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  1. The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian...

    Authors: Riccardo Davanzo, Massimo Agosti, Irene Cetin, Antonio Chiantera, Giovanni Corsello, Luca A. Ramenghi, Annamaria Staiano, Marcello Tavio, Alberto Villani, Elsa Viora and Fabio Mosca

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:45

    Content type: Commentary

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  2. Serious bacterial infection (SBI) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamically increased value of the red cell distribut...

    Authors: Bin-Fang Guo and Su-Zhen Sun

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:44

    Content type: Research

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  3. Home chemotherapy programs for children with cancer are safe and feasible, and their impact on the quality of life has been reported in different countries. A home chemotherapy program was implemented between ...

    Authors: Lucia De Zen, Irene Del Rizzo, Luca Ronfani, Francesca Barbieri, Marco Rabusin, Roberto Dall’Amico, Egidio Barbi and Margherita Robazza

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:43

    Content type: Research

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  4. We aimed to evaluate the degree of realism and involvement, stress management and awareness of performance improvement in practitioners taking part in high fidelity simulation (HFS) training program for delive...

    Authors: Mariachiara Martina Strozzi, Alessandro Varrica, Micaela Colivicchi, Claudia Pelazzo, Rossana Negri, Anna Galante, Patrizia Ianniello, Rossella Sterpone, Priscilla Nannini, Daniela Leo, Francesca Mannarino, Manuel Striani, Stefania Montani and Diego Gazzolo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:42

    Content type: Research

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  5. Positional plagiocephaly (PP) is a cranial deformation frequent amongst children and consisting in a flattened and asymmetrical head shape. PP is associated with excessive time in supine and with congenital mu...

    Authors: Iñaki Pastor-Pons, César Hidalgo-García, María Orosia Lucha-López, Marta Barrau-Lalmolda, Iñaki Rodes-Pastor, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández and José Miguel Tricás-Moreno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:41

    Content type: Research

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  6. The year 2020 will be remembered as the “year of the COVID-19 pandemic”. The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the...

    Authors: Giuseppina Salzano, Stefano Passanisi, Francesco Pira, Lacrima Sorrenti, Giuseppa La Monica, Giovanni Battista Pajno, Maria Pecoraro and Fortunato Lombardo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:40

    Content type: Research

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  7. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that causes vision loss, vision impairment, and blindness, most frequently manifesting among preterm infants. ROPScore and CHOP ROP (Children’s Hospital of Philade...

    Authors: Huiqing Sun, Yubin Dong, Yanxia Liu, Qingqin Chen, Yanxi Wang, Bin Cheng, Shaobo Qin, Liping Meng, Shanxiu Li, Yanlun Zhang, Aiguo Zhang, Weiling Yan, Yuhong Dong, Shuyi Cheng, Mingchao Li and Zengyuan Yu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:39

    Content type: Research

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  8. Isolated Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome (HHS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by elevated serum glucose concentrations and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis. It is often described...

    Authors: Angelika Mohn, Nella Polidori, Valeria Castorani, Laura Comegna, Cosimo Giannini, Francesco Chiarelli and Annalisa Blasetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:38

    Content type: Case report

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  9. The aim of this study was to collect consistent data on the efficacy and safety and evaluation hepatotoxicity of intravenous acetaminophen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants.

    Authors: Reza Bahrami, Aida Ezzatabadi, Nima Mehdizadegan, Hamid Mohammadi, Hamid Amoozgar and Mohammadreza Edraki

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:37

    Content type: Research

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  10. Technology-enhanced simulation has emerged as a great educational tool for pediatric education. Indeed, it represents an effective method to instruct on technical and non-technical skills, employed by a large ...

    Authors: Manuela Spadea, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Nicoletta Fossati and Armando Cuttano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:36

    Content type: Commentary

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  11. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia is frequently encountered during neonatal period. Although it has different causes, in some cases it can’t be explained. Previous studies have illustrated that jaundice could be a m...

    Authors: Ahmed Mahrous Kamal Baz, Osama Abd El-Fattah El-Agamy and Ashraf Mohamed Ibrahim

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:35

    Content type: Research

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  12. A national consensus document on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use in childhood, produced by the main Italian pediatric scientific societies, has been recently released. The aim of this study was to gather inf...

    Authors: Giovanni Cerimoniale, Paolo Becherucci, Maria Carmen Verga, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Luciana Indinnimeo, Alberto Villani, Mariangela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Marzia Duse, Paolo Biasci, Mattia Doria, Diego Peroni, Giorgio Piacentini, Maria Di Cicco, Gabriella Pozzobon and Riccardo Lubrano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:34

    Content type: Research

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  13. The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immun...

    Authors: Giorgio Costagliola, Erika Spada, Pasquale Comberiati and Diego G. Peroni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:32

    Content type: Debate

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  14. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common genomic disorders, characterized by the variable presence of facial dysmorphisms, congenital cardiac defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency/cleft palate, thym...

    Authors: Erica Rosina, Berardo Rinaldi, Rosamaria Silipigni, Luca Bergamaschi, Giovanna Gattuso, Stefano Signoroni, Silvana Guerneri, Alessandra Carnevali, Paola Giovanna Marchisio and Donatella Milani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:31

    Content type: Case report

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  15. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13052-019-0697-8

    Authors: Jun Tian, Peifang Shen, Kaiyu Pan and Qiong Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:30

    Content type: Retraction Note

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    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:108

  16. Suspending ordinary care activities during the COVID-19 pandemic made it necessary to find alternative routes to comply with care recommendations not only for acute health needs but also for patients requiring...

    Authors: Eugenio Mercuri, Giuseppe Zampino, Alisha Morsella, Marika Pane, Roberta Onesimo, Carmen Angioletti, Piero Valentini, Claudia Rendeli, Antonio Ruggiero, Lorenzo Nanni, Antonio Chiaretti, Giovanni Vento, David Korn, Emilio Meneschincheri, Paolo Sergi, Giovanni Scambia…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:29

    Content type: Research

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  17. Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is one of the most challenging complications in children undergoing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment, but acute fungal osteomyelitis (OM) is rarely encountered.

    Authors: Lichun Xie, Qingling Long, Guichi Zhou, Sixi Liu and Fei-Qiu Wen

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:27

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Hookworm infections (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale) are common in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Human acquisition results from direct percutaneous invasion of infective larvae fro...

    Authors: G. Umbrello, R. Pinzani, A. Bandera, F. Formenti, G. Zavarise, M. Arghittu, D. Girelli, A. Maraschini, A. Muscatello, P. Marchisio and S. Bosis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:26

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Italy was the first Western country to be hit by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. There is now mounting evidence that a minority of children infected with SARS-CoV2 may experience a severe multisystem inflammatory syn...

    Authors: Marco Cattalini, Andrea Taddio, Claudia Bracaglia, Rolando Cimaz, Sara Della Paolera, Giovanni Filocamo, Francesco La Torre, Bianca Lattanzi, Alessandra Marchesi, Gabriele Simonini, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Fiammetta Zunica, Alberto Villani and Angelo Ravelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:24

    Content type: Debate

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  20. During the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic phase, the sudden closure of schools was one of the main measures to minimize the spread of the virus. In the second phase, several safety procedures were implemented to av...

    Authors: Alberto Villani, Luana Coltella, Stefania Ranno, Federico Bianchi di Castelbianco, Paola Maria Murru, Rossella Sonnino, Teresa Mazzone, Livia Piccioni, Giulia Linardos, Stefano Chiavelli, Fabrizio Pontarelli, Giovanni Corsello, Massimiliano Raponi, Carlo Federico Perno and Carlo Concato

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:23

    Content type: Research

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  21. Acute Cerebral Nervous System Infections (ACNS) may cause death or severe complications even to promptly treated children. The role of the immune system in influencing the course and the outcome of meningitis ...

    Authors: Giulia Spina, Bozzola Elena, Carsetti Rita, Piano Mortari Eva, Cristina Mascolo, Marco Roversi and Villani Alberto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:22

    Content type: Research

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  22. Italy was the first country in Europe affected by COVID-19: the emergency started on February 20, 2020, culminating with national lockdown on March 11, which terminated on May 4, 2020. We describe how the pand...

    Authors: Umberto Raucci, Anna Maria Musolino, Domenico Di Lallo, Simone Piga, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Mara Pisani, Francesco Paolo Rossi, Antonino Reale, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Alberto Villani and Massimiliano Raponi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:21

    Content type: Research

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  23. Despite its recognized efficacy and tolerability profile, during the last decade a rise of adverse events following ibuprofen administration in children has been reported, including a possible role in worsenin...

    Authors: Lucia Quaglietta, Massimo Martinelli and Annamaria Staiano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:20

    Content type: Review

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  24. COVID-19 pandemic has markedly affected emergency care, due to sudden limitation of health care capacity by general practitioners (GP) and urgent need for infection control strategies. We evaluated the activit...

    Authors: Angela Mauro, Nicola Improda, Letizia Zenzeri, Francesco Valitutti, Erica Vecchione, Sara Esposito and Vincenzo Tipo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:19

    Content type: Research

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  25. Transition from pediatric to adult care of patients affected by Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a critical step that needs specific care and multidisciplinary involvement. The aim of our study was to evalu...

    Authors: Antonio Corsello, Daniela Pugliese, Fiammetta Bracci, Daniela Knafelz, Bronislava Papadatou, Marina Aloi, Salvatore Cucchiara, Luisa Guidi, Antonio Gasbarrini and Alessandro Armuzzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:18

    Content type: Research

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  26. Post-Infectious Neurological Syndromes (PINS) are heterogeneous neurological disorders with post or para-infectious onset. PINS diagnosis is complex, mainly related to the absence of any recognized guidelines ...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Giulia Spina, Massimiliano Valeriani, Laura Papetti, Fabiana Ursitti, Rino Agostiniani, Cristina Mascolo, Margherita Ruggiero, Chiara Di Camillo, Anna Quondamcarlo, Luigi Matera, Davide Vecchio, Luigi Memo and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:17

    Content type: Research

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  27. Aim of these revised recommendations for the general management of Kawasaki disease is to encourage its prompter recognition and warrant the most appropriate therapy, based on ascertained scientific data, rais...

    Authors: Alessandra Marchesi, Donato Rigante, Rolando Cimaz, Angelo Ravelli, Isabella Tarissi de Jacobis, Alessandro Rimini, Fabio Cardinale, Marco Cattalini, Andrea De Zorzi, Rosa Maria Dellepiane, Patrizia Salice, Aurelio Secinaro, Andrea Taddio, Paolo Palma, Maya El Hachem, Elisabetta Cortis…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:16

    Content type: Review

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  28. Growth monitoring is an essential part of primary health care in children and short stature is frequently regarded as a relatively early sign of poor health. The association of short stature and dysmorphic fea...

    Authors: Davide Mattei, Paolo Cavarzere, Rossella Gaudino, Franco Antoniazzi and Giorgio Piacentini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:15

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Suicide attempts and self-harm in adolescence are a major public health concern: they are among the main causes of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide, with severe long-term health consequences in terms o...

    Authors: Caterina Zanus, Sara Battistutta, Renata Aliverti, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Luca Ronfani and Marco Carrozzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:14

    Content type: Research

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  30. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare and underdiagnosed neurometabolic disorder resulting in a complex neurological and non-neurological phenotype, posing diagnostic challenges resul...

    Authors: Carlo Fusco, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Pasquale Striano, Roberta Battini, Alberto Burlina and Carlotta Spagnoli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:13

    Content type: Research

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  31. Observation Units (OU), as part of emergency department (ED), are areas reserved for short-term treatment or observation of patients with selected diagnoses to determine the need for hospitalization or home re...

    Authors: Antonio Gatto, Serena Rivetti, Lavinia Capossela, Davide Pata, Marcello Covino and Antonio Chiaretti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:11

    Content type: Research

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  32. Association between persistency of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and morbidity in preterm newborns is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the relation between PDA and morbidity in a large retrospec...

    Authors: Gianluca Terrin, Maria Di Chiara, Giovanni Boscarino, Valentina Metrangolo, Francesca Faccioli, Elisa Onestà, Antonella Giancotti, Violante Di Donato, Viviana Cardilli and Mario De Curtis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:9

    Content type: Research

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  33. The literature agrees on the impact of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of seriously ill children but there is less clarity about the real extent and gender differences of this psychopathological risk...

    Authors: Martina Corsi, Alessandro Orsini, Virginia Pedrinelli, Andrea Santangelo, Carlo Antonio Bertelloni, Niccolò Carli, Rodolfo Buselli, Diego Peroni, Pasquale Striano, Liliana Dell’Osso and Claudia Carmassi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:8

    Content type: Review

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  34. Neonatal thrombocytopenia (NT) (platelet count < 150 × 109/L) is a common finding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of...

    Authors: Amira M. Saber, Shereen P. Aziz, Al Zahraa E. Almasry and Ramadan A. Mahmoud

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:7

    Content type: Research

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  35. Although several studies have tried to evaluate the real efficacy of school closure for pandemic control over time, no definitive answer to this question has been given. Moreover, it has not been clarified whe...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Nicola Cotugno and Nicola Principi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:6

    Content type: Debate

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  36. Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) loss of function mutations have been described as cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In 2017, a first case of central precocious puberty (CPP) caused by PROKR2 heterozygous g...

    Authors: Francesca Aiello, Grazia Cirillo, Alessandra Cassio, Raffaella Di Mase, Gianluca Tornese, Giuseppina R. Umano, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Anna Grandone

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:5

    Content type: Research

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  37. Pediatric palliative care (PPC) addresses the physical and psychological needs of children suffering from life-limiting diseases. To define prevention and educational plans and to properly allocate resources, ...

    Authors: Franca Benini, Mariadonata Bellentani, Laura Reali, Pierina Lazzarin, Lucia De Zen, Federico Pellegatta, Pierangelo Lora Aprile and Gianlorenzo Scaccabarozzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:4

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  38. This study aimed to compare the clinical features and laboratory tests of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 1–3-year-old children and to expl...

    Authors: Jinjin Shi, Chu Chu, Min Yu, Dandan Zhang, Yuqin Li, Yujie Fan, Yixue Yu, Yali Luo and Weifang Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:3

    Content type: Research

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  39. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disease affecting about 1:3000 newborns in Caucasian populations. The introduction of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF NBS) has improved the clinical outcome...

    Authors: Matteo Botti, Vito Terlizzi, Michela Francalanci, Daniela Dolce, Maria Chiara Cavicchi, Anna Silvia Neri, Valeria Galici, Gianfranco Mergni, Lucia Zavataro, Claudia Centrone, Filippo Festini and Giovanni Taccetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:2

    Content type: Research

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  40. Children with medical complexity represent a big challenge for the physicians, their families and the society as well. Although there is no clear definition of this type of patients, they are affected by a chr...

    Authors: Manuela Gallo, Rino Agostiniani, Roberta Pintus and Vassilios Fanos

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:1

    Content type: Review

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  41. As health care workers (HCWs) who care for children, who usually demonstrate milder symptoms than adults, family paediatricians have an increased risk of exposure to coronavirus. In April 2020, the Sindacato M...

    Authors: Rinaldo Missaglia, Michael Belingheri, Laura Antolini, Monica de’ Angelis, Luca Brivio, Michele Augusto Riva and Simonetta Genovesi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:184

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  42. Thromboembolism is a life-threatening, limb-threatening or organ-threatening complication that occurs in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS). There are few studies on the spectrum, complications and ...

    Authors: Yan-Li Lv, Na Guan, Jie Ding, Yong Yao, Hui-Jie Xiao, Xu-Hui Zhong, Fang Wang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Hong-Wen Zhang, Bai-Ge Su and Ke Xu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:182

    Content type: Research

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  43. A practical guidance on the management of children with COVID-19 to insure homogeneous criteria for referral to a higher-level facility, according to the disease severity, is pivotal in the pandemic era. A pan...

    Authors: Carlotta Montagnani, Elisabetta Venturini, Manuela L’Erario, Chiara Tersigni, Barbara Bortone, Leila Bianchi, Francesca Menegazzo, Giuseppe Indolfi, Elena Chiappini and Luisa Galli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:181

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  44. Lately, one of the major clinical and public health issues has been represented by Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy and the risk of transmission of the infection from mother to child. De...

    Authors: Nicole Olivini, Francesca Ippolita Calò Carducci, Veronica Santilli, Maria Antonietta De Ioris, Alessia Scarselli, Dario Alario, Caterina Geremia, Mary Haywood Lombardi, Caterina Marabotto, Rosanna Mariani, Raffaele Edo Papa, Emanuela Peschiaroli, Raffaella Scrocca, Serena Sinibaldi, Andrea Smarrazzo, Pietro Stella…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:180

    Content type: Research

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