AIDS: JUNPoHa. Global HIV & AIDS statistics−2019 fact sheet. 2019.
Kharsany ABM, Karim QA. HIV infection and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current status, challenges and opportunities. Open AIDS J. 2016;10:34.
Ephi. HIV related estimate and projection for Ethiopia Addis Ababa, EPHI editor. 2017. Available from: https://www.ephi.gov.et/images/pictures/download2009/HIV_estimation_and_projection_for_Ethiopia_2017
Organization. WH. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. In: Recommendations for a public health approach: World Health Organization; 2016.
EMOH. National comprehensive HIV prevention, care and treatment training for health care providers participant manual january. 2018.
JUNPo H HAAJ. 90–90-90: an ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2014.
Organization; WH. Global health sector strategy on HIV, 2016-2021. 2016.
Yihun BA, Kibret GD, Leshargie CT. Incidence and predictors of treatment failure among children on first-line antiretroviral therapy in Amhara Region Referral Hospitals, northwest Ethiopia 2018: A retrospective study. PLoS One. 2019;14(5).
Haile GS, Berha AB. Predictors of treatment failure, time to switch and reasons for switching to second line antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy at a tertiary Care Hospital in Ethiopia. BMC Pediatr. 2019;19(1):37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1402-1.
Organization: WH. WHO Child Growth Standards. 2006. Available at http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/Technical_report.pdf.
Owusu M, Mensah E, Enimil A, Mutocheluh M. Prevalence and risk factors of virological failure among children on antiretroviral therapy. BMJ Glob Health. 2017;2(Suppl 2):A9-A.
Davies M-A, Moultrie H, Eley B, Rabie H, Van Cutsem G, Giddy J, et al. Virologic failure and second-line antiretroviral therapy in children in South Africa-The IeDEA Southern Africa Collaboration. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1999). 2011;56(3):270.
Tweya H, Feldacker C, Kiruthu-Kamamia C, Billion L, Gumulira J, Nhlema A, Phiri S. Virologic failure and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV in Lilongwe, Malawi: an observational cohort study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020;114(1):31–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trz087.
Zoufaly A, Fillekes Q, Hammerl R, Nassimi N, Jochum J, Drexler JF, Awasom CN, Sunjoh F, Burchard GD, Burger DM, van Lunzen J, Feldt T. Prevalence and determinants of virological failure in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy in rural Cameroon: a cross-sectional study. Antivir Ther. 2013;18(5):681–90. https://doi.org/10.3851/IMP2562.
Mwau M, Syeunda CA, Adhiambo M, Bwana P, Kithinji L, Mwende J, et al. Scale-up of Kenya’s national HIV viral load program: findings and lessons learned. PLoS One. 2018;13(1).
Muri L, Gamell A, Ntamatungiro AJ, Glass TR, Luwanda LB, Battegay M, et al. Development of HIV drug resistance and therapeutic failure in children and adolescents in rural Tanzania: an emerging public health concern. AIDS (London, England). 2017;31(1):61.
Huibers MH, Moons P, Cornelissen M, Zorgdrager F, Maseko N, Gushu MB, et al. High prevalence of virological failure and HIV drug mutations in a first-line cohort of Malawian children. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018;73(12):3471–5. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky348.
Jobanputra K, Parker LA, Azih C, Okello V, Maphalala G, Kershberger B, Khogali M, Lujan J, Antierens A, Teck R, Ellman T, Kosgei R, Reid T. Factors associated with virological failure and suppression after enhanced adherence counselling, in children, adolescents and adults on antiretroviral therapy for HIV in Swaziland. PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0116144. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116144.
Leroy V, Malateste K, Rabie H, Lumbiganon P, Ayaya S, Dicko F, et al. Outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in children in Asia and Africa: a comparative analysis of the IeDEA pediatric multiregional collaboration. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1999). 2013;62(2):208.
Emmett SD, Cunningham CK, Mmbaga BT, Kinabo GD, Schimana W, Swai ME, et al. Predicting virologic failure among HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1999). 2010;54(4):368.
Makadzange A, Higgins-Biddle M, Chimukangara B, Birri R, Gordon M, Mahlanza T, et al. Clinical, virologic, immunologic outcomes and emerging HIV drug resistance patterns in children and adolescents in public ART care in Zimbabwe. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144057.
Prendergast AJ, Penazzato M, Cotton M, Musoke P, Mulenga V, Abrams EJ, et al. Treatment of young children with HIV infection: using evidence to inform policymakers. PLoS Med. 2012;9(7).
Negese D, Addis K, Awoke A, Birhanu Z, Muluye D, Yifru S, et al. HIV-positive status disclosure and associated factors among children in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Isrn Aids. 2012;2012.
Lencha B, Ameya G, Minda Z, Lamessa F, Darega J. Human immunodeficiency virus infection disclosure status to infected school aged children and associated factors in bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia: cross sectional study. BMC Pediatr. 2018;18(1):356. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1336-z.
Dow DE, Shayo AM, Cunningham CK, Reddy EA. Durability of antiretroviral therapy and predictors of virologic failure among perinatally HIV-infected children in Tanzania: a four-year follow-up. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):567. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-014-0567-3.
Kadima J, Patterson E, Mburu M, Blat C, Nyanduko M, Bukusi EA, Cohen C, Oyaro P, Abuogi L. Adoption of routine virologic testing and predictors of virologic failure among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in western Kenya. PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0200242. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200242.
Abrams EJ AM, Harripersaud K, Thirumurthy H, El-Sadr WM. Management of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities in children and adults: cost effectiveness considerations.
Maher D, Harries A, Getahun H. Tuberculosis and HIV interaction in sub-Saharan Africa: impact on patients and programmes; implications for policies. Tropical Med Int Health. 2005;10(8):734–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01456.x.
AIDSinfo. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric hiv infection. https://aidsinfo.Nih.Gov/guidelines on.11/7/2019.
Liégeois F, Vella C, Eymard-Duvernay S, Sica J, Makosso L, Mouinga-Ondémé A, Mongo AD, Boué V, Butel C, Peeters M, Gonzalez JP, Delaporte E, Rouet F. Virological failure rates and HIV-1 drug resistance patterns in patients on first-line antiretroviral treatment in semirural and rural Gabon. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15(2):17985. https://doi.org/10.7448/IAS.15.2.17985.
Oyugi JH, Byakika-Tusiime J, Ragland K, Laeyendecker O, Mugerwa R, Kityo C, Mugyenyi P, Quinn TC, Bangsberg DR. Treatment interruptions predict resistance in HIV-positive individuals purchasing fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda. Aids. 2007;21(8):965–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e32802e6bfa.
Okoye AA, Picker LJ. CD 4+ T-cell depletion in HIV infection: mechanisms of immunological failure. Immunol Rev. 2013;254(1):54–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/imr.12066.
Huibers MH, Kityo C, Boerma R, Kaudha E, Sigaloff KC, Balinda SN, et al. Long-term virological outcomes, failure and acquired resistance in a large cohort of Ugandan children. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74(10):3035–43. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz266.
Dworkin MS, Adams MR, Cohn DL, Davidson AJ, Buskin S, Horwitch C, Morse A, Sackoff J, Thompson M, Wotring L, McCombs SB, Jones JL. Factors that complicate the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39(4):464–70. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.qai.0000152400.36723.85.
Yee D, Valiquette C, Pelletier M, Parisien I, Rocher I, Menzies D. Incidence of serious side effects from first-line antituberculosis drugs among patients treated for active tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(11):1472–7. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200206-626OC.
Mgelea EM, Kisenge R, Aboud S. Detecting virological failure in HIVinfected Tanzanian children. S Afr Med J. 2014;104(10):696–9. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.7807.