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Table 3 Associated anomalies and distribution of CAKUTs, by sex

From: Prevalence, types, and malformations in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in newborns: a retrospective hospital-based study

Subtype Total (2790) Male (1583) Female (1096) Male/ Female
n % n % n %
Associated anomalies 633 22.69 322 20.34 240 21.90 1.34
Subtypes
 Congenital heart defects 248 8.89 129 8.15 97 8.85 1.33
 Limb defects 56 2.01 30 1.90 17 1.55 1.76
 Neural tube defect 19 0.68 7 0.44 7 0.64 1.00
 Hydrocephalus 16 0.57 7 0.44 6 0.55 1.17
 Trisomy 21 6 0.22 6 0.38 0 0.00
 Pcromphalus 9 0.32 7 0.44 1 0.09 7.00
 Diaphragmatocel 5 0.18 3 0.19 1 0.09 3.00
 Cheilopalatognathus 16 0.57 5 0.32 9 0.82 0.56
 Other 368 13.19 176 11.12 141 12.86 1.25
Subtypes of CAKUTs
 Hydronephrosis 890 31.90 666 42.07 207 18.89 3.22
 Polycystic kidney 533 19.10 245 15.48 258 23.54 0.95
 Renal agenesis 529 18.96 241 15.22 270 24.64 0.89
 Renal ectopia 121 4.34 59 3.73 61 5.57 0.97
 Renal duplication 67 2.40 32 2.02 35 3.19 0.91
 Others 678 24.30 349 22.05 281 25.64 1.24
  1. Abbreviation: CAKUTs congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract