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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population, study outcomes and type of procedure

From: Intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal ketamine association allows shorter induction time for pediatric sedation compared to intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam

  KetoDex group DexMid group  
n = 40 n = 40 p
Characteristics of the study population
 Gender male, n (%) 24 (60.0%) 18 (45.0%) 0.18
 Weight (Kg), median (IQR) 12.5 (11.0–17.0) 14.9 (11.5–18.0) 0.29
 Age (months), median (IQR) 29.5 (20.0–49.5) 45.5 (31.5–56.5) 0.05
 0–1 years (%) 2 (5%) 7 (17.5%)  
 1–2 years (%) 12 (30%) 1 (2.5%)  
 2–3 years (%) 12 (30%) 4 (10%)  
 3–4 years (%) 4 (10%) 12 (30%)  
 4–5 years (%) 5 (12.5%) 7 (17.5%)  
 5–6 years (%) 1 (2.5%) 4 (10%)  
 6–7 years (%) 1 (2.5%) 3 (7.5%)  
 7–8 years (%) 1 (2.5%) 0  
 9–10 years (%) 1 (2.5%) 0  
 10–11 years (%) 1 (2.5%) 0  
 11–12 years (%) 0 1 (2.5%)  
 14–15 years (%) 0 1 (2.5%)  
Comorbidities 5 (2 tonsillar hyprtrophy grade III, 1 NF1, 1 macrocephaly, 1 prematurity with bronchial dysplasia)   
Study outcomes
 Procedures’ success rate (%) 31 (78.5%) 33 (82.5%) OR 0,73 (0.24–2.2)
 Induction time (minutes), median (IQR) 13.5 (10.0–20.0) 35.0 (21.3–44.5) < 0.001
 Recovery time (minutes), median (IQR) 72.5 (60.3–103.0) 71.5 (53.0–90.8) 0.32
 Need for rescue sedative, n (%) 9 (22.5%) 7 (17.5%) 0.58
 Adverse events, n (%) 2 (5.0%) 4 (10.0%) 0.68
 Type of Adverse events (%)a Vomiting (50%), self resolving desaturation (50%) Self resolving desaturations (100%)  
Type of procedure
 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 28 (70%) 40 (100%) NA
 Renal Scintigraphy 4 (10%) 0 (0%) NA
 Computer Tomography 3 (7,5%) 0 (0%) NA
 Electroencephalography 1 (2,5%) 0 (0%) NA
 Echocardiography 2 (5%) 0 (0%) NA
 Auditory Brainstem Response 2 (5%) 0 (0%) NA
  1. NF1 neurofibromatosis type 1, NA not applicable
  2. aAccording to the Tracking and Reporting Outcomes Of Procedural Sedation