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Table 1 Standardized concentrations for STs and DPTs. IU: International Units; IM: intramuscular; PO: orally administered; IV: intravenous; SPT skin prick test; ID intradermal test; PT patch test; DPT drug provocation test

From: Epidemiology and drug allergy results in children investigated in allergy unit of a tertiary-care paediatric hospital setting

DrugsSkin reactionSPTIDPTDPT
 IRnon-IR
BETALACTAMSUrticaria 42.2%
Erythematous Rash 18.7%
Maculopapular rash 8.6%
Measles like rash 8.6%
Not defined rash 7.8%
Urticaria+ Angioedema 3.9%
Angioedema 3.9%
Micropapular rash 3.9%
Itching 1.6%
Exfoliative Dermatitis 0.8%
Urticaria 36.2%
Erythematous rash 20.4%
Maculopapular rash 14.4%
Micropapular rash 8.1%
Not defined rash 6.8%
Angioedema 6.3%
Urticaria+ Angioedema 5%
Itching 1%
Exfoliative Dermatitis 0.9%
Measles like rash 0.9%
10.000 IU10.000 IU5%IM 600.000 IU < 27 kg
IM 1.200.000 IU > 27 kg
Benzylpenicillin
Amoxicillin20 mg/mL20 mg/ml5%PO: 25 mg/kg/dose
Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid20 mg/mL20 mg/ml5%PO: 25 mg/kg/dose
Cephalosporins2 mg/mL2 mg/ml5%Ceftriaxone IV: 80 mg/kg/dose
Cefpodoxime PO: 4 mg/kg/dose
MACROLIDESUrticaria 35%
Erythematous rash 30%
Angioedema 10%
Not defined rash 10%
Urticaria+ Angioedema 5%
Micropapular rash 5%
Urticaria 47%
Erythematous rash 23%
Micropapular rash 15%
Maculopapular rash 6%
Angioedema 3%
Urticaria+ Angioedema 3%
Itching 3%
50 mg/mL0.5–0.05 mg/mL PO: 7.5 mg/kg/dose
Clarithromycin
Azithromycin100 mg/mL0.1–0.01 mg/mL PO: 10 mg/kg/dose
Trimethoprim-Sulphametoxazole  80 mg/mL0.8 mg/mL5%PO: 3 mg/kg/dose
Ciprofloxacin  up to 2 mg/mLup to 0.006 mg/mL10–25%IV: 6 mg/kg/dose
Local anestheticsAngioedema 65%
Itching 15%
Urticaria 10%
Urticaria+ Angioedema 5%
Localized Erythematous Rash 5%
Angioedema 53.8%
Erythematous Rash 23.1%
Maculopapular rash 7.7%
Fixed Drug Eruption 7.7%
Erythematous Rash+ Angioedema 7.7%
Undiluted1/10 diluted1) 0.1 mL undiluted
2) 1 mL undiluted
3) 2 mL undiluted
NSAIDsAngioedema 32.9%
Erythematous Rash 18.2%
Urticaria 17.1%
Itching 14.6%
Urticaria+ Angioedema 13.4%
Not defined rash 2.7%
Maculopapular rash 1.1%
Angioedema 45.5%
Urticaria 17.4%
Urticaria+ Angioedema 14.5%
Micropapular rash 5.4%
Erythematous rash 5.4%
Vesicular rash 5.4%
Not defined rash 2.7%
Petechiae 2.7%
Paracetamol PO:15 mg/kg/dose
Ibuprofen PO: 10 mg/kg/dose
ASA PO: 15–20 mg/kg/dose
Etoricoxib PO: 60 mg/dose