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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample

From: Prevalence and determinants of preconception folic acid use: an Italian multicenter survey

Characteristic No. of womena
n %
Maternal age (years)   
  <25 130 5.9
  25–29 404 18.5
  30–34 724 33.1
  35–39 660 30.2
  40 or more 209 9.5
Parity   
  0 1,246 56.9
  1 730 33.3
  2 171 7.8
  3 or more 42 1.9
Educational level   
  Primary school 331 15.1
  Secondary school 960 43.9
  University 890 40.7
Marital status   
  No partner 213 9.7
  Married/cohabiting 1,957 89.4
Citizenship   
  Non-Italian 319 14.6
  Italian 1,867 85.3
Working activity   
  Studying 106 4.8
  Working 1,683 76.9
  Working at home 283 12.9
  Not working 94 4.3
Pregnancy intention   
  Unintended 121 5.5
  Mistimed 646 29.5
  Intended 1,392 63.6
Preconception health visit   
  No 1,266 57.8
  Yes 907 41.4
Infertility treatment   
  No 2,001 91.4
  Ovulation inductor use, no ART 31 1.4
  ART 128 5.8
Maternal smoking before pregnancy   
  No 1,614 73.7
  Yes 575 26.3
BMI before pregnancy   
  Underweight 180 8.2
  Normal weight 1,573 71.9
  Pre-obese 303 13.8
  Obese 122 5.6
Chronic disease   
  No 1,959 89.5
  Yes 208 9.5
  1. Abbreviation: ART assisted reproductive technology, BMI body mass index
  2. aPercentages do not add to 2,189 and 100 % due to missing data: 62 women on maternal age, 8 women on educational level, 19 women on marital status, 3 women on citizenship, 23 women on working activity, 30 women on pregnancy intention, 16 women on preconception health visit, 29 women on infertility treatment, 11 women on body mass index before pregnancy, and 22 women with chronic disease