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Table 3 Univariate (Crude-OR) and multivariate (Adjusted-OR) analysis of factors associated with bullying phenomenon (average physical, verbal, indirect bullying or observer prevalence with the five-question method) in the study population (n = 867)

From: Prevalence and factors associated with bullying phenomenon among pre-adolescents attending first-grade secondary schools of Palermo, Italy, and a comparative systematic literature review

Factors associated with bullying phenomenon
  Crude-OR CI 95% p-value Adj-OR CI 95% p-value
Age (for each additional year) 0.98 0.68–1.41 0.18 0.96 0.76–1.21 0.73
Gender (male vs female) 1.12 0.65–1.89 0.36    
School year (Third Vs Second) 1.89 1.42–2.87  < 0.01 1.76 1.21–2.58  < 0.01
Nationality (Foreign vs Italian) 1.56 0.52–2.34 0.55    
School SEI (for decreasing socio-economic index) 1.24 1.12–1.69  < 0.05 1.21 1.06–1.53  < 0.05