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Table 2 Use of analgesia and sedation by type of ventilation

From: Sedation and analgesia practices at Italian neonatal intensive care units: results from the EUROPAIN study

  Total
(N = 422)
n (%)
Invasive ventilation
(N = 131)
n (%)
Noninvasive ventilation
(N = 150)
N (%)
Spontaneous ventilation
(N = 141)
n (%)
p
Use of analgesia and/or sedation 149 (35.3) 113 (86.3) 26 (17.3) 10 (7.1) <.0001
Method of administration:      
Bolus only 54 (36.2) 33 (29.2) 18 (69.2) 3 (30) 0.0035
Continuous only 34 (22.8) 28 (24.8) 4 (15.4) 2 (20)  
Continuous and bolus 61 (40.9) 52 (46.0) 4 (15.4) 5 (50)  
Strong analgesicsa 137 (32.5) 109 (83.2) 21 (14.0) 7.0 (5.0) <0.0001
 Morphine 11 (2.6) 11 (8.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) <0.0001
 Fentanyl 131 (31.0) 103 (78.6) 21 (16.0) 7 (5.3) <0.0001
 Ketamine 2 (0.2) 2 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.0959
Sedativesa 45 (10.7) 35 (26.7) 5 (3.3) 5 (3.6) <0.0001
 Propofol 5 (1.2) 4 (3.1) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0.0434
 Midazolam 38 (9.0) 29 (22.1) 4 (2.7) 5 (3.5) <0.0001
Mild analgesicsa 16 (3.8) 9 (6.9) 4 (2.7) 3 (2.1) 0.0823
 Paracetamol 14 (3.3) 8 (6.1) 3 (2.0) 3 (2.1) 0.1369
 Local anesthetics 2 (0.5) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0.7619
Neuromuscolar blockers 7 (1.7) 7 (5.3) NA NA NA
 Drug withdrawal 4 (2.8) 4 (3.6) 00 (0.0) 00 (0.0) 1.000
 Pain assessment 285 (67.5) 112 (85.5) 101 (67.3) 72 (51.1) <0.0001
  1. a only the main medications are described in detail