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Table 1 Risk factors for pediatric AIS

From: Paediatric arterial ischemic stroke: acute management, recent advances and remaining issues

Artheriopathies Arterial fibromuscular dysplasia, arteriovenous malformation, arterial dissection, Moyamoya disease, transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood, primary central nervous system vasculitis, cranial radiotherapy
Vasculitis Meningitis, postinfectious systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, granulomatous angiitis, Takayasu’s arteritis, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, drug abuse
Hematologic disorders and coagulopathies Hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia, sickle cell-hemoglobin C, sickle-thalassemia), purpura, thrombocytosis, polycythemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukemia or other neoplasms, congenital coagulation defects, oral contraceptive use, liver dysfunction with coagulation defect, vitamin K deficiency, Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies
Metabolic disorders Mitochondrial disorders (MELAS syndrome), urea matabolic disorders, homocystinuria, aminoaciduria, glutaric acidemia type I, lysosomal disorders, Fabry’s disease
Heart diseases Congenital malformations (ventricular/atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic/mitral stenosis, coarctation, complex congenital heart defects);
Acquired (Rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, myocarditis, arrhythmia)
Traumatic Child abuse, post-traumatic arterial dissection, blunt cervical arterial trauma, arteriography, post-traumatic carotid cavernous fistula, penetrating intracranial trauma