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Table 5 Determinants of HIV infection among children born to HIV positive mothers on PMTCT at referral hospitals in west Amhara, Ethiopia, 2021

From: Determinants of HIV infection among children born to HIV positive mothers on prevention of mother to child transmission program at referral hospitals in west Amhara, Ethiopia; case control study

Variables Child HIV Status COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Positive Negative
Place of delivery
 Home 40 36 9.3 (5.0, 14.0) 4.3 (2.0, 9.6) **
 Health Institution 26 218 1
Place of residence
 Rural 30 55 3.0 (1.7, 5.3)  
 Urban 36 199 1
ANC visit
 No 22 16 7.437 (2.4, 8.40)  
 Yes 44 238 1
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal Delivery 60 211 2.0 (1.8, 5.0)  
 Cesarean Delivery 6 43 1
Breast feeding practice in the first six weeks
 Mixed feeding 26 27 5.5 (2.9, 10.0) 10 (3.2, 17.9) ***
 EBF/ERF 40 227 1
Immunization status of the infant
 Non immunized 27 24 6.6 (3.5, 12.6)  
 Immunized 39 230 1
ARV prophylaxis for the infant at birth
 Not given 41 20 19.2 (6.8, 27.7)  
 Given 25 234 1
Infant’s nevirapine adherence
 Poor 40 14 26.4 (9.7, 34.8) 10 (3.2, 22.4) ***
 Good 26 240 1
Maternal ARV adherence
 Poor 37 15 20.3 (9.9, 23.1) 4.3 (1.4,13.4) **
 Good 29 239 1
Nutritional status of the mother
 Malnourished 22 3 41.8 (12, 145)  
 Not malnourished 44 251 1
Mother’s WHO clinical stage at enrollment
 WHO Stage > 1 45 29 16.6 (8.7, 21.7) 11.4 (4.1,19.1) ***
 WHO Stage 1 21 225 1
Mother’s CD4 count at enrollment
 CD4 </= 350 33 36 6.0 (3.3, 11.0)  
 CD4 > 350 33 218 1
Age of the infant at enrollment
 Enrolled < 6 weeks 32 12 18.9 (6.9, 29.4) 15.0 (3.0, 20.5) **
 Enrolled = < 6 weeks 34 242 1
Birth weight at delivery in grams
 Birth weight < 2500 26 23 6.5 (3.4, 12.5)  
 Birthweight > = 2500 40 231 1
  1. ** p-value < 0.01, *** p-value < 0.001, EBF exclusive breast feeding, AOR adjusted odds ratio, COR Crude odds ratio,