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  1. For years politics and healthcare, faced with the progressive increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood, have wondered how to stem it and reduce its consequences on health without findi...

    Authors: Rita Tanas, Giovanni Corsello, Riccardo Lera, Maria Marsella and Sergio Bernasconi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:105
  2. Short-acting bronchodilators are a class of medications commonly used to treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other respiratory conditions. The use of these medications has evolved over tim...

    Authors: Amelia Licari, Sara Manti, Francesco Mastellone, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Maria Angela Tosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:104
  3. Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kδ) Syndrome (APDS) is an inborn error of immunity (IEI) with a variable clinical presentation, characterized by infection susceptibility and immune dysregulation that m...

    Authors: Vassilios Lougaris, Federico Le Piane, Caterina Cancrini, Francesca Conti, Alberto Tommasini, Raffaele Badolato, Antonino Trizzino, Marco Zecca, Antonio De Rosa, Federica Barzaghi and Claudio Pignata
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:103
  4. There is a global perception that psychotropic utilization in children and adolescents is increasing, especially with the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. Available literature data on paediatric psychotropic medica...

    Authors: Francesca Gallinella, Francesco Trotta and Filomena Fortinguerra
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:102
  5. Sepsis is one of the main causes of death in newborns worldwide. Vitamin D levels during fetal and neonatal periods have a significant role in the development of the immunological system. The study aims to eva...

    Authors: Shereen A. Mohamed, Nermin R. Kamel, Aya E. Fouda, Rabab E. Elhawary and Mohamed A. Abdelmegeid
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:101
  6. The European-funded Health Effects of Cardiac Fluoroscopy and Modern Radiotherapy in Pediatrics (HARMONIC) project aims to improve knowledge on the effects of medical exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) receiv...

    Authors: Jonica Campolo, Giuseppe Annoni, Gabriele Vignati, Alessio Peretti, Marco Papa, Paola Enrica Colombo, Gaia Muti, Marina Parolini, Andrea Borghini, Marzia Giaccardi, Lamia Ait-Alì, Eugenio Picano and Maria Grazia Andreassi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:100
  7. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) represents a serious chronic condition affecting a wide number of people. Discussion of the physical issues associated with T1DM pervades the literature, however, there is less ...

    Authors: Emanuele Maria Merlo, Rita Tutino, Liam Alexander MacKenzie Myles, Maria Carmela Lia and Domenico Minasi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:99
  8. Adiposity rebound (AR) refers to the second rise of the body mass index (BMI) curve that usually occurs between six and eight years of age. AR timing has a significant impact on patients’ health: early AR (EAR...

    Authors: Alessandra Li Pomi, Giorgia Pepe, Tommaso Aversa, Domenico Corica, Mariella Valenzise, Maria Francesca Messina, Letteria Anna Morabito, Stefano Stagi and Malgorzata Wasniewska
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:98
  9. In Italy, since the 2020–2021 flu season, the flu vaccine recommendation was extended to all children aged 6 months to 6 years and quadrivalent Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (qLAIV) was introduced. Since s...

    Authors: Stefania Roncaglia, Antonella Amendola, Paola Baldassarre, Francesca Barilli, Silvia Bianchi, Andrea Biuso, Claudia Chillemi, Clara Fappani, Chiara Gasparini, Maria Gori, Gabriella Guida, Francesca Ripoli, Laura Sgambetterra, Elisabetta Tanzi and Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:97
  10. In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to control vaccine-preventable diseases, saving millions of lives annually. However, the coverage of basic vaccines...

    Authors: Tigist Kifle Tsegaw, Helen Birhan Alemaw, Yordanos Bitweded Wale, Solomon Gedlu Nigatu, Tilahun Yemanu Birhan and Asefa Adimasu Taddese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:96
  11. Febrile seizures (FS) are commonly perceived by healthcare professionals as a self-limited condition with a generally ‘benign’ nature. Nonetheless, they frequently lead to pediatric consultations, and their ma...

    Authors: Alessandro Ferretti, Antonella Riva, Alice Fabrizio, Oliviero Bruni, Giuseppe Capovilla, Thomas Foiadelli, Alessandro Orsini, Umberto Raucci, Antonino Romeo, Pasquale Striano and Pasquale Parisi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:95
  12. congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect occurring in isolated or syndromic (chromosomal or monogenic) conditions. The diaphragmatic defect can be the most common one: left-sided posterolateral,...

    Authors: Ester Capecchi, Roberta Villa, Alessandro Pini, Maria Iascone, Laura Messina, Paola Francesca Ajmone, Fabio Mosca, Silvana Gangi and Maria Francesca Bedeschi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:94
  13. we aim to discuss the origin and the differences of the phenotypic features and the management care of rare form of disorder of sex development due to Mosaic monosomy X and Y chromosome materiel.

    Authors: Myriam Ben Fredj, Marwa Messaoud, Sabrine Ben Youssef, Salma Mani, Syrine Laaribi, Rania Sakka, Hayet Ben Hmida, Amine Ksiaa, Mongi Mekki, Mohsen Belghith and Lassaad Sahnoun
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:93
  14. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) shows a significant overlap of symptoms with other hyper-inflammatory diseases such as Kawasaki disease (KD), but the real difference of the two conditions...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Alessio Lembo, Francesca Finazzo, Annalisa Alaimo, Guglielmo Francesco Benfratello and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:91
  15. Persistent airway inflammation is a central feature of bronchiectasis. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX-15) controls production of endogenous lipid mediators, including lipoxins that regulate airway inflamma...

    Authors: Mahitab Morsy Hussein, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Yasmine Shehab, Enas Samir Nabih, Ahmed Mohamed Osman and Sally Raafat Ishak
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:90
  16. Evidence about feeding practices’ consequences in small for gestational age newborns is not well established because they are less likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding than other newborns. Our aim was...

    Authors: Federica Pagano, Emanuele Gaeta, Francesca Morlino, Maria Teresa Riccio, Maurizio Giordano and Giuseppe De Bernardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:88
  17. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2) has been used to assess the gross and fine motor skills of children (0–6 years); however, the measurement properties of the PDMS-2 are inconclusive. Here, we a...

    Authors: Yuanye Zhu, Jiahui Hu, Weibing Ye, Mallikarjuna Korivi and Yongdong Qian
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:87
  18. To date, the etiology and risk factors of torticollis are still poorly defined in the pediatric literature. Especially in the Emergency Department (ED) scenario, it is critical to reliably distinguish benign a...

    Authors: Umberto Raucci, Marco Roversi, Alessandro Ferretti, Valerio Faccia, Giacomo Garone, Fabio Panetta, Carlo Mariani, Eloisa Rizzotto, Antonio Torelli, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Angelo Gabriele Aulisa, Pasquale Parisi and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:86
  19. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) are monogenic in some cases, however, there are still no clear guidelines on genetic testing in the clinical practice of SRNS in children.

    Authors: Xueting Cheng, Jiahuan Chen, Xueying Yang, Han Chan, Xia Yang, Jia Jiao, Anshuo Wang, Gaofu Zhang, Xuelan Chen, Xiaoqin Li, Mo Wang, Baohui Yang, Haiping Yang and Qiu Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:85
  20. The COVID-19 pandemic have impacts on the prevalence of other pathogens and people’s social lifestyle. This study aimed to compare the pathogen, allergen and micronutrient characteristics of pediatric inpatien...

    Authors: Mengxue Chen, Yabing Zhou, Shengjie Jin, Shasha Bai, Xiaoyu Tang, Quanhua Liu, Liwei Wang, Ruoxu Ji, Haipei Liu, Wenwei Zhong, Yi Chen, Dingzhu Fang, Jianhua Zhang and Li Hua
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:84
  21. Atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (AAT) is a rare phenotype of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in pediatric age. AAT occurs without thyroid enlargement leading to a delay in its diagnosis. Growth impairment is infre...

    Authors: Domenico Corica, Tiziana Abbate, Anna Malgorzata Kucharska, Malgorzata Wojcik, Francesco Vierucci, Mariella Valenzise, Alessandra Li Pomi, Giorgia Pepe, Gerdi Tuli, Beata Pyrzak, Tommaso Aversa and Malgorzata Wasniewska
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:83
  22. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is becoming increasingly crucial in the Pediatric Emergency Department for objective patient examination. However, despite its growing interest and wide-ranging applications, P...

    Authors: Manuela Lo Bianco, Santiago Presti, Maria Carla Finocchiaro, Gian Luca Trobia, Tiziana Virginia Sciacca, Maria Elena Cucuzza, Elia Caudullo, Giacomo Calcara, Martino Ruggieri and Vita Antonella Di Stefano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:82
  23. The variants of nucleoporins are extremely rare in hereditary steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Most of the patients carrying such variants progress to end stage kidney disease (ESKD) in their child...

    Authors: Yanxinli Han, Hongyu Sha, Yuan Yang, Zhuowei Yu, Lanqi Zhou, Yi Wang, Fengjie Yang, Liru Qiu, Yu Zhang and Jianhua Zhou
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:81
  24. Diquat (DQ) is among the most widely used herbicides, and its intake can cause severe systemic toxicity that manifests rapidly. The resultant symptoms can cause the dysfunction of a range of tissues and organs...

    Authors: Mengtao Duan, Baowang Yang, Xiaohang Cheng, Fuhui Shen, Xia Lu and Fan Wang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:80
  25. Reviews on Down syndrome do not or only marginally address the issue of kidney and urogenital tract abnormalities, and lower urinary tract dysfunctions. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature. 

    Authors: Caterina Maria Rossetti, Giacomo D. Simonetti, Mario G. Bianchetti, Sebastiano A. G. Lava, Giorgio Treglia, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P. Milani and J. Peter de Winter
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:79
  26. Preterms are at risk of systemic infections as the barrier function of their immature skin is insufficient. The long period of hospitalization and the huge number of invasive procedures represent a risk factor...

    Authors: Noemi Zampatti, Irene Bonato, Andrea Calandrino, Carolina Saffioti, Alessandro Parodi, Giorgia Brigati, Diego Minghetti and Luca Antonio Ramenghi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:78
  27. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is more likely to be diagnosed in children. The main treatment involves long-term use of anti-epileptic drugs and above all, home care is of great importance. ...

    Authors: Hua-yan Liu, Shan Zeng, Yue-wei Chen, Min Yi, Xiao-yan Tan, Jian-hui Xie, Xia Wu and Li-hui Zhu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:77
  28. Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of skin fragility disorders characterized by blister formation following minor trauma. Four major types are distinguishe...

    Authors: May El Hachem, Andrea Diociaiuti, Giovanna Zambruno, Tonia Samela, Francesca Ferretti, Claudia Carnevale, Renata Linertová, Christine Bodemer, Dédée F. Murrell and Damiano Abeni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:76
  29. Pediatric obesity is a global emerging burden for society; among its health-related consequences there are hypertension (HTN) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Several anthropometric indices have been in...

    Authors: Sara Vizzuso, Alberico Del Torto, Giulia Fiore, Stefano Carugo, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti and Elvira Verduci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:75
  30. In response to the imperative need for standardized support for adolescent Gender Dysphoria (GD), the Italian Academy of Pediatrics, in collaboration with the Italian Society of Pediatrics, the Italian Society...

    Authors: Valeria Calcaterra, Gianluca Tornese, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Annamaria Staiano, Valentino Cherubini, Rossella Gaudino, Elisa Maria Fazzi, Egidio Barbi, Francesco Chiarelli, Giovanni Corsello, Susanna Maria Roberta Esposito, Pietro Ferrara, Lorenzo Iughetti, Nicola Laforgia, Mohamad Maghnie, Gianluigi Marseglia…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:73
  31. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an organ specific autoimmune disease, which can manifest at any age of life. there is a high prevalence of extrahepatic autoimmune diseases in patients with AIH. Autoimmune thyroi...

    Authors: Engy Adel Mogahed, Hend M. Soliman, Dalia Saber Morgan, Hoda Mohammed Abd Elaal, Rasha Abd El Razek Mahmoud Khattab, Ragaey A. Eid and Mahmoud Hodeib
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:72
  32. Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection, resulting from non-primary maternal infection or reactivation during pregnancy, can cause serious fetal abnormalities, complications in the immediate neonatal perio...

    Authors: Victoria Malherbe, Stefanie Celen, Katherine Carkeek, Evelina Carapancea, Cinzia Auriti and Fiammetta Piersigilli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:71
  33. Bites caused by European vipers are rare medical emergencies but can occasionally cause life-threatening complications. Viper venom causes local symptoms, which can be accompanied by systemic manifestations in...

    Authors: Marco Sassoè-Pognetto, Riccardo Cavalcante and Matteo Paonessa
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:70
  34. Pollution of the indoor environment represents a concern for human health, mainly in case of prolonged exposure such as in the case of women, children, the elderly, and the chronically ill, who spend most of t...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Rino Agostiniani, Laura Pacifici Noja, Jibin Park, Paolo Lauriola, Tiziana Nicoletti, Domenica Taruscio, Giovanni Taruscio and Alberto Mantovani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:69
  35. Child development is shaped throughout the first years of life through the interaction of genetics and the environment. Bayley-III is valuably used to determine early developmental delay (DD). The aim of this ...

    Authors: Zeinab M. Monir, Ebtissam M. Salah El-Din, Wafaa A. Kandeel, Sara F. Sallam, Eman Elsheikh, Mones M. Abushady, Fawzia Hasseb Allah, Sawsan Tawfik and Dina Abu Zeid
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:68
  36. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a rare inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Its phenotype is highly variable (neonatal, ...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Vincenzo Antona, Vincenzo Insinga, Giusy Morgante, Alessia Vassallo, Simona La Placa, Ettore Piro, Sergio Salerno, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Eloisa Gitto, Mario Giuffrè and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:67
  37. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) appears in neurological conditions where some brain areas are likely to be injured, such as deep grey matter, basal ganglia area, and white matter subcortical periventricu...

    Authors: Juan Pablo Velasquez-Minoli, Natalia Cardona-Ramirez, Hernan Felipe Garcia-Arias, Feliza Restrepo-Restrepo and Gloria Liliana Porras-Hurtado
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:66
  38. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is responsible for the majority of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and can affect also older age groups. Restrictions linked to the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 p...

    Authors: Renato Cutrera, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Andrea Dotta, Carmen D’Amore, Lucilla Ravà, Carlo Federico Perno and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:65
  39. Functional constipation is a common problem in childhood and has a great impact on social, physical, and emotional functioning of affected children and their caregivers. No organic cause of the constipation ca...

    Authors: Flora Fedele, Maria Teresa Fioretti, Elena Scarpato, Massimo Martinelli, Caterina Strisciuglio and Erasmo Miele
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:64
  40. This study aims to thoroughly study the connection between congenital heart disease (CHD) and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) through observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) designs.

    Authors: Zhi-yuan Liu, Qiong-qiong Wang, Xian-yong Pang, Xiao-bi Huang, Gui-ming Yang and Sheng Zhao
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:63
  41. Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common form of congenital heart disease. Although several genes related to ASD have been found, the genetic factors of ASD remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the corre...

    Authors: Ye Jin, Miao Zhao, Qiuzhe Guo, Wanyu Zhao, Min Lei, Yifei Zhang, Yunhan zhang, Yan Shen, Keqin Lin, Zhaoqing Yang, Jiayou Chu, Hao Sun and Zhiling Luo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:62
  42. Breastfeeding plays a primary role in the events that characterize the development of the relationship between a mother and her newborn. However, this essential process sometimes does not fully cover the nutri...

    Authors: Andrea Arcusio, Maria Cristina Villa, Federica Felloni and Claudio Migliori
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:61
  43. The goal of our contribution is to discuss a preschool intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model and the use of the main tools for the detection of adaptive behaviour in cases of autism: Vineland, AB...

    Authors: Rosaria Ferrara, Felice Damato, Leonardo Iovino, Flavio Marti, Roberto Latina, Costanza Colombi and Pasquale Ricci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:60
  44. The aim of this study is to compare two groups of celiac patients: the first one, in which diagnosis was based on a “biopsy sparing” approach according to the 2012 ESPGHAN criteria, and the second one, based o...

    Authors: Salvatore Accomando, Ilenia Rita Piazza, Francesca Cacciatore, Veronica Notarbartolo, Giovanni Corsello and Mario Giuffrè
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:59
  45. Several studies have identified graded oxygen saturation targets to prevent retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a serious complication in preterm infants. We aimed to analyze the critical period of oxygen supple...

    Authors: Ho Jung Choi, Baek Sup Shin, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim and Han-Suk Kim
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:58
  46. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the leading causes of hospitalization due to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children younger than 5 years worldwide and the second cause of infant deat...

    Authors: Melania Dovizio, Chiara Veronesi, Fausto Bartolini, Arturo Cavaliere, Stefano Grego, Romina Pagliaro, Cataldo Procacci, Loredana Ubertazzo, Lorenzo Bertizzolo, Barbara Muzii, Salvatore Parisi, Valentina Perrone, Eugenio Baraldi, Elena Bozzola, Fabio Mosca and Luca Degli Esposti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:57
  47. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infections may lead to severe consequences in infants born preterm with breathing problems (such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)) o...

    Authors: Michela Servadio, Marco Finocchietti, Chiara Vassallo, Riccardo Cipelli, Franca Heiman, Giulia Di Lucchio, Bianca Oresta, Antonio Addis and Valeria Belleudi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:56

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