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Table 1 Ethically acceptable use of Placebo

From: Framework conditions facilitating paediatric clinical research

References Ethics of placebo-controlled trials
[36] When there is no commonly accepted therapy for the condition and the new medical entity is the first one that may modify the course of the disease.
[10] When patients have failed to respond to standard treatment, they might be randomised to a new treatment or a placebo because they have exhausted alternative options
[36] When the commonly used therapy is of questionable efficacy.
[36] When the commonly used therapy carries a high frequency of undesirable side effects and the risks may be significantly greater than the benefits.
[36] When the placebo is used to identify incidence and severity of undesirable side effects produced by adding a new treatment to an established regimen.
[36] When the disease process is characterized by frequent, spontaneous exacerbations and remissions and the efficacy of the therapy has not been demonstrated