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Table 4 The epidemiology of autoimmune thyroid disease in Turner syndrome

From: Endocrine autoimmunity in Turner syndrome

Reference n of Turner patients Age range or mean Autoimmune diseases Population origin % of subjects with thyroid autoimmune disease % of subjects with thyroid autoimmune disease in IsoXq % of patients with clinical/subclinical hypothyroidism % of patients with Graves’ disease
Bright et al. 1982 [26] 24 15 ± 5 Thyroiditis USA 87.5 100 na na
Germain et al. 1986 [23] 100 15 weeks- 19 years Thyroiditis USA 50 57 22 0
Gluck et al. 1992 [27] 77 5-14 Thyroiditis Germany 3.9 na na na
de Kerdanet et al. 1994 [21] 67 5.5-34 Thyroiditis France 26.9 68.8 23.9 na
Radetti et al. 1995 [30] 478 3.6-25.3 Thyroiditis Italy 22.2 na 6.1 0.6
Chiovato et al. 1996 [12] 75 3-30 Thyroiditis Italy 13.3 40 10.6 1.3
Medeiros et al. 2000 [13] 71 0-20 Thyroiditis Brazil 23.9 na 15.5 0
Medeiros et al. 2009 [14] 17/ 80 (follow-up) 5.9-22.6 Thyroiditis Brazil 59 33 82.4 5.8
Elsheikh et al. 2001 [18] 145 16-52 Thyroiditis UK 41 83 15 0.7
El-Mansouri et al. 2005 [31] 91 25-65 Thyroiditis Sweden 27.5 27.8 25 2
Livadas et al. 2005 [17] 84 0-19 Thyroiditis Greece 60.7 71 24 21 with Abs 2.5
Bettendorf et al. 2006 [15] 120/327 (follow-up) >16 Presence of thyroid and celiac disease Abs Germany 36 5.8 57.1 0
Mc Carthy et al. 2008 [3] 100 7-17 Thyroiditis USA 51 na na na
Fukuda et al. 2009 [36] 65 15-61 Thyroiditis Japan 57 na 31 4.6
Mortensen et al. 2009 [28] 107 6-60 Thyroiditis, celiac disease Denmark 45 39 15 1.9
Dias et al . 2010 [4] 56 0.8-52 Celiac disease Brazil na na na na
Jөrgensen et al. 2010 [7] 798 na Female predominant Denmark 1.6 12.5 with na 0.6
Hashimoto’s
i.e. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis thyroiditis
Male predominant i.e.T1D,
Ulcerative
Colitis
Dupuytren’s contracture,
Amyotrophic lateral
Sclerosis, reactive arthritis
Gawlik et al. 2011 [35] 86 0-17.4 Thyroiditis, celiac disease, T1D, alopecia Poland 36 with Abs 17.4 with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 35.3 with Abs 17.6 with autoimmune thyroid disease 31.4 0
Bakalov et al. 2012 [10] 224 18-67 High prevalence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease USA 37 58.3 na 0
Hamza et al. 2012 [20] 80 4.7-22.3 Thyroiditis Egypt 35 anti-TPO 15 anti-Tg 57.9 anti-TPO 26.3 anti-Tg 6.3 1.3
Kucharska et al. 2013 [29] 54 11.9 ± 2.5 Thyroiditis Poland 64.8 anti-TPO 24 anti-Tg 14.8 anti-NIS na 20 0
  1. N = number; na = not available; NIS = natrium/iodide symporter.
  2. Table reports-a summary of the literature on the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease in Turner patients in different population studies.