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Table 1 Summary of the studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Association between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and risks of congenital heart defects in offspring: meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies

First author, year Region Period Study design No. of cases/controlsa period OR/RR 95 % CI Adjustment variablesb Outcome
Bean, 2011 USA 2001–2004 CC 566/552 1st month gestation 1.07 0.58–1.98 No AVSD
1.03 0.48–2.23 ASD
0.49 0.19–1.22 VSD
2nd/ 3rd month gestation 0.64 0.19–2.21 AVSD
1.50 0.40–5.67 ASD
1.08 0.27–4.36 VSD
Botto, 2000 USA 1968–1980 CC 958/3029 During pregnancy 1.00 0.86–1.15 No CHDs
Carmichael, 2003 USA 1987–1988 CC 207/481 1 month before to 3rd month gestation 1.35 0.84–2.19 B, D, F, K, I TGA
1.24 0.77–1.98 TOF
Cedergren, 2002 Sweden 1982–1996 CC 269/524 Early pregnancy 0.95 0.69–1.31 No CHDs
Ewing, 1997 USA 1981–1989 CC 641/3549 During pregnancy 0.95 0.78–1.15 No VSD
Fixler, 1998 USA   CC 89/82 3 months before to 3rd month gestation 1.23 0.67–2.28 No CHDs
Grewal, 2008 USA 1999–2003 CC 323/700 During pregnancy 1.21 0.85–1.73 No Conotruncal defects
Hobbs, 2010 USA 1998–2006 CC 572/363 1 month before to 3rd month gestation 0.84 0.63–1.12 No CHDs
Kuciene, 2009 Lithuania 1999–2005 CC 187/643 During pregnancy 1.39 0.87–2.25 No CHDs
Larsen, 2011 Denmark 1996–2002 Cohort 477/ 86783 During pregnancy 1.24 0.97–1.59 A, E, F, H, P VSD
0.89 0.66–1.21 ASD
Liu, 2013 Canada 2002–2010 Cohort 4123/22365 During pregnancy 1.88 1.74–2.04 A, B, E, F, H, L, O CHDs
McDonald, 1992 Canada 1982–1984 Cohort 318/87389 First trimester 0.96 0.78–1.19 A, B, D, F, G CHD
Malik, 2008 USA 1997–2002 CC 3067/3947 1 month before to 3rd month gestation 0.93 0.85–1.03 O CHDs
Martinez-Frias, 2004 Spain   CC 4705/4329 During pregnancy 0.96 0.78–1.19 No CHD
Mateja, 2012 USA 1996–2005 CC 237/948 3 months before pregnancy 1.01 0.61–1.70 No CHDs
O’Leary, 2013 Australia. 1983–2007 Cohort 277/61370 During pregnancy 1.40 0.91–1.98 No VSD
2.86 1.22–4.93 ASD
2.01 0.58–4.07 Conotruncal defects
Smedts, 2009 Netherlands 2008 CC 276/324 During pregnancy 1.05 0.75–1.47 No CHDs
Steinberger, 2002 USA 1981–1989 CC 237/3572 During pregnancy 1.00 0.10–7.70 No Single Ventricle
Tikkanen, 1991 Finland 1982–1984 CC 573/1055 First trimester 1.29 1.05–1.59 No CHDs
Tofs, 1999 USA 1991–1993 CC 80/605 First trimester 0.90 0.50–1.40 No CHDs
1.30 0.70–2.40 AVSD
1.00 0.20–2.40 TOF
0.80 0.50–1.40 ASD
0.60 0.30–1.20 VSD
Van Beynum, 2010 Netherlands 1996–2005 CC 611/2401 During pregnancy 1.05 0.85–1.29 No CHDs
Williams, 2004 USA 1968–1980 CC 122/3029 3 months before to 3rd month gestation 1.02 0.71–1.47 No VSD
Yauck, 2004 USA 1997–1999 CC 245/2780 During pregnancy 2.10 1.10–4.20 No CHDs
  1. CC case-control study, CHDs congenital heart defects, VSD Ventriculap Septal Defect, ASD Atrial Septal Defect, TOF Tetralogy of Fallot, TGA D-Transposition of the Great Arteries, HLHS Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, COA Coarctation of the Aorta, AVSD Atrioventricular Septal Defect
  2. aReported number of cases and control subjects with available exposure information
  3. bAdjustment variables: A maternal age, B maternal race/ethnicity, C marital status, D maternal education, E parity, F smoking, G coffee consumption, H infant’s year/month of birth, I intake of multivitamin, J stress, K folic acid intake/dietary folate, L infant gender, M maternal body mass index, N family history of congenital heart defects, O maternal residence, P maternal occupation, Q insurance,