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  1. Neuromuscular diseases include a large group of heterogeneous and rare pathologies that affect different components of the motor unit. It is essential to optimize resources to know the prevalence of comorbidit...

    Authors: J. A. Gascón-Navarro, M. J. De La Torre-Aguilar, J. A. Fernández-Ramos, J. Torres-Borrego and J. L. Pérez-Navero
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:228
  2. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a typical disorder of preterm newborns, with a high mortality and morbidity rate. The therapeutic and nutritional management of disease depends on several factors. Its progno...

    Authors: Giovanni Savarino, Maurizio Carta, Marcello Cimador, Antonio Corsello, Mario Giuffrè, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Gregorio Serra and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:226
  3. In Italy only recently, for the 2020–21 season, has the flu vaccination been extended to all children.

    Authors: Chiara Gasparini, Miriam Acunzo, Andrea Biuso, Stefania Roncaglia, Francesca Migliavacca, Catia R. Borriello, Caterina Bertolini, Michaela R. Allen, Annalisa Orenti, Patrizia Boracchi and Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:225
  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is frequently diagnosed in children and adolescents. In pediatric OCD, family plays an important role in the development and maintenance ...

    Authors: Francesco Demaria, Maria Pontillo, Maria Cristina Tata, Prisca Gargiullo, Francesco Mancini and Stefano Vicari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:224
  5. Describe the efficacy of a galenic glycopyrrolate formulation and its impact on patients with sialorrhea Quality of Life (QoL), including costs analysis.

    Authors: Davide Zanon, Cristina Tumminelli, Anna Maria Chiara Galimberti, Lucio Torelli, Alessandra Maestro, Egidio Barbi and Natalia Maximova
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:222
  6. With the gradual resumption of sports activities after the lock-down period for coronavirus pandemic, a new problem is emerging: Allow all athletes to be able to return to compete after SARS-CoV-2 infection in...

    Authors: Giulia Cafiero, Flaminia Passi, Francesca Ippolita Calo’ Carducci, Federica Gentili, Ugo Giordano, Chiara Perri, Melania Hashem Said and Attililo Turchetta
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:221
  7. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all components of the respiratory system, including the neuromuscular breathing apparatus, conducting and respiratory airways, pulmonary vascular endothelium, and pu...

    Authors: Maria Di Cicco, Maria Giulia Tozzi, Vincenzo Ragazzo, Diego Peroni and Ahmad Kantar
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:220
  8. Most preterm infants require a continuous glucose infusion in the early postnatal period due to the interruption of the transplacental glucose supply after birth to promote better neurodevelopmental outcomes.

    Authors: Dina Angelika, Risa Etika, Martono Tri Utomo, Setya Mirha, Kartika Darma Handayani and I. Dewa Gede Ugrasena
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:219
  9. COVID-19 pandemic has stretched healthcare system capacities worldwide and deterred people from seeking medical support at Emergency Departments (ED). Nevertheless, population-based studies examining the conse...

    Authors: Claudio Barbiellini Amidei, Alessandra Buja, Andrea Bardin, Filippo Bonaldi, Matteo Paganini, Mariagiovanna Manfredi, Andrea Favaro, Vincenzo Baldo, Mario Saia and Liviana Da Dalt
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:218
  10. We investigated the volume and the characteristics of pediatric eye emergency department (PEED) consultations performed at our tertiary eye center during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic and we compar...

    Authors: Elia Franzolin, Rosa Longo, Elena Gusson, Benjamim Ficial and Giorgio Marchini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:217
  11. Authors: Melissa Borrelli, Iris Scala, Paola Festa, Dario Bruzzese, Ambrosina Michelotti, Elena Cantone, Adele Corcione, Martina Fragnito, Vincenzo Miranda and Francesca Santamaria
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:216

    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:170

  12. The health and growth of children less than two years of age can be affected by the poor quality of complementary foods and poor feeding practices even with optimal breastfeeding. In Ethiopia, empirical eviden...

    Authors: Haimanot Abebe, Molla Gashu, Aynalem Kebede, Habtemariam Abata, Alex Yeshaneh, Haile Workye and Daniel Adane
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:215
  13. Low birth weight (LBW) contributes significantly to infant and child mortality. Each year, about 20 1million deliveries are LBW with 96.5% occurring in developing countries. Whiles the incidence of LBW is redu...

    Authors: David Kabba Kargbo, Kofi Nyarko, Samuel Sackey, Adolphina Addo-Lartey, Ernest Kenu and Francis Anto
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:212
  14. Recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) are a common clinical condition in children, in fact about 25% of children under 1 year and 6% of children during the first 6 years of life have RRIs. In most cases, inf...

    Authors: Elena Chiappini, Francesca Santamaria, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Paola Marchisio, Luisa Galli, Renato Cutrera, Maurizio de Martino, Sara Antonini, Paolo Becherucci, Paolo Biasci, Barbara Bortone, Sergio Bottero, Valeria Caldarelli, Fabio Cardinale, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Martina Ciarcià…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:211
  15. Recently, we observed some cases of Precocious Puberty (PP) with a partial central activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that tended to normalized in 6–12 months. To evaluate the frequency of...

    Authors: Valentina Assirelli, Federico Baronio, Rita Ortolano, Giulio Maltoni, Stefano Zucchini, Valeria Di Natale and Alessandra Cassio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:210
  16. The social consequences of COVID-19 pandemic are universally known. In particular, the pediatric population is dealing with a radical lifestyle change. For some risk categories, such as overweight or obese chi...

    Authors: M. Valenzise, F. D’Amico, U. Cucinotta, C. Lugarà, G. Zirilli, A. Zema, M. Wasniewska and G. B. Pajno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:209
  17. Heterozygous variants in CNTNAP2 have been implicated in a wide range of neurological phenotypes, including intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and impaired language. However...

    Authors: Marcello Scala, Midas Anijs, Roberta Battini, Francesca Madia, Valeria Capra, Paolo Scudieri, Alberto Verrotti, Federico Zara, Carlo Minetti, Sonja C. Vernes and Pasquale Striano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:208
  18. Idiopathic hemoperitoneum in the newborn is an entity very rarely encountered in clinical practice.

    Authors: Alessia Salatto, Flavia Indrio, Vittoria Campanella, Cosetta Maggipinto, Raffaella Cocomazzi, Francesco Canale, Maria Nobili, Gianfranco Maffei and Fabio Bartoli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:207

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:16

  19. The breastfeeding technique is explained positioning, attachment, and suckling during breastfeeding. Ineffective breast feeding technique is one of the factors leading to premature discontinuation of breastfee...

    Authors: Boko Loka Safayi, Nega Tezera Assimamaw and Destaye Guadie Kassie
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:206
  20. Malnutrition is very common in HIV-infected individuals. Even though data from different settings are necessary to tackle it, pieces of evidence are limited especially in the case of the nutritional status of ...

    Authors: Chalie Marew Tiruneh, Belete Gelaw Walle, Tigabu Desie Emiru, Nigusie Selomon Tibebu, Moges Wubneh Abate, Adane Birhanu Nigat, Amsalu Belete, Eyasu Alem, Tadele Lankrew and Kirubel Eshetu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:205
  21. The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent national lockdowns, school closures and distance learning may have had both negative and positive effects on physical and mental health of children.

    Authors: Marina Picca, Paola Manzoni, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Susanna Mantovani, Claudio Cravidi, Danila Mariani, Angela Mezzopane, Roberto Marinello, Chiara Bove, Paolo Ferri, Marina Macchi and Carlo Agostoni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:203
  22. Neonatal hypoglycemia is a common disorder especially in at-risk infants and it can be associated with poor long-term neurological outcomes. Several therapeutic interventions are suggested, from the implementa...

    Authors: Fabio Meneghin, Martina Manzalini, Miriam Acunzo, Irene Daniele, Petrina Bastrenta, Francesca Castoldi, Francesco Cavigioli, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti and Gianluca Lista
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:201
  23. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading global cause of respiratory infections in infants and the second most frequent cause of death during the first year of life. This highly contagious seasonal vir...

    Authors: Chiara Azzari, Eugenio Baraldi, Paolo Bonanni, Elena Bozzola, Alessandra Coscia, Marcello Lanari, Paolo Manzoni, Teresa Mazzone, Fabrizio Sandri, Giovanni Checcucci Lisi, Salvatore Parisi, Giorgio Piacentini and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:198
  24. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in neonates is a rare and heterogeneous disorder. HCM accounts for 25 to 40% of all pediatric cardiomyopathy cases and the highest incidence in pediatric population is reporte...

    Authors: Alessia Claudia Codazzi, Rosario Ippolito, Cecilia Novara, Enrico Tondina, Rosa Maria Cerbo and Chryssoula Tzialla
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:197
  25. Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome, also known as Hay-Wells syndrome, is a rare genetic syndrome with ectodermal dysplasia. About 100 patients have been reported to date. It is ...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Vincenzo Antona, Mario Giuffré, Federica Li Pomi, Lucia Lo Scalzo, Ettore Piro, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:196
  26. Solar urticaria represents an uncomfortable form of chronic inducible urticaria. First and second-line treatments are ineffective in some patients, leading to an impairment in their quality of life. Omalizumab...

    Authors: Mauro Iannelli, Stefano Passanisi, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Stefania Arasi, Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppina Zirilli and Giovanni B. Pajno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:195
  27. Cases of foreign body aspiration in children may be encountered in emergency departments. A suggestive history is important in diagnosing aspirated foreign body owing to the difficulty in making a diagnosis on...

    Authors: Nader A. Fasseeh, Osama A. Elagamy, Alaa H. Gaafar, Heba M. Reyad, Mohamed S. Abougabal, Doaa A. Heiba and Ahmad Kantar
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:194
  28. The locations where children get exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contribution in spreading the infection are still not fully understood. Aim of the article is to verify the most frequent reasons for ...

    Authors: Mauro Calvani, Giulia Cantiello, Maria Cavani, Eleonora Lacorte, Bruno Mariani, Valentina Panetta, Pasquale Parisi, Gabriella Parisi, Federica Roccabella, Paola Silvestri and Nicola Vanacore
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:193
  29. Vaccine hesitancy is a global problem, carrying significant health risks for extremely vulnerable population as that of preterm infants. Social media are emerging as significant tools for public health promoti...

    Authors: Antonio Di Mauro, Federica Di Mauro, Chiara Greco, Orazio Valerio Giannico, Francesca Maria Grosso, Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Manuela Capozza, Federico Schettini, Pasquale Stefanizzi and Nicola Laforgia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:190
  30. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare condition that may occur alone or as part of a multi-formative syndrome. Management remains difficult. There is no specific treatment protocol. Tra...

    Authors: Emanuela Sitzia, Sara Santarsiero, Filippo Maria Tucci, Giovanni De Vincentiis, Angela Galeotti and Paola Festa
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:189
  31. 15q26 deletion is a relatively rare chromosomal disorder, and it is described only in few cases. Patients with this aberration show many signs and symptoms, particularly pre- and postnatal growth restriction, ...

    Authors: Yahya Benbouchta, Nicole De Leeuw, Saadia Amasdl, Aziza Sbiti, Dominique Smeets, Khalid Sadki and Abdelaziz Sefiani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:188
  32. Although it is known that unbound bilirubin can enter the brain, there is little evidence of its association with the development of acute bilirubin encephalopathy. Here, we investigated this potential relatio...

    Authors: Yiyi Ding, Shuo Wang, Rui Guo, Aizhen Zhang and Yufang Zhu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:187

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:22

  33. Neonatal mortality is a major global public health problem. Ethiopia is among seven countries that comprise 50 % of global neonatal mortality. Evidence on neonatal mortality in referred neonates is essential f...

    Authors: Alex Yeshaneh, Bizuayehu Tadele, Bogale Dessalew, Mulunesh Alemayehu, Awraris Wolde, Addisu Adane, Solomon Shitu, Haimanot Abebe and Daniel Adane
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:186
  34. Authors: Erica Rosina, Berardo Rinaldi, Rosamaria Silipigni, Luca Bergamaschi, Giovanna Gattuso, Stefano Signoroni, Silvana Guerneri, Alessandra Carnevali, Paola Giovanna Marchisio and Donatella Milani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:185

    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:31

  35. Malnutrition is a multifactorial pathology in which genetic, epigenetic, cultural, environmental, socio-economic factors interact with each other. The impact that this disease has on the health of children wor...

    Authors: Federica Maria Tripoli, Salvatore Accomando, Simona La Placa, Andrea Pietravalle, Giovanni Putoto, Giovanni Corsello and Mario Giuffrè
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:184
  36. Physicians play a key role in driving vaccine acceptance and their recommendations are crucial to address vaccine hesitancy. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, awareness and attitude of Italian Pedi...

    Authors: Elisabetta Del Duca, Loredana Chini, Simona Graziani, Mayla Sgrulletti and Viviana Moschese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:183
  37. To determine the prevalence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in neonatal congenital heart disease patients undergoing delayed sternal closure (DSC) and evaluate risk factors for SSI.

    Authors: Yuzhong Yang, Jie Wang, Lina Cai, Wei Peng and Xuming Mo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:182
  38. The Neurological involvement is the most common extra-renal complication of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or typical HUS. On brain magnetic resonance examination, main neurological...

    Authors: Luisa Santangelo, Giuseppe Stefano Netti, Diletta Domenica Torres, Giovanni Piscopo, Vincenza Carbone, Luciana Losito, Leonardo Milella, Maria Luigia Lasorella, Pasquale Conti, Delio Gagliardi, Maria Chironna, Federica Spadaccino, Elena Bresin, Antonio Trabacca, Elena Ranieri and Mario Giordano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:181
  39. In healthy adolescents, delayed pubarche is generally a benign condition that is caused by a physiological discrepancy between gonadarche and adrenarche. In presence of other clinical signs and symptoms, delay...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:180
  40. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) is an insidious infection of the bone that more frequently affects young males. The etiology, mainly bacterial, is often related to the patient’s age, but it is frequent...

    Authors: Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Elena Chiappini, Elisabetta Venturini, Livia Gargiullo, Marco Roversi, Carlotta Montagnani, Elena Bozzola, Sara Chiurchiu, Davide Vecchio, Elio Castagnola, Paolo Tomà, Gian Maria Rossolini, Renato Maria Toniolo, Susanna Esposito, Marco Cirillo, Fabio Cardinale…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:179
  41. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocia...

    Authors: C. Carducci, N. Rapini, A. Deodati, V. Pampanini, S. Cianfarani and R. Schiaffini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:176

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