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  1. Free radicals found in cigarette smoke can harm all tissues and cellular structures in the human body. Passive smoking increases free radical production, leads to the depletion of antioxidants and increases ox...

    Authors: Emel Torun, Feyza Ustabas Kahraman, Ahmet Zaid Goksu, Aysel Vahapoglu and Zeynep Ebru Cakin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:59

    Content type: Research

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  2. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon condition (0.2–0.55%). Various risk factors have been reported in addition to birth asphyxia, such as sepsis, coagulation disorders, traumatic delivery, and...

    Authors: M. S. Toti, P. Ghirri, A. Bartoli, C. Caputo, E. Laudani, F. Masoni, L. Mele and R. Bernardini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:58

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Consumers’ conviction of the benefits of probiotics is influenced by their existing beliefs and by the information they receive from healthcare professionals. The attitude of healthcare professionals towards c...

    Authors: Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Fügen Çullu Çokuğraş, Mehmet Vural, Julije Mestrovic, Luigi Nigri, Ruggiero Piazzolla, Ida Giardino, Michele Conoscitore and Leyla Namazova-Baranova

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:57

    Content type: Research

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  4. The Lung Clearance Index (LCI) is an index derived from washout recordings, able to detect early peripheral airway damage in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) with a greater sensitivity than spirometry.

    Authors: Enrico Lombardi, Simone Gambazza, Ugo Pradal and Cesare Braggion

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:56

    Content type: Review

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  5. To report the clinical features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Their diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were also discussed.

    Authors: Ji Li, Jing-Jing Jiang, Chang-Yan Wang, Shan Jian, Yu Zhou, Ming-Sheng Ma, Xiao-Yan Tang, Lin Wang, Mei-Ying Quan, Yu Zhang, Juan Xiao, Yan-Yan He and Hong-Mei Song

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:55

    Content type: Research

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  6. Preterm birth and feeding are the most important pathogenic factors of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Metabonomic has been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of other diseases, but there is ...

    Authors: Fusheng Wang, Weizhong Li, Guanghuan Wang, Menglu Yu, Jun Zhong, Chenbin Xu, Danli Li and Yongcui Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:54

    Content type: Research

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  7. Angioma serpiginosum is a rare vascular anomaly whose pathogenesis is still unknown. It is characterized by the onset of vascular reddish macules and papules during childhood, lesions are usually monolateral w...

    Authors: Andrea Diociaiuti, Mario Cutrone, Roberta Rotunno, Rita De Vito, Iria Neri, Elisa Pisaneschi and May El Hachem

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:53

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Childhood obesity has been correlated with coronary heart disease, but the correlation with microvascular disease remains unclear. The retinal microcirculation is affected early in the process of atheroscleros...

    Authors: Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Antonino Romanzo, Sarah Bocchini, Giorgia Bottaro, Stefano Cianfarani and Marco Cappa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:52

    Content type: Research

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  9. Despite regionalization of perinatal care provides for the “in utero” transfer of high-risk pregnancies, there will always be a number of neonates who undergo acute inter-facility transport. The presence of a ...

    Authors: Maurizio Gente, Roberto Aufieri, Rocco Agostino, Tiziana Fedeli, Maria Grazia Calevo, Paolo Massirio and Carlo Bellini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:51

    Content type: Research

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  10. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are some of the most common birth defects affecting newborns. CAKUTs often have poor birth outcomes owing to the limited experience of physicians i...

    Authors: Zhong-yi Li, Yan-min Chen, Li-qian Qiu, Dan-qing Chen, Chong-gao Hu, Jian-yun Xu and Xiao-hui Zhang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:50

    Content type: Research

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  11. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation increasing during sleep and affected patients are unable to perceive and respond to hypercarbia with increased ve...

    Authors: Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Claudio Cherchi, Federica Porcaro, Emanuele Agolini, Alessandra Schiavino, Francesca Petreschi, Antonio Novelli and Renato Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:49

    Content type: Research

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  12. Low birth weight is defined as infant born with weight of less than 2500 g. It is one of the major public health problems worldwide. In Ethiopia, there are limited evidences on factors contributing to low birt...

    Authors: Melese Siyoum and Teshome Melese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:48

    Content type: Research

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  13. Despite improving access to Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) management, information on the quality of the service, as measured by timely recovery, is scare. This study is designed to assess treatment outcomes ...

    Authors: Anteneh Fikrie, Akalewold Alemayehu and Samson Gebremedhin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:46

    Content type: Research

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  14. Preterm birth is a health and social problem, considered the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. It is associated with higher rates of neurodevelopmental morbidity, sensorineural impairments and oth...

    Authors: Roberta Granese, Eloisa Gitto, Gabriella D’Angelo, Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanni Corsello, Donatella Amadore, Gloria Calagna, Ilaria Fazzolari, Roberta Grasso and Onofrio Triolo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:45

    Content type: Research

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  15. We aimed to survey Delivery Room and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) respiratory strategies dedicated to the extremely low gestational age newborn (ELGAN – GA < 28 wks) in Italy.

    Authors: Flavia Petrillo, Camilla Gizzi, Gianfranco Maffei, Piero G. Matassa, Maria Luisa Ventura, Cinzia Ricci, Roberta Pastorino and Giovanni Vento

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:44

    Content type: Research

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  16. Hypophosphatemia has many causes, and is often encountered during DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) treatment. However, it rarely requires clinical intervention.

    Authors: Konrad Miszczuk, Joanna Mroczek-Wacinska, Robert Piekarski, Beata Wysocka- Lukasik, Renata Jawniak and Iwona Ben-Skowronek

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:42

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Vitamin D plays an important role in inflammatory responses after antigen exposure. Interleukin-23 (Il-23) promotes Il-17-dependent inflammation during Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) pulmonary infection. ...

    Authors: M. Olszowiec-Chlebna, A. Koniarek-Maniecka, A. Brzozowska, A. Błauż, B. Rychlik and I. Stelmach

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:41

    Content type: Research

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  18. The term “Lotus Birth” identifies the practice of not cutting the umbilical cord and of leaving the placenta attached to the newborn after its expulsion until it detaches spontaneously, which generally occurs ...

    Authors: Alessandro Bonsignore, Francesca Buffelli, Rosagemma Ciliberti, Francesco Ventura, Andrea Molinelli and Ezio Fulcheri

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:39

    Content type: Debate

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  19. In order to give a new contribution to the knowledge of the psycho-physical, behavioral and socio-relational development of the individuals who were born at neurological risk, we have carried out a research wo...

    Authors: Enrico Gasparrini, Francesca Rosati and Maria Teresa Gaetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:38

    Content type: Research

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  20. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord invoked by the insufficient intake of folic acid in the early stages of pregnancy and have a complex etiology involving both gen...

    Authors: Chun-Quan Cai, Yu-Lian Fang, Jian-Bo Shu, Lin-Sheng Zhao, Rui-Ping Zhang, Li-Rong Cao, Yi-Zheng Wang, Xiu-Fang Zhi, Hua-Lei Cui, Ou-Yan Shi and Wei Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:37

    Content type: Research

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  21. Migraine is one of the most prevalent chronic pain manifestations of childhood. Despite the multitude of available treatments, parents are often concerned about chronic therapies and pediatricians have insuffi...

    Authors: Filomena Moscano, Michela Guiducci, Lucia Maltoni, Pasquale Striano, Maria Giuseppina Ledda, Francesco Zoroddu, Umberto Raucci, Maria Pia Villa and Pasquale Parisi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:36

    Content type: Research

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  22. The benefit of probiotics in newborn children in relation to allergy and general morbidity later in life appears to be controversial. Allergic diseases represent an increasingly important health problem worldw...

    Authors: Jiří Liška, Konrad Siala, Blanka Čuláková, Václav Holeček, Štěpánka Sobotová, Josef Sýkora and František Šefrna

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:35

    Content type: Case report

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  23. To date, a large number of children are hospitalized inappropriately in adult intensive care units, where the minimum standards of care are not applied to young patients. It is well-known that the child is not...

    Authors: Nicola Pozzi, Gabriella D’Angelo and Eloisa Gitto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:33

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  24. The observed increase in body weight and cardiometabolic risk (CR) in youth from developed countries contributes to the global burden of chronic diseases in adult age. The aim of this work is to provide a patt...

    Authors: Antonino Bianco, Anna Rita Filippi, João Breda, Vincenza Leonardi, Antonio Paoli, Luca Petrigna, Antonio Palma and Garden Tabacchi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:32

    Content type: Research

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  25. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is very common among youth worldwide. The burden of this illness is very high not only considering financial costs but also on emotional and social functioning. Gu...

    Authors: Antonietta Cappuccio, Filomena Bugliaro, Silvia Maria Elena Caimmi, Valeria Caldarelli, Lucia Caminiti, Enza D’Auria, Emanuela di Palmo, Marzia Duse, Alessandro Giovanni Fiocchi, Francesco Gesualdo, Ahmad Kantar, Enrico Lombardi, Anna Lucania, Margherita Marchiani, Maria Giulia Marini, Gianluigi Marseglia…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:31

    Content type: Research

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  26. Globalization caused a shift in trial locations towards low-middle income countries, raising ethical concerns. These include the risk that conditions primarily affecting children in these countries will be neg...

    Authors: Federica Arienti, Claudia Pansieri, Chiara Pandolfini, Andrea Biondi and Maurizio Bonati

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:29

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  27. paucity of interlobular bile ducts is an important observation at liver biopsy in the diagnostic work-up of neonatal cholestasis. To date, other than in the Alagille syndrome, syndromic paucity of interlobular...

    Authors: Michele Pinon, Michele Carboni, Davide Colavito, Fabio Cisarò, Licia Peruzzi, Antonio Pizzol, Giulia Calosso, Ezio David and Pier Luigi Calvo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:27

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Inherited ichthyoses are rare disorders characterized by generalized skin scaling. Among them, autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI) form a major subgroup presenting lifelong and severely disabling ...

    Authors: May El Hachem, Damiano Abeni, Andrea Diociaiuti, Roberta Rotunno, Francesco Gesualdo, Giovanna Zambruno and Christine Bodermer

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:26

    Content type: Research

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  29. Meningococcal meningitis (MM) is known to be responsible of high cost for the Public Health Administration. Aim of the work is to calculate the costs for the hospitalization of pediatric patients affected by MM.

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Stefano Guolo, Enea Bonci, Chiara Rossetti, Mauro Bozzola, Massimiliano Raponi and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:25

    Content type: Research

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  30. Pediatric head trauma management varies between emergency departments globally. Here we aim to compare the pediatric minor head trauma management between a US and Italian hospital.

    Authors: Brittany M. Stopa, Stefano Amoroso, Luca Ronfani, Elena Neri, Egidio Barbi and Lois K. Lee

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:24

    Content type: Research

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  31. Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) in children is an uncommon but severe condition which can be either inherited or acquired. It consists in clinical manifestation of defective production or ineffective actio...

    Authors: Stefano Pintaldi, Angela Lora, Katy Vecchiato, Andrea Taddio and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:23

    Content type: Case report

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  32. The original article [1] contained an error in author Mohammad Taghi Mansouri’s name.

    Authors: Ali Asghar Arastoo, Hesam Khojastehkia, Zahra Rahimi, Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Syed Ahmad Hosseini, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Shabnam Yosefyshad, Maryam Abshirini, Karimimalekabadi Noshin and Maria Cheraghi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:22

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:150

  33. The original article [1] contained an error whereby all authors’ names were mistakenly inverted.

    Authors: Vincenzo Zanardo, Alphonse Simbi, Matteo Parotto, Lorenzo Severino, Riccardo Carta, Pietro Guerrini and Gianluca Straface

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:21

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:111

  34. The association between macrolides use and subsequent occurrence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is still debatable. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis...

    Authors: Hamdi H. Almaramhy and Abdulmohsen H. Al-Zalabani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:20

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  35. Clinically, asthma in children under 5 years old is under estimated because lack of diagnostic criteria. The current study was, therefore, designed to identify the predicting factors for recurrent wheezing in ...

    Authors: Jia Zhai, Yingxue Zou, Jie Liu, Xingnan Jin, Cuian Ma, Jiao Li, Run Guo and Bing Huang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:19

    Content type: Research

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  36. The appropriate dose of vitamin D supplementation in children is still debated. We calculated that the recommended dose of 600–1000 IU vitamin D3/day is not sufficient to reach a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-...

    Authors: Stefano Mazzoleni, Giovanna Magni and Daniela Toderini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:18

    Content type: Research

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  37. Asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis are common chronic diseases in childhood. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a gene association analysis with current asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis in a cohort of Sic...

    Authors: Gianluca Sottile, Giuliana Ferrante, Marta Torregrossa, Fabio Cibella, Giovanna Cilluffo, Salvatore Fasola, Riccardo Alessandro, Gregorio Seidita, Giovanni Viegi and Stefania La Grutta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:16

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  38. Although Pre-lacteal feeding is a barrier for implementation of optimal breastfeeding practices and increases the risk of neonatal illness and mortality, still it is continued as a deep-rooted nutritional malp...

    Authors: Esayas Aydiko Amele, Birhanu wondimeneh Demissie, Kalkidan Wondwossen Desta and Emebet Berhane Woldemariam

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:15

    Content type: Research

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  39. Currently, severe allergic asthma and food allergy in children represent an important public health problem with medical, psychosocial and economic impacts. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibo...

    Authors: Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Caminiti, Fernanda Chiera, Stefania Arasi, Giuseppina Salzano, Ilenia Panasiti, Andrea Barbalace and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Malnutrition constitutes one of the major public health challenges throughout the developing world. Urban poverty and malnutrition have been on the rise, with an increased rate of morbidity. We herein explore ...

    Authors: Maria Vittoria De Vita, Carlo Scolfaro, Bruna Santini, Antonella Lezo, Federico Gobbi, Dora Buonfrate, Elizabeth W. Kimani-Murage, Teresiah Macharia, Milka Wanjohi, Jacopo Mattia Rovarini and Gianfranco Morino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:12

    Content type: Research

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  41. All the children of the world should be born equal, but this is not so: even in Italy, there are striking differences already at birth. Neonatal and infant mortality are accurate indexes to assess the demograp...

    Authors: Silvia Simeoni, Luisa Frova and Mario De Curtis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:11

    Content type: Research

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  42. Puberty can be considered the end point of a maturation process which is defined by the dynamic interactions of genes and environmental factors during prenatal and postnatal development. Kisspeptin/G protein-c...

    Authors: Nosrat Ghaemi, Martha Ghahraman, Samaneh Noroozi Asl, Rahim Vakili, Fatemeh Fardi Golyan, Meysam Moghbeli and Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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