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Table 1 survey questions and frequency of selected answers

From: Furosemide use in Italian neonatal intensive care units: a national survey

QuestionsAnswersAll centersCenters prescribing higher dosesp-value*
   N = 57%N = 28% 
1Do you administer furosemide to newborns regardless of their gestation age?Yes5596.52692.9n.s.
No23.527.1
2Which route do you use to administer furosemide? Multiple choices allowedIntravenous57100.028100.0n.s.
Oral4375.42278.6
Nebulized47.027.1
Intramuscular35.313.6
3For which clinical indications do you use furosemide?
Multiple choices allowed
Cardiac overload5494.728100.0n.s.
Oligo/anuria5087.72692.9
BPD2950.91450.0
RDS/TTN1424.6828.6
Other23.513.6
4Which intravenous administration do you use?
Multiple choices allowed
Single doses, eventually repeated4986.02382.1n.s.
Continuous infusion2442.11242.9
Single doses plus continuous infusion1831.6828.6
5At which maximum dose do you administer furosemide intravenously (single dose)?1–2 mg/kg3561.4621.4n.a.
> 2–4 mg/kg1729.81760.7
> 4–10 mg/kg47.0414.3
>  10 mg/kg11.813.6
6In full term newborns, how often do you administer furosemide intravenously?Every 12 h or more2442.1828.6n.s.
Accordingly to diuresis2136.81242.9
Every 8 to 12 h610.5517.9
Every less than 8 h58.8310.7
7When repeated intravenous doses are needed, which is the minimum time interval between single doses?At least 6 h2950.81242.9n.s.
At least 4 h1729.8828.6
At least 1 h915.7828.6
Not applicable23.513.6
8In full term newborns, which dose do you use for intravenous continuous infusion? Multiple choices allowed0.1–0.2 mg/kg/h3154.41035.7n.a.
0.2–0.4 mg/kg/h1119.3932.1
0.4–1 mg/kg/h610.5517.9
1 mg/kg/h23.527.1
Non applicabile1526.3725.0
9In preterm newborns less then 32 weeks gestational age, do you use different posology? Multiple choices allowedNo3357.91242.90.045**
Yes, smaller doses1526.31139.3 
Yes, longer intervals1119.3621.4 
Yes, we greater doses23.513.6 
Yes, shorter intervals00.000.0 
10In general, do you use different posology for different clinical indication?Yes3968.42175.0n.s.
No1831.6725.0
11For which clinical indications do you use maximum doses higher than 1–2 mg/kg or 0.1–0.2 mg/kg/hour? Multiple choices allowedCardiac overload20352071.4n.a.
Oligo/anuria1119.31139.2
RDS/TTN11.813,5
Not applicable2950.900.0
Other23.527.1
12Which protocol/guideline/prescribing indication do you refer to for the appropriate dosage and administration in different scenarios? Multiple choices allowedManuals of neonatology or neonatal pharmacotherapy4884.22485.70.006
Articles from the literature1119.3932.1
Center protocols915.8621.4
No specific guideline/indication712.300.0
13Have you ever had to discontinue the treatment because of drug related adverse events?
If yes, which adverse events did occur?
No4375.42278.6n.s.
Yes1424.6621.4
Metabolic alcalosis58.827.1 
Dyselectrolytemia58.827.1 
Nephrocalcinosis58.8310.7 
Hypotension47.013.6 
14In case of prolonged treatment (>  2 weeks), how do you monitor for side effects?Renal ultrasound47310.7n.a.
Acoustic test47310.7
Both2747.41864.3
No follow up4700
Not applicable
(length of treatment < 2 weeks)
1831.6414.3
  1. * Chi-square test comparing NICUs with high dose of furosemide versus standard dose; ** No versus Yes (different posology used in preterm)
  2. n.s. not significant; n.a. not applicable