Li, Yingqian Chen and Wen Tang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:157
  40. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pediatric operations, and establish preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative protocols to improve the pediatric...

    Authors: Yi Wei, Chengjun Yu, Tian Xin Zhao, Tao Lin, H. E. Dawei, Sheng-de Wu and Guang-hui Wei
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:155
  41. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD; MIM#263200) is one of the most frequent pediatric renal cystic diseases, with an incidence of 1:20,000. It is caused by mutations of the PKHD1 gene, on chromo...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Giovanni Corsello, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Michela D’Alessandro, Nicola Cassata, Marcello Cimador, Mario Giuffrè, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz and Ettore Piro
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:154
  42. Pediatric COVID-19 is relatively mild and may vary from that in adults. This study was to investigate the epidemic, clinical, and imaging features of pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia for early diagnosis and treatm...

    Authors: Yu Zhang, Ru-Ming Xie, Yu-Lin He, Li-Hong Xing, Li Dong, Jian-Zhong Zhang, Wei-Hong Xing, Xiao-Yan Lv, Yi-Bo Lu, Qiang Liu, Ling-Bo Lin, Gui-Zeng Liu, Li Li, Pan Li, Yuan-Zhong Xie, Zhi-Yu Ni…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:153
  43. Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a clinical-radiological syndrome that can be related to infectious and non-infectious conditions. The most prominent neurological sy...

    Authors: Antonella Tuscano, Marisa Zoppo, Carlotta Canavese, Maurizio Cogoni and Carlo Scolfaro
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:152
  44. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare genetic, multi-systemic disease characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, immune deficiency, bone marrow failure and skeletal abnormalities. Most patients p...

    Authors: Agnieszka Bogusz-Wójcik, Honorata Kołodziejczyk, Maja Klaudel-Dreszler, Grzegorz Oracz, Joanna Pawłowska and Mieczysław Szalecki
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:151
  45. This consensus document has been prepared by a multidisciplinary group of experts (Paediatricians, Radiologists, Paediatric Orthopaedics) and it is mainly aimed at paediatricians, hospitals and primary care pr...

    Authors: Rino Agostiniani, Giuseppe Atti, Salvatore Bonforte, Carolina Casini, Marco Cirillo, Maurizio De Pellegrin, Daniela Di Bello, Francesco Esposito, Ambra Galla, Giorgio Marrè Brunenghi, Nicola Romeo, Paolo Tomà and Norberto Vezzali
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:150

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