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  1. Content type: Review

    Under nutrition is linked with poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) condition. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effect of WASH on nutritional status of children. This review was, therefore, c...

    Authors: Zemichael Gizaw and Alemayehu Worku

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:77

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  2. Content type: Commentary

    Violence against children includes all forms of violence against people under 18 years old whether perpetrated by parents or other caregivers, peers, partners, teacher or strangers. This is a public health, hu...

    Authors: Pietro Ferrara, Giulia Franceschini, Alberto Villani and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:76

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  3. Content type: Research

    During recent years, interest on Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) in pediatric age has increased, due to the impact on quality of life, psycho-physical attitude and other serious morbidities if undiagnosed and...

    Authors: L. Nosetti, M. G. Paglietti, L. Brunetti, L. Masini, S. La Grutta, G. Cilluffo, M. Zaffanello, E. Verrillo, M. Pavone, A. C. Niespolo, G. Broggi and R. Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:75

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  4. Content type: Case report

    The purpose of this report was to present the results of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy associated with parent management training (PMT) in a child with paediatric autoimmune neur...

    Authors: Cristiana A. Guido, Anna Maria Zicari, Marzia Duse and Alberto Spalice

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:74

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by remitting fevers, evanescent rash, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly/splenomegaly, and/or serositis.

    Authors: Alessandra Iacono, Monica Sprocati, Anna Lisa Giuliani, Francesco Di Virgilio, Caterina Borgna-Pignatti and Giuseppe Maggiore

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:73

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  6. Content type: Research

    Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare inherited multisystemic disorder with autosomal recessive or complex digenic triallelic inheritance. There is currently no treatment for BBS, but some morbidities can be m...

    Authors: Elena Manara, Stefano Paolacci, Fabiana D’Esposito, Andi Abeshi, Lucia Ziccardi, Benedetto Falsini, Leonardo Colombo, Giancarlo Iarossi, Alba Pilotta, Loredana Boccone, Giulia Guerri, Marica Monica, Balzarini Marta, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Luca Buzzonetti, Luca Rossetti…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:72

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  7. Content type: Correction

    The original article contains an unintended omission of a statement of competing interests. As such, the authors would like to declare the following complete statement of competing interests:

    Authors: Maria Alice Donati, Elisabetta Pasquini, Marco Spada, Giulia Polo and Alberto Burlina

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:71

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    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:126

  8. Content type: Research

    World Health Organization recommended timely initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of delivery. Less than half of newborn babies (43%) receive the benefits of immediate breastfeeding in the world. ...

    Authors: Yinager Workineh and Teklemariam Gultie

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:70

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  9. Content type: Research

    Fibreoptic Phototherapy (FPT) allows to lower total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels in healthy neonates maintained in rooming-in with their mothers. The 2004 Cochrane review showed that, differently from preterm ...

    Authors: R. Luciano, G. Mancini, F. Cota, A. Romano, V. Purcaro, F. Lerro, M. Corsello and G. Vento

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:68

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  10. Content type: Research

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the first cause of inherited hypophosphatemia and is caused by mutation in the PHEX gene, resulting in excessive expression of the phosphaturic factor FGF23. Symptoms ar...

    Authors: F. Emma, M. Cappa, F. Antoniazzi, M. L. Bianchi, I. Chiodini, C. Eller Vainicher, N. Di Iorgi, M. Maghnie, A. Cassio, A. Balsamo, F. Baronio, L. de Sanctis, D. Tessaris, G. I. Baroncelli, S. Mora, M. L. Brandi…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:67

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  11. Content type: Case report

    The choice of the sex of rearing in patients with ovotesticular differences of sex development (OT-DSD) is difficult. The final decision should be given by the patient himself or herself, but families’ opinion...

    Authors: Maria-Grazia Scarpa, Arianna Lesma, Massimo Di Grazia and Waifro Rigamonti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:66

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  12. Content type: Research

    Bullying is one of the most common expressions of violence in the peer context during school years. This study investigates the prevalence of bullying and the short-term effects on students’ bullying perceptio...

    Authors: Claudio Costantino, Alessandra Casuccio, Claudia Marotta, Stefania Enza Bono, Gianmarco Ventura, Walter Mazzucco, Francesco Vitale and Vincenzo Restivo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:65

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  13. Content type: Review

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe disease with a prevalence of < 1 case out of 10,000 in Europe, which occurs mainly in pediatric age and is characterized by a severe and often bilateral chronic in...

    Authors: A. M. Zicari, G. Capata, M. Nebbioso, G. De Castro, F. Midulla, L. Leonardi, L. Loffredo, A. Spalice, L. Perri and M. Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:64

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  14. Content type: Research

    Few data are available about temporal trends of antibiotic use in hospitalized children. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pattern and trends of antibiotic use over the years 2008–2016 in the...

    Authors: Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Carmen D’Amore, Jacopo Ceradini, Valerio Paolini, Gaetano Ciliento, Giuseppe Chessa and Massimiliano Raponi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:63

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  15. Content type: Research

    Epidemiological studies worldwide indicate that teenagers are at risk of internalizing and externalizing problems that persist into adulthood. In our country, there are few epidemiological studies on adolescen...

    Authors: Martina Smorti, Annarita Milone, José Gonzalez Gonzalez and Giovanni Vitali Rosati

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:62

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  16. Content type: Research

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Recent studies demonstrated that the incidence of severe or fatal M. pneumoniae was gradually in...

    Authors: Qing-ling Li, Yin-yin Wu, Hui-ming Sun, Wen-jing Gu, Xin-xing Zhang, Mei-juan Wang, Yong-dong Yan, Chuang-li Hao, Wei Ji and Zheng-rong Chen

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:61

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  17. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Filocamo et al. recently published a paper describing the presence of a pseudodeficiency allele, constituted by p.Ser141Ser and p.Arg737Gly polymorphisms at the NAGLU gene, which leads to a reduced level of the a...

    Authors: Diana Rojas Malaga, Sandra Leistner-Segal and Ana Carolina Brusius-Facchin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:60

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  18. Content type: Research

    Free radicals found in cigarette smoke can harm all tissues and cellular structures in the human body. Passive smoking increases free radical production, leads to the depletion of antioxidants and increases ox...

    Authors: Emel Torun, Feyza Ustabas Kahraman, Ahmet Zaid Goksu, Aysel Vahapoglu and Zeynep Ebru Cakin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:59

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  19. Content type: Case report

    Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon condition (0.2–0.55%). Various risk factors have been reported in addition to birth asphyxia, such as sepsis, coagulation disorders, traumatic delivery, and...

    Authors: M. S. Toti, P. Ghirri, A. Bartoli, C. Caputo, E. Laudani, F. Masoni, L. Mele and R. Bernardini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:58

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  20. Content type: Research

    Consumers’ conviction of the benefits of probiotics is influenced by their existing beliefs and by the information they receive from healthcare professionals. The attitude of healthcare professionals towards c...

    Authors: Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Fügen Çullu Çokuğraş, Mehmet Vural, Julije Mestrovic, Luigi Nigri, Ruggiero Piazzolla, Ida Giardino, Michele Conoscitore and Leyla Namazova-Baranova

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:57

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  21. Content type: Review

    The Lung Clearance Index (LCI) is an index derived from washout recordings, able to detect early peripheral airway damage in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) with a greater sensitivity than spirometry.

    Authors: Enrico Lombardi, Simone Gambazza, Ugo Pradal and Cesare Braggion

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:56

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  22. Content type: Research

    To report the clinical features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Their diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were also discussed.

    Authors: Ji Li, Jing-Jing Jiang, Chang-Yan Wang, Shan Jian, Yu Zhou, Ming-Sheng Ma, Xiao-Yan Tang, Lin Wang, Mei-Ying Quan, Yu Zhang, Juan Xiao, Yan-Yan He and Hong-Mei Song

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:55

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  23. Content type: Research

    Preterm birth and feeding are the most important pathogenic factors of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Metabonomic has been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of other diseases, but there is ...

    Authors: Fusheng Wang, Weizhong Li, Guanghuan Wang, Menglu Yu, Jun Zhong, Chenbin Xu, Danli Li and Yongcui Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:54

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Angioma serpiginosum is a rare vascular anomaly whose pathogenesis is still unknown. It is characterized by the onset of vascular reddish macules and papules during childhood, lesions are usually monolateral w...

    Authors: Andrea Diociaiuti, Mario Cutrone, Roberta Rotunno, Rita De Vito, Iria Neri, Elisa Pisaneschi and May El Hachem

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:53

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  25. Content type: Research

    Childhood obesity has been correlated with coronary heart disease, but the correlation with microvascular disease remains unclear. The retinal microcirculation is affected early in the process of atheroscleros...

    Authors: Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Antonino Romanzo, Sarah Bocchini, Giorgia Bottaro, Stefano Cianfarani and Marco Cappa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:52

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  26. Content type: Research

    Despite regionalization of perinatal care provides for the “in utero” transfer of high-risk pregnancies, there will always be a number of neonates who undergo acute inter-facility transport. The presence of a ...

    Authors: Maurizio Gente, Roberto Aufieri, Rocco Agostino, Tiziana Fedeli, Maria Grazia Calevo, Paolo Massirio and Carlo Bellini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:51

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  27. Content type: Research

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are some of the most common birth defects affecting newborns. CAKUTs often have poor birth outcomes owing to the limited experience of physicians i...

    Authors: Zhong-yi Li, Yan-min Chen, Li-qian Qiu, Dan-qing Chen, Chong-gao Hu, Jian-yun Xu and Xiao-hui Zhang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:50

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  28. Content type: Research

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation increasing during sleep and affected patients are unable to perceive and respond to hypercarbia with increased ve...

    Authors: Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Claudio Cherchi, Federica Porcaro, Emanuele Agolini, Alessandra Schiavino, Francesca Petreschi, Antonio Novelli and Renato Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:49

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  29. Content type: Research

    Low birth weight is defined as infant born with weight of less than 2500 g. It is one of the major public health problems worldwide. In Ethiopia, there are limited evidences on factors contributing to low birt...

    Authors: Melese Siyoum and Teshome Melese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:48

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  30. Content type: Research

    Despite improving access to Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) management, information on the quality of the service, as measured by timely recovery, is scare. This study is designed to assess treatment outcomes ...

    Authors: Anteneh Fikrie, Akalewold Alemayehu and Samson Gebremedhin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:46

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  31. Content type: Research

    Preterm birth is a health and social problem, considered the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. It is associated with higher rates of neurodevelopmental morbidity, sensorineural impairments and oth...

    Authors: Roberta Granese, Eloisa Gitto, Gabriella D’Angelo, Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanni Corsello, Donatella Amadore, Gloria Calagna, Ilaria Fazzolari, Roberta Grasso and Onofrio Triolo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:45

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  32. Content type: Research

    We aimed to survey Delivery Room and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) respiratory strategies dedicated to the extremely low gestational age newborn (ELGAN – GA < 28 wks) in Italy.

    Authors: Flavia Petrillo, Camilla Gizzi, Gianfranco Maffei, Piero G. Matassa, Maria Luisa Ventura, Cinzia Ricci, Roberta Pastorino and Giovanni Vento

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:44

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Hypophosphatemia has many causes, and is often encountered during DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) treatment. However, it rarely requires clinical intervention.

    Authors: Konrad Miszczuk, Joanna Mroczek-Wacinska, Robert Piekarski, Beata Wysocka- Lukasik, Renata Jawniak and Iwona Ben-Skowronek

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:42

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  34. Content type: Research

    Vitamin D plays an important role in inflammatory responses after antigen exposure. Interleukin-23 (Il-23) promotes Il-17-dependent inflammation during Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) pulmonary infection. ...

    Authors: M. Olszowiec-Chlebna, A. Koniarek-Maniecka, A. Brzozowska, A. Błauż, B. Rychlik and I. Stelmach

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:41

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  35. Content type: Debate

    The term “Lotus Birth” identifies the practice of not cutting the umbilical cord and of leaving the placenta attached to the newborn after its expulsion until it detaches spontaneously, which generally occurs ...

    Authors: Alessandro Bonsignore, Francesca Buffelli, Rosagemma Ciliberti, Francesco Ventura, Andrea Molinelli and Ezio Fulcheri

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:39

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  36. Content type: Research

    In order to give a new contribution to the knowledge of the psycho-physical, behavioral and socio-relational development of the individuals who were born at neurological risk, we have carried out a research wo...

    Authors: Enrico Gasparrini, Francesca Rosati and Maria Teresa Gaetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:38

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  37. Content type: Research

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord invoked by the insufficient intake of folic acid in the early stages of pregnancy and have a complex etiology involving both gen...

    Authors: Chun-Quan Cai, Yu-Lian Fang, Jian-Bo Shu, Lin-Sheng Zhao, Rui-Ping Zhang, Li-Rong Cao, Yi-Zheng Wang, Xiu-Fang Zhi, Hua-Lei Cui, Ou-Yan Shi and Wei Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:37

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  38. Content type: Research

    Migraine is one of the most prevalent chronic pain manifestations of childhood. Despite the multitude of available treatments, parents are often concerned about chronic therapies and pediatricians have insuffi...

    Authors: Filomena Moscano, Michela Guiducci, Lucia Maltoni, Pasquale Striano, Maria Giuseppina Ledda, Francesco Zoroddu, Umberto Raucci, Maria Pia Villa and Pasquale Parisi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:36

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  39. Content type: Case report

    The benefit of probiotics in newborn children in relation to allergy and general morbidity later in life appears to be controversial. Allergic diseases represent an increasingly important health problem worldw...

    Authors: Jiří Liška, Konrad Siala, Blanka Čuláková, Václav Holeček, Štěpánka Sobotová, Josef Sýkora and František Šefrna

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:35

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  40. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    To date, a large number of children are hospitalized inappropriately in adult intensive care units, where the minimum standards of care are not applied to young patients. It is well-known that the child is not...

    Authors: Nicola Pozzi, Gabriella D’Angelo and Eloisa Gitto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:33

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  41. Content type: Research

    The observed increase in body weight and cardiometabolic risk (CR) in youth from developed countries contributes to the global burden of chronic diseases in adult age. The aim of this work is to provide a patt...

    Authors: Antonino Bianco, Anna Rita Filippi, João Breda, Vincenza Leonardi, Antonio Paoli, Luca Petrigna, Antonio Palma and Garden Tabacchi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:32

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  42. Content type: Research

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is very common among youth worldwide. The burden of this illness is very high not only considering financial costs but also on emotional and social functioning. Gu...

    Authors: Antonietta Cappuccio, Filomena Bugliaro, Silvia Maria Elena Caimmi, Valeria Caldarelli, Lucia Caminiti, Enza D’Auria, Emanuela di Palmo, Marzia Duse, Alessandro Giovanni Fiocchi, Francesco Gesualdo, Ahmad Kantar, Enrico Lombardi, Anna Lucania, Margherita Marchiani, Maria Giulia Marini, Gianluigi Marseglia…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:31

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  43. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Globalization caused a shift in trial locations towards low-middle income countries, raising ethical concerns. These include the risk that conditions primarily affecting children in these countries will be neg...

    Authors: Federica Arienti, Claudia Pansieri, Chiara Pandolfini, Andrea Biondi and Maurizio Bonati

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:29

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