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Table 1 Main reviewed articles and their principal features

From: Media use during adolescence: the recommendations of the Italian Pediatric Society

LearningRogaten J et al., 2013 [15]CSOnline surveyApproaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Evaluation Anxiety ScalesSALow academic outcomes,
reduction of concentration,
reduction of creativity,
reduction of comprehension,
reduction of organization
Kirschner PA et al., 2016 [16]CSCustomized surveyFive sections of closed-response (e.g., Likert-type scaling) and open-response items.SA
Lopez-Fernandez O et al., 2017 [18]CSOnline surveyThe dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use QuestionnaireSA
Arquero JL, at al., 2015 [22]CSCustomized surveyNew Study Process Questionnaire (N-SPQ-3f) and Academic Motivation ScaleStatistical and comparative subgroups’ analysis of the observed data
Rozgonjuk D et al., 2018 [24]CSOnline surveyEstonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process QuestionnaireSA
SleepCharter B et al., 2016 [25]MARW24 MeSH terms, titles and abstracts were screened for relevanceStatistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statisticIncrease of sleep latency,
increase of arousals,
reduction of sleep duration,
metabolic issues
Prather AA et al., 2014 [31]CSLongitudinal studyNASA
Caine N et al., 2010 [37]DSRWLiterature ResearchSA
Bixler E, 2009 [41]DSRWLiterature ResearchSA
Owens J, 2014 [42]DSRWLiterature ResearchSA
SightFenga C et al., 2014 [47]CCNAOcular examination and questionnaireSADry eye disease,
eye irritation and burning sensation,
conjunctival injection,
decrease visual acuity,
acute acquired comitant esotropia,
macular degeneration
Moon JH et al., 2014 [48]CCNAOcular examination and questionnaireSA
Moon JH et al., 2016 [49]CCNAOcular examination and questionnaireSA
AddictionChotpitayasunondh V et al., 2016 [54]CSOnline surveyPhubbing questionnaire, Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version (SAS-SV), Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOs), and Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS)Statistical analysis of the observed dataFear of missing out,
wish to remain constantly connected,
necessity to check continuously social app,
lack of psychological involvement,
lack of interest
Wegmann E et al., 2016 [55]CSSurveyModified Version of the Short Internet Addiction Test, internet-Use Expectancies Scale, Brief COPE, elf-Efficacy Scale, Brief Symptom Inventor,Statistical analysis of the observed data
Choi SW et al., 2015 [60]CSSurveySmartphone Addiction Scale, the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol
Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait
Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale
Multiple linear regression analyses of observed data
Long J et al., 2016 [62]CSSurveySocio-demographic, smartphone use feature, problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPUQ), Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)Statistical analysis of the observed data
Jia R et al., 2016 [65]CHSAnonymous surveyMeasurement scales to assess PIU and parental attachment (both maternal and paternal)Ordinary least squares regression
Liu M et al. 2016 [67]MAPRISMA guidelineElectronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science and EBSCO systematically reviewGeneralised least squares trend estimation
MuscleLee JH et al., 2014 [81]CCSurveyQuestionnairesSANeck pain,
shoulder pain,
wrist and finger pain,
vehicle crashes,
traffic accident
Kang JH et al., 2012 [83]CCSurveyComputer softwareSA
Collet C et al.,2010 [87]DSSurveyQuestionnairesSA
DistractionCollet C et al.,2010 [87]DSSurveyQuestionnairesSAVehicle crashes, traffic accidents
Stelling-Konczak A et al., 2017 [90]DSSurveyQuestionnaireSA
Byington KW et al., 2013 [91]CSSurveyVirtual pedestrian street QuestionnaireSA
Bingham CR et al., 2015 [93]DSSurveyNational sample of 403 parent-teen dyads using random-digit dialing telephone interviews.Bingham CR et al., 2015 [93]
CyberbullyingTokunaga RS, 2010 [94]RWSurveyQuestionnairesSASocial discomfort,
Smith PK et al., 2008 [95]DSSurveyQuestionnairesSA
HikikomoriStip E et al., 2016 [105]DSRWMedline up to 12th May, 2015 supplemented by a hand search of the bibliographies of all retrieved articles.SAAbsence of human-human interaction and communication
Lee YS et al., 2013 [106]CCInterviewParticipants’ Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale, and Internet Addiction Scale scores.SA
Li TM et al., 2015 [107]DSRWProQuest, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed, quantitative and qualitative studies of socially withdrawn youths published in English and academic peer-reviewed journals.NA
Positive aspectsFerrara P et al., 2014 [109]DSCustomized internet-basedNewspaper indexes, news websites and internet search engines such as Google were used.DSImprovement of self-control,
improvement of communication among depressed children,
improvement of communication among insecure adolescents,
improvement of capacity to express opinions
Petry NM et al., 2014 [110]RWExperts’ estimationsCross-cultural experts’ collaborationNA
Ferrara P et al., 2018 [111]DSRWNANA
Baer S et al., 2011 [112]CSSurveyComputer/Gaming-station Addiction ScaleSA
  1. Legend as follow: NA, not available feature; CC, case control; DS, descriptive study; CHS, cohort study; RP, report; RW, review; MA, metanalysis; SA, statistical analysis