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Table 4 General characteristics and prevalence of bullying observed in the studies selected during the SLR

From: Prevalence and factors associated with bullying phenomenon among pre-adolescents attending first-grade secondary schools of Palermo, Italy, and a comparative systematic literature review

Country Year Authors Title Detection mode Sample and age class Bullying Prevalence
Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden 2019 Amarsson et al. [21] Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction HBSC 2013/2014 (single item: “How often have you been bullied at school in the past couple of months?”) 32,210 students (11, 13 and 15 y.o.) Norwegian Males: 2.7–7.8%
Females: 3.1–5.2% Danish M: 2.7–8.0%
F: 2.7–7.3%
Finnish M: 6.4–12.6%
F: 6.5–8.2% Greenlander
M: 13.0–26.4%
F: 13.7–18.6%
Icelandic M: 1.4–6.9%
F: 0.3–5.3%
Swedish M: 2.1–3.5%
F: 2.1–5.7%
Iceland 2018 Garmy et al. [22] Bullying in School-aged Children in Iceland: A Cross-sectional Study HBSC 2013/2014 in Iceland 11,018 students (11, 13 and 15 years old) 5.6%
Australia 2017 Thomas et al. [23] Prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization and perpetration in a nationally representative sample of Australian youth Single item: “In the past 12 months, how often were you bullied or cyberbullied by another person or group of young people?” 2,967 (11–14 y.o.) 15.5%
China 2017 Han et al. [24] School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate Ten items on physical, verbal bullying and observers phenomena 1,020 middle school students Victims: 26.10%
Observers: 28.90% (aggregated data)
United Kingdom 2017 Muijs et al. [25] Can schools reduce bullying? The relationship between school characteristics and the prevalence of bullying behaviors For students: The Olweus Bully‐Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ). For teachers: 65 items-questionnaire based on Kyriakides (2014) scales Survey conducted in 35 primary schools (1,411 last year's students and their 68 teachers) Victims: 21%
Actors: 11%
United Kingdom 2017 Bevilacqua et al. [26] The role of family and school-level factors in bullying and cyberbullying: a cross sectional study Gatehouse Bullying Scale (12 items) 6,667 students from 40 middle schools Male: 9.99%
Female: 13.61%
USA (Maryland) 2017 Waarsdorp et al. [27] Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders 10 years survey; anonymous and 13 items questionnaire 246,306 students in 109 schools of Maryland 28.5% in 2005
13.4% in 2014
Vietnam 2017 Le et al. [28] Temporal patterns and predictors of bullying roles among adolescents in Vietnam: a school-based cohort study Two anonymous questionnaires; single item: “How often have you been bullied in any way during the last six months?” 1,424 middle and high school students 48.3%: not involved at all; 22.7% victims only; 6.9% bullies only;
22% bully-victims After six months:
62.1% not involved; 17.6% victims only; 4.7% bullies only; 15.5% bully-victims
Spain 2016 Sanchez-Quelia et al. [29] Trend analysis of bullying victimization prevalence in Spanish adolescent youth at school Based on HBSC 2014 in Spain 15,728 (11–12 y.o.) 5.5% (reported)
23.6% (observed)
U.S.A 2015 Huang et al. [30] The impact of definition and question order on the prevalence of bullying victimization using student self-reports Anonymous, online, 100 items-survey 17,301 students attending 119 high schools Bullying (overall): 9.84% Vs 13.53% cases Vs controls
Italy 2014 National survey [31] Health Behaviour in School-aged Children A single item within a broader nationwide questionnaire, mainly focused on habits and lifestyles 4,072 (11–15 y.o.) 14%
Macedonia 2007 WHO-Unicef-CDC [32] Global school-based student health survey (GSHS) Single item: “During the past 30 days, on how many days were you bullied?” 2,114 students (13–15 y.o.) in 30 schools 10.1%
Tajikistan 2006 WHO-Unicef-CDC [33] Global school-based student health survey (GSHS) Single item: “During the past 30 days, on how many days were you bullied?” 9,714 students (13–15 y.o.) in 99 schools 7.4%