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Table 1 Demographic data and socio-familial factors

From: Clinical characteristics of headache in Italian adolescents aged 11–16 years: a cross-sectional questionnaire school-based study

  Overall Group 1 Group 2 Sign
(n = 1950) (n = 1272) (n = 678) (p value)
Gender (n = 1950)
 Males 944 (48.41%) 566 378 < 0,001
 Females 1006 (51.59%) 706 300
Age (n = 1937, 13 missing)
 11–12 years 71 (3.66%) 49 22 0,9
 13–14 years 1830 (94.48%) 1189 641
 15–16 years 36 (1.86%) 25 11
Place of birth (n = 1944, 6 missing)
 Italy 1836 (94.44%) 1192 644 0,145
 Abroad 108 (5.56%) 78 30
Geographic area (n = 1951)
 North-West 460 (23.58%) 303 157 0,87
 North-East 402 (20.6%) 257 145
 Central Italy 374 (19.17%) 241 133
 Southern Italy 467 (23.94%) 303 164
 Islands 248 (12.71%) 168 80
Residence (population density) (n = 1951)
 Rural (< 20.000 inhabitants) 863 (44.23%) 581 282 0,033
 Town (20.000–100.000 inhabitants) 595 (30.5%) 362 233
 City (100.000–500.000 inhabitants) 200 (10.25%) 127 73
 Metropolis (> 500.000 inhabitants) 293 (15.02%) 202 91
Parental origin (n = 1940, 10 missing)
 Both Italians 1626 (83.77%) 1055 571 0,3
 Italian mother, non-Italian father 47 (2.42%) 30 17
 Italian father, non-Italian mother 92 (4.74%) 58 34
 Both non-Italians 175 (%9.02) 125 50
Family composition (n = 1941, 9 missing)
 Living with both parents 1616 (83.21%) 1036 580 0,012
 Living with the mother 198 (10.20%) 134 64
 Living with the father 21 (1.08%) 18 3
 Living with mother and stepfather 90 (4.63%) 71 19
 Living with father and stepmother 5 (0.26%) 2 3
 Living without the parents 11 (0.57%) 6 5
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