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  1. Vaccine hesitancy is a global problem, carrying significant health risks for extremely vulnerable population as that of preterm infants. Social media are emerging as significant tools for public health promoti...

    Authors: Antonio Di Mauro, Federica Di Mauro, Chiara Greco, Orazio Valerio Giannico, Francesca Maria Grosso, Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Manuela Capozza, Federico Schettini, Pasquale Stefanizzi and Nicola Laforgia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:190

    Content type: Research

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  2. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare condition that may occur alone or as part of a multi-formative syndrome. Management remains difficult. There is no specific treatment protocol. Tra...

    Authors: Emanuela Sitzia, Sara Santarsiero, Filippo Maria Tucci, Giovanni De Vincentiis, Angela Galeotti and Paola Festa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:189

    Content type: Case report

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  3. 15q26 deletion is a relatively rare chromosomal disorder, and it is described only in few cases. Patients with this aberration show many signs and symptoms, particularly pre- and postnatal growth restriction, ...

    Authors: Yahya Benbouchta, Nicole De Leeuw, Saadia Amasdl, Aziza Sbiti, Dominique Smeets, Khalid Sadki and Abdelaziz Sefiani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:188

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Although it is known that unbound bilirubin can enter the brain, there is little evidence of its association with the development of acute bilirubin encephalopathy. Here, we investigated this potential relatio...

    Authors: Yiyi Ding, Shuo Wang, Rui Guo, Aizhen Zhang and Yufang Zhu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:187

    Content type: Research

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  5. Neonatal mortality is a major global public health problem. Ethiopia is among seven countries that comprise 50 % of global neonatal mortality. Evidence on neonatal mortality in referred neonates is essential f...

    Authors: Alex Yeshaneh, Bizuayehu Tadele, Bogale Dessalew, Mulunesh Alemayehu, Awraris Wolde, Addisu Adane, Solomon Shitu, Haimanot Abebe and Daniel Adane

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:186

    Content type: Research

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  6. Authors: Erica Rosina, Berardo Rinaldi, Rosamaria Silipigni, Luca Bergamaschi, Giovanna Gattuso, Stefano Signoroni, Silvana Guerneri, Alessandra Carnevali, Paola Giovanna Marchisio and Donatella Milani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:185

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:31

  7. Malnutrition is a multifactorial pathology in which genetic, epigenetic, cultural, environmental, socio-economic factors interact with each other. The impact that this disease has on the health of children wor...

    Authors: Federica Maria Tripoli, Salvatore Accomando, Simona La Placa, Andrea Pietravalle, Giovanni Putoto, Giovanni Corsello and Mario Giuffrè

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:184

    Content type: Research

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  8. Physicians play a key role in driving vaccine acceptance and their recommendations are crucial to address vaccine hesitancy. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, awareness and attitude of Italian Pedi...

    Authors: Elisabetta Del Duca, Loredana Chini, Simona Graziani, Mayla Sgrulletti and Viviana Moschese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:183

    Content type: Research

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  9. To determine the prevalence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in neonatal congenital heart disease patients undergoing delayed sternal closure (DSC) and evaluate risk factors for SSI.

    Authors: Yuzhong Yang, Jie Wang, Lina Cai, Wei Peng and Xuming Mo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:182

    Content type: Research

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  10. The Neurological involvement is the most common extra-renal complication of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or typical HUS. On brain magnetic resonance examination, main neurological...

    Authors: Luisa Santangelo, Giuseppe Stefano Netti, Diletta Domenica Torres, Giovanni Piscopo, Vincenza Carbone, Luciana Losito, Leonardo Milella, Maria Luigia Lasorella, Pasquale Conti, Delio Gagliardi, Maria Chironna, Federica Spadaccino, Elena Bresin, Antonio Trabacca, Elena Ranieri and Mario Giordano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:181

    Content type: Case report

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  11. In healthy adolescents, delayed pubarche is generally a benign condition that is caused by a physiological discrepancy between gonadarche and adrenarche. In presence of other clinical signs and symptoms, delay...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:180

    Content type: Review

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  12. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) is an insidious infection of the bone that more frequently affects young males. The etiology, mainly bacterial, is often related to the patient’s age, but it is frequent...

    Authors: Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Elena Chiappini, Elisabetta Venturini, Livia Gargiullo, Marco Roversi, Carlotta Montagnani, Elena Bozzola, Sara Chiurchiu, Davide Vecchio, Elio Castagnola, Paolo Tomà, Gian Maria Rossolini, Renato Maria Toniolo, Susanna Esposito, Marco Cirillo, Fabio Cardinale…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:179

    Content type: Review

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  13. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired complex autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Uncontrolled cellular immune response is one of the key triggers for the loss of immune tolerance in ITP patients. The ...

    Authors: Ahlam M. Ismail, Aliaa M. Higazi, Hanan M. Nomeir and Naglaa M. Farag

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:178

    Content type: Research

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  14. To date, information on COVID-19 long-term post-recovery sequelae in children and adolescents remains scarce. A retrospective descriptive cohort study was performed by collecting data on 92 patients (age ≤ 18 ...

    Authors: Liene Smane, Ieva Roge, Zanda Pucuka and Jana Pavare

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:177

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  15. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocia...

    Authors: C. Carducci, N. Rapini, A. Deodati, V. Pampanini, S. Cianfarani and R. Schiaffini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:176

    Content type: Research

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  16. Congenital chylothorax (CC) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition in newborns. It is defined as an accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity. The few publications regarding medical management ...

    Authors: Michaela Höck, Alexander Höller, Marlene Hammerl, Karina Wechselberger, Jakob Krösslhuber, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi and Daniela Karall

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:175

    Content type: Research

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  17. Stunting was a significant public health problem for under-five in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, it was estimated 21.9% or 149 million (81.7 million in Asia and 58.8 million in Africa) und...

    Authors: Ayechew Ademas, Metadel Adane, Awoke Keleb, Gete Berihun and Getu Tesfaw

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:174

    Content type: Research

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  18. Child malnutrition is still a concern in marginalized groups of populations, such as immigrants living in very low socio-economic conditions. Roma children are within the most hard-to-reach populations, suscep...

    Authors: Rosaria Giampaolo, Rosaria Marotta, Francesco Saverio Biagiarelli, Antonella Zampa, Stefania Moramarco and Ersilia Buonomo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:173

    Content type: Research

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  19. Anemia, the most common micro-nutrient deficiency disorder, is the world’s second leading cause of morbidity and morbidity, affecting 24.8% of the population, of which 47.4% are under-five children. The preval...

    Authors: Yoseph Merkeb Alamneh, Tadesse Yirga Akalu, Abtie Abebaw Shiferaw and Aytenew Atnaf

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:172

    Content type: Research

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  20. Fake news on children’s and adolescent health are spreading. Internet availability and decreasing costs of media devices are contributing to an easy access to technology by families. Public health organization...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Anna Maria Staiano, Giulia Spina, Nicola Zamperini, Francesco Marino, Marco Roversi and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:171

    Content type: Research

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  21. The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is a parent-report questionnaire used to examine sleep behavior in children. Linguistic adaptation of CSHQ into several languages and/or psychometric analysis o...

    Authors: Melissa Borrelli, Iris Scala, Paola Festa, Dario Bruzzese, Ambrosina Michelotti, Elena Cantone, Adele Corcione, Martina Fragnito, Vincenzo Miranda and Francesca Santamaria

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:170

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  22. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) is caused by a special type of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) which can produce exfoliative toxins. The generalized SSSS is recommended to be admitted and treated wit...

    Authors: Tao Yang, Jiangyi Wang, Junya Cao, Xinyue Zhang, Yun Lai, Longnian Li, Xiaoying Ye and Cong You

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:169

    Content type: Research

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  23. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disorder, caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. These cause a reduced secretion of chloride, a marked absorption of sodium and, th...

    Authors: Vito Terlizzi, Eleonora Masi, Michela Francalanci, Giovanni Taccetti and Diletta Innocenti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:168

    Content type: Review

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  24. The use of once daily dosing of aminoglycosides in pediatrics is increasing but studies on dose optimization targeting the pediatric population are limited. This study aimed to derive a population pharmacokine...

    Authors: Ragia H. Ghoneim, Abrar K. Thabit, Manar O. Lashkar and Ahmed S. Ali

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:167

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of infant life contributes to childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the association of exclusive breastfeeding and childho...

    Authors: Tesfahun Mulatu, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Birhan Alemnew, Melese Linger and Misgan Legesse Liben

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:166

    Content type: Research

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  26. Grip strength is an essential component of physical fitness. The objective of this study was to develop normative handgrip strength data for Iranian healthy boys and girls comparing their handgrip strength wit...

    Authors: Sajjad Rostamzadeh, Mahnaz Saremi, Alireza Abouhossein, Shahram Vosoughi and Johan F. M. Molenbroek

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:164

    Content type: Research

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  27. The objective of the present article is to highlight the need for attention to Quality of Life of patients with Sickle Cell Disease living in Italy. The transformation of sickle cell disease from a severe life...

    Authors: Raffaella Colombatti, Maddalena Casale and Giovanna Russo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:163

    Content type: Commentary

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  28. In Ethiopia, stunting is the most common form of undernutriton. Identifying the determinants of severe stunting among children is crucial for public health interventions to improve child health. Therefore, thi...

    Authors: Amare Muche and Reta Dewau

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:161

    Content type: Research

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  29. Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, an...

    Authors: Shao-Wen Wu, Lin Li, Fan Feng, Li Wang, Yuan-Yuan Kong, Xiao-Wei Liu and Chenghong Yin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:160

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Growing concerns regarding the adverse effects of antibiotics during the first days of life and the marked reduction in the incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS) are changing the clinical practice for managing...

    Authors: E. Vaccina, A. Luglio, M. Ceccoli, M. Lecis, F. Leone, T. Zini, G. Toni, L. Lugli, L. Lucaccioni, L. Iughetti and A. Berardi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:159

    Content type: Commentary

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  31. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is one of the major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) that might be associated with invasive life-threating infections. A prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment are...

    Authors: Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Samantha Bosis, Irene Borzani, Claudia Tagliabue, Raffaella Pinzani, Paola Marchisio and Giada Maria di Pietro

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:158

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. Haemophilia A is an X-linked genetic condition which manifests itself mainly in male children in the first 2 years of life, during gross motor skill development. This disorder is rare in females. The clinical ...

    Authors: Berendt Agnieszka, Wójtowicz-Marzec Monika, Wysokińska Barbara and Kwaśniewska Anna

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:157

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Evidence-based medicine relies on appropriately designed, conducted and reported clinical trials (CTs) to provide the best proofs of efficacy and safety for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Marco Ciabattini, Franco De Crescenzo, Isabella Biondi, Rossana Cocchiola, Giorgia Copponi, Claudia Frillici, Francesca Molinari, Francesca Rocchi, Alessandra Simonetti, Paolo Rossi and Susanna Livadiotti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:156

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  34. Severe hypercalcemia is rare in newborns; even though often asymptomatic, it may have important sequelae. Hypophosphatemia can occur in infants experiencing intrauterine malnutrition, sepsis and early high-ene...

    Authors: Nicola Improda, Francesca Mazzeo, Alessandro Rossi, Claudia Rossi, Francesco Paolo Improda and Angelo Izzo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:155

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency is a rare mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorder that results in hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy. It is caused by mutation in CP...

    Authors: Yi Gan, Fei Yu and Haining Fang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:154

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:192

  36. To investigate how life-sustaining treatment (LST) decisions are made and identify problematic ethical concerns confronted by physicians and nurses in pediatric intensive care within Italy.

    Authors: Franco A. Carnevale, Alberto Giannini, Amabile Bonaldi, Elena Bravi, Costanza Cecchi, Andrea Pettenazzo, Angela Amigoni, Silvia Maria Modesta Pulitanò, Chiara Tosin and Paolo Biban

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:153

    Content type: Research

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  37. Neonatal infectious spondylodiscitis is a rare bony infection with atypical clinical presentation and non-specific systemic symptoms. Diagnosis and treatment are often delayed resulting in vertebral destructio...

    Authors: Sara Romano, Francesca Vittoria, Elisabetta Cattaruzzi, Egidio Barbi and Marco Carbone

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:152

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. Amino acid-based formula (AAF) is a relevant dietary strategy for paediatric patients affected by cow’s milk allergy (CMA). The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoallergenicity of a new AAF in chil...

    Authors: Rita Nocerino, Carmen Di Scala, Serena Coppola, Veronica Giglio, Laura Carucci, Linda Cosenza, Luana Voto, Anna Maria Iannicelli, Anna Luzzetti and Roberto Berni Canani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:151

    Content type: Research

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  39. The lives of many children and adolescents are today increasingly influenced by new technological devices, including smartphones. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic occurred in a time of outstand...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Lucia Lo Scalzo, Mario Giuffrè, Pietro Ferrara and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:150

    Content type: Research

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  40. Besides major clinical/biochemical features, neutropenia and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitute common complications of Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD Ib). However, their management is still ch...

    Authors: Alessandro Rossi, Erasmo Miele, Simona Fecarotta, Maria Veiga-da-Cunha, Massimo Martinelli, Carmine Mollica, Maria D’Armiento, Enza Mozzillo, Pietro Strisciuglio, Terry G. J. Derks, Annamaria Staiano and Giancarlo Parenti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:149

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. White-Sutton (WHSUS) is a recently recognized syndrome caused by mutations of the POGZ gene. Approximately 70 patients have been reported to date. Intellectual disability, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, ...

    Authors: Bernadette Donnarumma, Maria Pia Riccio, Gaetano Terrone, Melania Palma, Pietro Strisciuglio and Iris Scala

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:148

    Content type: Case report

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  42. In 1973, Petrea Jacobsen described the first patient showing dysmorphic features, developmental delay and congenital heart disease (atrial and ventricular septal defect) associated to a 11q deletion, inherited...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Luigi Memo, Vincenzo Antona, Giovanni Corsello, Valentina Favero, Paola Lago and Mario Giuffrè

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:147

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs) are a group of heterogenous, acquired, autoimmune disorders that affect the muscle. While the association between IIMs and malignancy has been widely reporte...

    Authors: Simone Benvenuto, Giulia Gortani, Rossana Bussani, Federico Poropat, Flora Maria Murru, Marco Carrozzi, Alberto Tommasini and Andrea Taddio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:146

    Content type: Case report

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  44. A few studies have suggested that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was present in Northern Italy several weeks before its official detection on February 21, 2020. On the other h...

    Authors: Gregorio P. Milani, Giovanni Casazza, Antonio Corsello, Paola Marchisio, Alessia Rocchi, Giulia Colombo, Carlo Agostoni and Giorgio Costantino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Congenital anomaly is a partial or complete structural and/or functional defect during intrauterine life. Globally, major congenital anomalies account for 6% of all newborns among which about 94% of cases occu...

    Authors: Sudi Jemal, Engidaw Fentahun, Mohammed Oumer and Abebe Muche

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:143

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. To control the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Chinese government encouraged people to stay at home. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of home confinement on the occurrence of f...

    Authors: Jun Li, Xiaowei Yuan, Yinqiang Cao, Tao Liu, Pan Gou, Xiang Li, Ming Li and Xing Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:142

    Content type: Research

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