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  1. To determine the prevalence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in neonatal congenital heart disease patients undergoing delayed sternal closure (DSC) and evaluate risk factors for SSI.

    Authors: Yuzhong Yang, Jie Wang, Lina Cai, Wei Peng and Xuming Mo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:182
  2. The Neurological involvement is the most common extra-renal complication of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or typical HUS. On brain magnetic resonance examination, main neurological...

    Authors: Luisa Santangelo, Giuseppe Stefano Netti, Diletta Domenica Torres, Giovanni Piscopo, Vincenza Carbone, Luciana Losito, Leonardo Milella, Maria Luigia Lasorella, Pasquale Conti, Delio Gagliardi, Maria Chironna, Federica Spadaccino, Elena Bresin, Antonio Trabacca, Elena Ranieri and Mario Giordano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:181
  3. In healthy adolescents, delayed pubarche is generally a benign condition that is caused by a physiological discrepancy between gonadarche and adrenarche. In presence of other clinical signs and symptoms, delay...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:180
  4. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) is an insidious infection of the bone that more frequently affects young males. The etiology, mainly bacterial, is often related to the patient’s age, but it is frequent...

    Authors: Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Elena Chiappini, Elisabetta Venturini, Livia Gargiullo, Marco Roversi, Carlotta Montagnani, Elena Bozzola, Sara Chiurchiu, Davide Vecchio, Elio Castagnola, Paolo Tomà, Gian Maria Rossolini, Renato Maria Toniolo, Susanna Esposito, Marco Cirillo, Fabio Cardinale…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:179
  5. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired complex autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Uncontrolled cellular immune response is one of the key triggers for the loss of immune tolerance in ITP patients. The ...

    Authors: Ahlam M. Ismail, Aliaa M. Higazi, Hanan M. Nomeir and Naglaa M. Farag
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:178
  6. To date, information on COVID-19 long-term post-recovery sequelae in children and adolescents remains scarce. A retrospective descriptive cohort study was performed by collecting data on 92 patients (age ≤ 18 ...

    Authors: Liene Smane, Ieva Roge, Zanda Pucuka and Jana Pavare
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:177
  7. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocia...

    Authors: C. Carducci, N. Rapini, A. Deodati, V. Pampanini, S. Cianfarani and R. Schiaffini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:176
  8. Congenital chylothorax (CC) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition in newborns. It is defined as an accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity. The few publications regarding medical management ...

    Authors: Michaela Höck, Alexander Höller, Marlene Hammerl, Karina Wechselberger, Jakob Krösslhuber, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi and Daniela Karall
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:175
  9. Stunting was a significant public health problem for under-five in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, it was estimated 21.9% or 149 million (81.7 million in Asia and 58.8 million in Africa) und...

    Authors: Ayechew Ademas, Metadel Adane, Awoke Keleb, Gete Berihun and Getu Tesfaw
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:174
  10. Child malnutrition is still a concern in marginalized groups of populations, such as immigrants living in very low socio-economic conditions. Roma children are within the most hard-to-reach populations, suscep...

    Authors: Rosaria Giampaolo, Rosaria Marotta, Francesco Saverio Biagiarelli, Antonella Zampa, Stefania Moramarco and Ersilia Buonomo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:173
  11. Anemia, the most common micro-nutrient deficiency disorder, is the world’s second leading cause of morbidity and morbidity, affecting 24.8% of the population, of which 47.4% are under-five children. The preval...

    Authors: Yoseph Merkeb Alamneh, Tadesse Yirga Akalu, Abtie Abebaw Shiferaw and Aytenew Atnaf
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:172
  12. Fake news on children’s and adolescent health are spreading. Internet availability and decreasing costs of media devices are contributing to an easy access to technology by families. Public health organization...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Anna Maria Staiano, Giulia Spina, Nicola Zamperini, Francesco Marino, Marco Roversi and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:171
  13. The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is a parent-report questionnaire used to examine sleep behavior in children. Linguistic adaptation of CSHQ into several languages and/or psychometric analysis o...

    Authors: Melissa Borrelli, Iris Scala, Paola Festa, Dario Bruzzese, Ambrosina Michelotti, Elena Cantone, Adele Corcione, Martina Fragnito, Vincenzo Miranda and Francesca Santamaria
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:170

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:216

  14. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) is caused by a special type of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) which can produce exfoliative toxins. The generalized SSSS is recommended to be admitted and treated wit...

    Authors: Tao Yang, Jiangyi Wang, Junya Cao, Xinyue Zhang, Yun Lai, Longnian Li, Xiaoying Ye and Cong You
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:169
  15. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disorder, caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. These cause a reduced secretion of chloride, a marked absorption of sodium and, th...

    Authors: Vito Terlizzi, Eleonora Masi, Michela Francalanci, Giovanni Taccetti and Diletta Innocenti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:168
  16. The use of once daily dosing of aminoglycosides in pediatrics is increasing but studies on dose optimization targeting the pediatric population are limited. This study aimed to derive a population pharmacokine...

    Authors: Ragia H. Ghoneim, Abrar K. Thabit, Manar O. Lashkar and Ahmed S. Ali
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:167
  17. Lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of infant life contributes to childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the association of exclusive breastfeeding and childho...

    Authors: Tesfahun Mulatu, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Birhan Alemnew, Melese Linger and Misgan Legesse Liben
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:166
  18. Grip strength is an essential component of physical fitness. The objective of this study was to develop normative handgrip strength data for Iranian healthy boys and girls comparing their handgrip strength wit...

    Authors: Sajjad Rostamzadeh, Mahnaz Saremi, Alireza Abouhossein, Shahram Vosoughi and Johan F. M. Molenbroek
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:164
  19. The objective of the present article is to highlight the need for attention to Quality of Life of patients with Sickle Cell Disease living in Italy. The transformation of sickle cell disease from a severe life...

    Authors: Raffaella Colombatti, Maddalena Casale and Giovanna Russo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:163
  20. In Ethiopia, stunting is the most common form of undernutriton. Identifying the determinants of severe stunting among children is crucial for public health interventions to improve child health. Therefore, thi...

    Authors: Amare Muche and Reta Dewau
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:161
  21. Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, an...

    Authors: Shao-Wen Wu, Lin Li, Fan Feng, Li Wang, Yuan-Yuan Kong, Xiao-Wei Liu and Chenghong Yin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:160
  22. Growing concerns regarding the adverse effects of antibiotics during the first days of life and the marked reduction in the incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS) are changing the clinical practice for managing...

    Authors: E. Vaccina, A. Luglio, M. Ceccoli, M. Lecis, F. Leone, T. Zini, G. Toni, L. Lugli, L. Lucaccioni, L. Iughetti and A. Berardi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:159
  23. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is one of the major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) that might be associated with invasive life-threating infections. A prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment are...

    Authors: Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Samantha Bosis, Irene Borzani, Claudia Tagliabue, Raffaella Pinzani, Paola Marchisio and Giada Maria di Pietro
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:158
  24. Haemophilia A is an X-linked genetic condition which manifests itself mainly in male children in the first 2 years of life, during gross motor skill development. This disorder is rare in females. The clinical ...

    Authors: Berendt Agnieszka, Wójtowicz-Marzec Monika, Wysokińska Barbara and Kwaśniewska Anna
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:157
  25. Evidence-based medicine relies on appropriately designed, conducted and reported clinical trials (CTs) to provide the best proofs of efficacy and safety for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Marco Ciabattini, Franco De Crescenzo, Isabella Biondi, Rossana Cocchiola, Giorgia Copponi, Claudia Frillici, Francesca Molinari, Francesca Rocchi, Alessandra Simonetti, Paolo Rossi and Susanna Livadiotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:156
  26. Severe hypercalcemia is rare in newborns; even though often asymptomatic, it may have important sequelae. Hypophosphatemia can occur in infants experiencing intrauterine malnutrition, sepsis and early high-ene...

    Authors: Nicola Improda, Francesca Mazzeo, Alessandro Rossi, Claudia Rossi, Francesco Paolo Improda and Angelo Izzo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:155
  27. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency is a rare mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorder that results in hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy. It is caused by mutation in CP...

    Authors: Yi Gan, Fei Yu and Haining Fang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:154

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:192

  28. To investigate how life-sustaining treatment (LST) decisions are made and identify problematic ethical concerns confronted by physicians and nurses in pediatric intensive care within Italy.

    Authors: Franco A. Carnevale, Alberto Giannini, Amabile Bonaldi, Elena Bravi, Costanza Cecchi, Andrea Pettenazzo, Angela Amigoni, Silvia Maria Modesta Pulitanò, Chiara Tosin and Paolo Biban
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:153
  29. Neonatal infectious spondylodiscitis is a rare bony infection with atypical clinical presentation and non-specific systemic symptoms. Diagnosis and treatment are often delayed resulting in vertebral destructio...

    Authors: Sara Romano, Francesca Vittoria, Elisabetta Cattaruzzi, Egidio Barbi and Marco Carbone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:152
  30. Amino acid-based formula (AAF) is a relevant dietary strategy for paediatric patients affected by cow’s milk allergy (CMA). The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoallergenicity of a new AAF in chil...

    Authors: Rita Nocerino, Carmen Di Scala, Serena Coppola, Veronica Giglio, Laura Carucci, Linda Cosenza, Luana Voto, Anna Maria Iannicelli, Anna Luzzetti and Roberto Berni Canani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:151
  31. The lives of many children and adolescents are today increasingly influenced by new technological devices, including smartphones. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic occurred in a time of outstand...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Lucia Lo Scalzo, Mario Giuffrè, Pietro Ferrara and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:150
  32. Besides major clinical/biochemical features, neutropenia and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitute common complications of Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD Ib). However, their management is still ch...

    Authors: Alessandro Rossi, Erasmo Miele, Simona Fecarotta, Maria Veiga-da-Cunha, Massimo Martinelli, Carmine Mollica, Maria D’Armiento, Enza Mozzillo, Pietro Strisciuglio, Terry G. J. Derks, Annamaria Staiano and Giancarlo Parenti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:149
  33. White-Sutton (WHSUS) is a recently recognized syndrome caused by mutations of the POGZ gene. Approximately 70 patients have been reported to date. Intellectual disability, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, ...

    Authors: Bernadette Donnarumma, Maria Pia Riccio, Gaetano Terrone, Melania Palma, Pietro Strisciuglio and Iris Scala
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:148
  34. In 1973, Petrea Jacobsen described the first patient showing dysmorphic features, developmental delay and congenital heart disease (atrial and ventricular septal defect) associated to a 11q deletion, inherited...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Luigi Memo, Vincenzo Antona, Giovanni Corsello, Valentina Favero, Paola Lago and Mario Giuffrè
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:147
  35. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs) are a group of heterogenous, acquired, autoimmune disorders that affect the muscle. While the association between IIMs and malignancy has been widely reporte...

    Authors: Simone Benvenuto, Giulia Gortani, Rossana Bussani, Federico Poropat, Flora Maria Murru, Marco Carrozzi, Alberto Tommasini and Andrea Taddio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:146
  36. A few studies have suggested that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was present in Northern Italy several weeks before its official detection on February 21, 2020. On the other h...

    Authors: Gregorio P. Milani, Giovanni Casazza, Antonio Corsello, Paola Marchisio, Alessia Rocchi, Giulia Colombo, Carlo Agostoni and Giorgio Costantino
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:145
  37. The prevalence of oral ulcers in children is reported to be 9%, however diagnosis of oral lesions can be challenging, being an unspecific symptom of several diseases. Differential diagnosis can range from clas...

    Authors: Corinne Légeret and Raoul Furlano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:144
  38. Congenital anomaly is a partial or complete structural and/or functional defect during intrauterine life. Globally, major congenital anomalies account for 6% of all newborns among which about 94% of cases occu...

    Authors: Sudi Jemal, Engidaw Fentahun, Mohammed Oumer and Abebe Muche
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:143
  39. To control the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Chinese government encouraged people to stay at home. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of home confinement on the occurrence of f...

    Authors: Jun Li, Xiaowei Yuan, Yinqiang Cao, Tao Liu, Pan Gou, Xiang Li, Ming Li and Xing Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:142
  40. Sactosalpinx means a collection of fluid (serum, blood or pus) in the fallopian tube. CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) is a typical 46XX DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) due to a steroidogenic enzymatic d...

    Authors: Maria-Grazia Scarpa, Marianna Iaquinto, Daniela Codrich and Jürgen Schleef
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:141
  41. Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a complex hip joint deformity with effects ranging from acetabulum malformation to irreversible hip dislocation. Previous studies suggest a significant association o...

    Authors: Xiaowen Xu, Binbin Wang, Yufan Chen, Weizheng Zhou and Lianyong Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:140
  42. The analysis of interregional healthcare mobility represents one of the main criteria for evaluating Regional Healthcare Systems, both in terms of its economic-financial relevance and the quality and satisfact...

    Authors: Mario De Curtis, Francesco Bortolan, Davide Diliberto and Leonardo Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:139
  43. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare genetic disease due to the peripheral resistance to aldosterone. Its clinical spectrum includes neonatal salt loss syndrome with hyponatremia and hypochloraemia,...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Michela D’Alessandro, Maria Cristina Maggio, Vincenzo Verde and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:138
  44. Eating epilepsy (EE) is a form of reflex epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by eating. It is a rare condition but a high prevalence has been reported in Sri Lanka. In EE, the ictal semiology includes foc...

    Authors: Fabiana Vercellino, Laura Siri, Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Scala, Antonella Riva, Mariasavina Severino and Pasquale Striano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:137
  45. Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis (CSHRH), also called Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare and benign variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by cutaneous lesions without extracut...

    Authors: Alessandra Rizzoli, Simona Giancristoforo, Cristina Haass, Rita De Vito, Stefania Gaspari, Eleonora Scapillati, Andrea Diociaiuti and May El Hachem
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:135
  46. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. It is known for high heterogeneity and concealed onset. In recent years, the mechanism of its occurrence and development has been gra...

    Authors: Chi-yi Jiang, Xiao Xu, Bing-lin Jian, Xue Zhang, Zhi-xia Yue, Wei Guo and Xiao-li Ma
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:134
  47. Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COV...

    Authors: Manola Comar, Simone Benvenuto, Marzia Lazzerini, Giorgio Fedele, Egidio Barbi, Alessandro Amaddeo, Francesco Maria Risso, Tamara Strajn, Paola Di Rocco, Paola Stefanelli and Giovanni Rezza
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:131

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