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  1. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare genetic disease due to the peripheral resistance to aldosterone. Its clinical spectrum includes neonatal salt loss syndrome with hyponatremia and hypochloraemia,...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Michela D’Alessandro, Maria Cristina Maggio, Vincenzo Verde and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:138

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Eating epilepsy (EE) is a form of reflex epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by eating. It is a rare condition but a high prevalence has been reported in Sri Lanka. In EE, the ictal semiology includes foc...

    Authors: Fabiana Vercellino, Laura Siri, Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Scala, Antonella Riva, Mariasavina Severino and Pasquale Striano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:137

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis (CSHRH), also called Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare and benign variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by cutaneous lesions without extracut...

    Authors: Alessandra Rizzoli, Simona Giancristoforo, Cristina Haass, Rita De Vito, Stefania Gaspari, Eleonora Scapillati, Andrea Diociaiuti and May El Hachem

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:135

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. It is known for high heterogeneity and concealed onset. In recent years, the mechanism of its occurrence and development has been gra...

    Authors: Chi-yi Jiang, Xiao Xu, Bing-lin Jian, Xue Zhang, Zhi-xia Yue, Wei Guo and Xiao-li Ma

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:134

    Content type: Research

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  5. Positional plagiocephaly frequently affects healthy babies. It is hypothesized that manual therapy tailored to pediatrics is more effective in improving plagiocephalic cranial asymmetry than just repositioning...

    Authors: Iñaki Pastor-Pons, María Orosia Lucha-López, Marta Barrau-Lalmolda, Iñaki Rodes-Pastor, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, César Hidalgo-García and Jose Miguel Tricás-Moreno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:132

    Content type: Research

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  6. Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COV...

    Authors: Manola Comar, Simone Benvenuto, Marzia Lazzerini, Giorgio Fedele, Egidio Barbi, Alessandro Amaddeo, Francesco Maria Risso, Tamara Strajn, Paola Di Rocco, Paola Stefanelli and Giovanni Rezza

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:131

    Content type: Commentary

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  7. Measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic led to significant lifestyle changes for children and adolescents mainly related to the closure of schools and recreational activities, reduced social interaction, and...

    Authors: Arianna Dondi, Anna Fetta, Jacopo Lenzi, Francesca Morigi, Egidio Candela, Alessandro Rocca, Duccio Maria Cordelli and Marcello Lanari

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:130

    Content type: Research

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  8. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is strongly associated with premature birth, but it can also affect term neonates. Unlike the extent of research in preterm neonates, risk factors associated with ...

    Authors: Paraskevi Stylianou-Riga, Theodora Boutsikou, Panayiotis Kouis, Paraskevi Kinni, Marina Krokou, Andriani Ioannou, Tania Siahanidou, Zoi Iliodromiti, Thalia Papadouri, Panayiotis K. Yiallouros and Nicoletta Iacovidou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:129

    Content type: Research

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  9. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HED) is a genetic disorder which affects structures of ectodermal origin. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of disease. XLHED is char...

    Authors: Mario Tumminello, Antonella Gangemi, Federico Matina, Melania Guardino, Bianca Lea Giuffrè and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:128

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Type 1 diabetes mellitus could be associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid disease, celiac disease, but the association with Familial Mediterranean Fever is rare, we describe a cas...

    Authors: Maria Francesca Gicchino, Dario Iafusco, Angela Zanfardino, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Alma Nunzia Olivieri

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:127

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) or autoimmune polyglandular syndrome Type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome. The disorder is caused by mutations in the AIRE (AutoImm...

    Authors: Alessandra Fierabracci, Mariafrancesca Lanzillotta, Ivana Vorgučin, Alessia Palma, Dragan Katanić and Corrado Betterle

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:126

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Acute pediatric poisoning is an emerging health and social problem. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of a large pediatric cohort exposed to xenobiotics, through the analysis of a Pediat...

    Authors: M. Marano, F. Rossi, L. Ravà, M. Khalil Ramla, M. Pisani, G. Bottari, L. Genuini, G. Zampini, J. Nunziata, A. Reale, M. A. Barbieri, F. Celeani, M. Di Nardo, C. Cecchetti, F. Stoppa, A. Villani…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:125

    Content type: Research

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  13. To describe clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, radiological data and outcome of pediatric cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by neurological involvement.

    Authors: L. Siracusa, A. Cascio, S. Giordano, A. A. Medaglia, G. A. Restivo, I. Pirrone, G. F. Saia, F. Collura and C. Colomba

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:123

    Content type: Review

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  14. Numerous studies described the epidemiological link and main clinical features of pediatric COVID-19, during the first pandemic period. Our study encompasses several different phases since the National Lockdow...

    Authors: Francesca Crea, Filippo Maria Panfili, Maria Elisa Amodeo, Danilo Fintini, Francesco Paolo Rossi, Italo Trenta, Alessandra Menichella, Chiara Ossella, Andrea Deidda, Roberta Lidano, Giulia Macchiarulo, Caterina Lambiase, Maria Antonietta Barbieri and Massimiliano Raponi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:122

    Content type: Research

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  15. Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). A worsening of clinical conditions appears before CFRD. It has been demonstrated a decline in pulmonary ...

    Authors: Francesco Maria Rosanio, Enza Mozzillo, Chiara Cimbalo, Alberto Casertano, Angela Sepe, Valeria Raia, Adriana Franzese and Antonella Tosco

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:121

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Children affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed various manifestations. Some of them were severe cases presenting with multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) causing multiple organ dysfunct...

    Authors: Houda Ajmi, Wissem Besghaier, Wafa Kallala, Abdelhalim Trabelsi and Saoussan Abroug

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:120

    Content type: Case report

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  17. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties.

    Authors: Vitangelo Clemente, Costanza Tripiciano, Patrizio Moras, Daniele Deriu, Martina Di Giuseppe, Anna Lucia Piscitelli, Michela Cammerata, Maria Antonietta De Ioris, Francesca Ippolita Calò Carducci, Stefania Bernardi, Andrea Campana, Patrizia D’Argenio and Paolo Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:119

    Content type: Research

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  18. In-hospital cardiac arrest is a major public health issue. It is a serious condition; most probably end up with death within a few minutes even with corrective measures. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation ...

    Authors: Melaku Bimerew, Adam Wondmieneh, Getnet Gedefaw, Teshome Gebremeskel, Asmamaw Demis and Addisu Getie

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:118

    Content type: Research

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  19. Regular blood transfusion has improved the overall survival and quality of life for patients with hereditary hemolytic anemias. Nevertheless, it carries a real risk of acquisition of blood-borne virus infectio...

    Authors: Laila M. Sherief, Seham M. Ragab, Mohamed A. Helwa, Naglaa M. Kamal, Mona R. Afify, Rasha T. S. Mohammed, Ghada Abd Elmoniem Mokhtar and Hanan S. Sherbiny

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:117

    Content type: Research

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  20. Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) is a rare disease characterized by profound vascular leakage and presents as a classic triad of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia and hemoconcentration. Severe CLS is mostly induced by...

    Authors: Li-Fen Yang, Jia-Chang Ding, Ling-Ping Zhu, Li-Xia Li, Meng-Qi Duan, Zhuang-gui Chen, Xin-Yi Tang and Ya-Ting Li

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:116

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Delayed cord clamping in full-term neonates is widely recommended, while in practice, it is rarely implemented in cesarean section due to the fear of neonatal jaundice and excessive maternal blood loss. The op...

    Authors: Hailing Shao, Shichu Gao, Qiujing Lu, Xiaomin Zhao, Ying Hua and Xiaomei Wang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:115

    Content type: Research

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  22. Trachoma is an infectious disease of the eye caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and transmitted via contact with eye discharge from infected persons and leading to blindness worldwide. Children less than 9 years of ...

    Authors: Kessete Ayelgn, Tadesse Guadu and Atalay Getachew

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:114

    Content type: Research

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  23. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a group of conditions resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Patients with FASD experience a variety of neuropsychological symptoms resulting from central ne...

    Authors: Katarzyna Anna Dylag, Bożena Bando, Zbigniew Baran, Paulina Dumnicka, Katarzyna Kowalska, Paulina Kulaga, Katarzyna Przybyszewska, Jakub Radlinski, Sylvia Roozen and Leopold Curfs

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:113

    Content type: Research

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  24. The sweat chloride test (ST) is the gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis in symptomatic patients, within the newborn screening and in the follow-up of CF patients during molecular therapies. Howeve...

    Authors: C. Cimbalo, A. Tosco, V. Terlizzi, A. Sepe, A. Castaldo, L. Salvadori and V. Raia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:112

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Tooth decay is one of the diseases that is closely related to people’s behaviors and it can have adverse effects on their performance and their success in the future. Brushing twice a day is the simplest and m...

    Authors: Robabeh Haghi, Asieh Ashouri, Mahmood Karimy, Nooshin Rouhani-Tonekaboni, Parisa Kasmaei, Farahnaz Pakdaman and Iraj Zareban

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:111

    Content type: Research

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  26. Children with medical complexity (CMC) have been defined (Cohen et al., Pediatrics 127: 529–538, 2011.) as an emerging population potentially eligible for PPC. The current study investigated the prevalence of ...

    Authors: S. Amarri, A. Ottaviani, A. Campagna and L. De Panfilis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:110

    Content type: Research

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  27. Congenital hypothyroidism is an endocrine disease with a significant incidence in the general population (1:2000–1:3000 newborns in Italy) and a different geographical distribution, partially explained by ende...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Saveria Sabrina Ragusa, Tommaso Silvano Aronica, Orazia Maria Granata, Eleonora Gucciardino and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:108

    Content type: Research

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  28. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy in which HLA-DQ haplotypes define susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate if belonging to a certain HLA-DQ class risk could be associated to the clinical, serol...

    Authors: Carlo Tolone, Marisa Piccirillo, Pasquale Dolce, Salvatore Alfiero, Mattia Arenella, Marina Sarnataro, Patrizia Iardino, Alessia Pucciarelli and Caterina Strisciuglio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:107

    Content type: Research

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  29. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest and healthiest option of feeding among infants in the first 6 months throughout the world. Thus, promotion of EBF is essential to prevent complex infant health probl...

    Authors: Shambel Aychew Tsegaw, Yeshimebet Ali Dawed and Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:106

    Content type: Research

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  30. Child abuse and neglect, or maltreatment, is a serious public health problem, which may cause long-term effects on children’s health and wellbeing and expose them to further adulthood vulnerabilities. Studies ...

    Authors: Paola Nigri, Giovanni Corsello, Luigi Nigri, Donjeta Bali, Giorgina Kuli-Lito, Doina Plesca, Tudor Lucian Pop, Angel Carrasco-Sanz, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Julije Mestrovic, Mehmet Vural, Ida Giardino, Laszlo Losonczi, Eli Somekh, Maria Teresa Balducci, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:105

    Content type: Research

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  31. Although many studies emphasize the importance of using oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets in the NICUs, there is a wide variability in used saturation ranges among centers. Primary aim was to draw a representative...

    Authors: Serafina Perrone, Maurizio Giordano, Giuseppe De Bernardo, Paola Lugani, Pasquale Sarnacchiaro, Gemma Stazzoni, Giuseppe Buonocore, Susanna Esposito and Maria Luisa Tataranno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:104

    Content type: Research

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  32. Although with exceptions, evidence seems to indicate that children have lower susceptibility than adults to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. When infected, children gener...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Fabio Caramelli and Nicola Principi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:103

    Content type: Commentary

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  33. Stunting is a critical public health problem of developing countries like Ethiopia. Different interventions like irrigation activity have been carried out by the government of Ethiopia to improve the nutrition...

    Authors: Balew Sema, Muluken Azage and Mulat Tirfie

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:102

    Content type: Research

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  34. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal therapy for IgE-mediated allergy. There is less evidence about the safety and efficacy of AIT especially subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in children under 5 ye...

    Authors: Yaqi Yang, Dongxia Ma, Nan Huang, Wenjing Li, Qing Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Lin Yang and Rongfei Zhu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:101

    Content type: Research

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  35. Risk factors that predispose the development of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among pediatric CAP patients of different age ranges are yet to be identified.

    Authors: Lumin Chen, Chong Miao, Yanling Chen, Xian Han, Ziying Lin, Hong Ye, Chengyi Wang, Huijie Zhang, Jingjing Li, Qiuyu Tang, Yuan Dong, Meng Bai, Yibing Zhu and Guanghua Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:100

    Content type: Research

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  36. Appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior and access to the health care facility is key to improving health service utilization. Although the accessibility of comprehensive childhood disease intervention service...

    Authors: Martha Bellete, Moges Muluneh Boke and Melaku Kindie Yenit

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:99

    Content type: Research

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  37. Despite ibuprofen widely recognized safety profile, an increase of suspected adverse events has been reported in the last decade in parallel with its growing over-the-counter use. The aims of this study were t...

    Authors: Massimo Martinelli, Lucia Quaglietta, Giuseppe Banderali, Pietro Ferrara, Claudio Romano and Annamaria Staiano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:98

    Content type: Research

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  38. In 2019, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from eight Italian scientific paediatric societies developed a consensus document for the use of inhaled corticosteroids in the management and prevention of the mo...

    Authors: Marzia Duse, Francesca Santamaria, Maria Carmen Verga, Marcello Bergamini, Giovanni Simeone, Lucia Leonardi, Giovanna Tezza, Annamaria Bianchi, Annalisa Capuano, Fabio Cardinale, Giovanni Cerimoniale, Massimo Landi, Monica Malventano, Mariangela Tosca, Attilio Varricchio, Anna Maria Zicari…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:97

    Content type: Research

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  39. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of unknown origin of small and medium caliber blood vessels, especially involving coronary arteries and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood in deve...

    Authors: Alice Annalisa Medaglia, Lucia Siracusa, Claudia Gioè, Salvatore Giordano, Antonio Cascio and Claudia Colomba

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:95

    Content type: Review

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  40. Genetic diseases are chronic conditions with relevant impact on the lives of patients and their families. In USA and Europe it is estimated a prevalence of 60 million affected subjects, 75% of whom are in deve...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Luigi Memo, Alessandra Coscia, Mario Giuffré, Ambra Iuculano, Mariano Lanna, Diletta Valentini, Anna Contardi, Sauro Filippeschi, Tiziana Frusca, Fabio Mosca, Luca A. Ramenghi, Corrado Romano, Annalisa Scopinaro, Alberto Villani, Giuseppe Zampino…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:94

    Content type: Research

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  41. Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a kind of common neurally mediated syncope in children and adolescents. Decreased blood volume is one of the pathogenesis of VVS. The diagnosis of VVS is mainly based on head-up tilt...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Xingfang Zeng, Wanzhen Mei, Yuwen Wang, Runmei Zou and Cheng Wang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:93

    Content type: Research

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  42. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common immune-mediated skin disease in childhood. Several treatment options for pediatric AD, both topical and systemic, are currently available. We carried out a single-cent...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Manuela Pace, Francesca Mori, Elio Novembre, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:92

    Content type: Research

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  43. Several studies have investigated the efficacy of balneotherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD), including a pediatric open randomized clinical trial conducted at the Comano thermal spring water center, which showed...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Ezio Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Stefania Farina, Manuela Pace, Cesare Filippeschi, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:91

    Content type: Research

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  44. Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and ad...

    Authors: Isabella Tarissi De Jacobis, Rosa Vona, Camilla Cittadini, Alessandra Marchesi, Laura Cursi, Lucrezia Gambardella, Alberto Villani and Elisabetta Straface

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:90

    Content type: Research

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  45. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

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