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Table 2 Summary risk estimates of the association between maternal alcohol comsuption and CHD risk in offspring

From: Association between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and risks of congenital heart defects in offspring: meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies

Subgroup analysis No. of studies Summary RR (95 % CIs) P* I2 (%) P**
Summary pooled estimate 23 1.11(0.96–1.29) <0.001 88.8  
Design      0.025
 Case-control 19 1.00(0.95–1.06) 0.260 16.0  
 Cohort 4 1.35(0.93–1.97) <0.001 94.4  
Geographical region      0.447
 North America 15 1.10(0.89–1.36) <0.001 92.1  
 Europe 7 1.09(0.99–1.19) 0.449 0.0  
 Australia 1 1.69(1.23–2.33) - -  
Period of pregnancy      0.343
Pre-pregnancy or until pregnancy is known 6 0.95(0.88–1.04) 0.426 0.0  
 During pregnancy 22 1.12(0.96–1.30) <0.001 89.3  
  Trimester 1 22 1.12(0.96–1.30) <0.001 89.3
  Trimester 2 12 1.22(0.98–1.52) <0.001 90.9
  Trimester 3 12 1.22(0.98–1.52) <0.001 90.9
Adjusted for smoking      0.108
 Yes 4 1.27(0.86–1.87) <0.001 94.6  
 No 19 1.04(0.96–1.13) 0.042 39.0  
  1. Abbreviations: RR relative risk, CI confidence interval
  2. *p-value for heterogeneity within each subgroup
  3. **p-value for heterogeneity between subgroups with meta-regression analysis