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  1. Congenital hypothyroidism is an endocrine disease with a significant incidence in the general population (1:2000–1:3000 newborns in Italy) and a different geographical distribution, partially explained by ende...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Saveria Sabrina Ragusa, Tommaso Silvano Aronica, Orazia Maria Granata, Eleonora Gucciardino and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:108

    Content type: Research

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  2. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy in which HLA-DQ haplotypes define susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate if belonging to a certain HLA-DQ class risk could be associated to the clinical, serol...

    Authors: Carlo Tolone, Marisa Piccirillo, Pasquale Dolce, Salvatore Alfiero, Mattia Arenella, Marina Sarnataro, Patrizia Iardino, Alessia Pucciarelli and Caterina Strisciuglio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:107

    Content type: Research

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  3. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest and healthiest option of feeding among infants in the first 6 months throughout the world. Thus, promotion of EBF is essential to prevent complex infant health probl...

    Authors: Shambel Aychew Tsegaw, Yeshimebet Ali Dawed and Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:106

    Content type: Research

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  4. Child abuse and neglect, or maltreatment, is a serious public health problem, which may cause long-term effects on children’s health and wellbeing and expose them to further adulthood vulnerabilities. Studies ...

    Authors: Paola Nigri, Giovanni Corsello, Luigi Nigri, Donjeta Bali, Giorgina Kuli-Lito, Doina Plesca, Tudor Lucian Pop, Angel Carrasco-Sanz, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Julije Mestrovic, Mehmet Vural, Ida Giardino, Laszlo Losonczi, Eli Somekh, Maria Teresa Balducci, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:105

    Content type: Research

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  5. Although many studies emphasize the importance of using oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets in the NICUs, there is a wide variability in used saturation ranges among centers. Primary aim was to draw a representative...

    Authors: Serafina Perrone, Maurizio Giordano, Giuseppe De Bernardo, Paola Lugani, Pasquale Sarnacchiaro, Gemma Stazzoni, Giuseppe Buonocore, Susanna Esposito and Maria Luisa Tataranno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:104

    Content type: Research

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  6. Although with exceptions, evidence seems to indicate that children have lower susceptibility than adults to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. When infected, children gener...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Fabio Caramelli and Nicola Principi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:103

    Content type: Commentary

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  7. Stunting is a critical public health problem of developing countries like Ethiopia. Different interventions like irrigation activity have been carried out by the government of Ethiopia to improve the nutrition...

    Authors: Balew Sema, Muluken Azage and Mulat Tirfie

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:102

    Content type: Research

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  8. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal therapy for IgE-mediated allergy. There is less evidence about the safety and efficacy of AIT especially subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in children under 5 ye...

    Authors: Yaqi Yang, Dongxia Ma, Nan Huang, Wenjing Li, Qing Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Lin Yang and Rongfei Zhu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:101

    Content type: Research

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  9. Risk factors that predispose the development of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among pediatric CAP patients of different age ranges are yet to be identified.

    Authors: Lumin Chen, Chong Miao, Yanling Chen, Xian Han, Ziying Lin, Hong Ye, Chengyi Wang, Huijie Zhang, Jingjing Li, Qiuyu Tang, Yuan Dong, Meng Bai, Yibing Zhu and Guanghua Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:100

    Content type: Research

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  10. Appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior and access to the health care facility is key to improving health service utilization. Although the accessibility of comprehensive childhood disease intervention service...

    Authors: Martha Bellete, Moges Muluneh Boke and Melaku Kindie Yenit

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:99

    Content type: Research

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  11. Despite ibuprofen widely recognized safety profile, an increase of suspected adverse events has been reported in the last decade in parallel with its growing over-the-counter use. The aims of this study were t...

    Authors: Massimo Martinelli, Lucia Quaglietta, Giuseppe Banderali, Pietro Ferrara, Claudio Romano and Annamaria Staiano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:98

    Content type: Research

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  12. In 2019, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from eight Italian scientific paediatric societies developed a consensus document for the use of inhaled corticosteroids in the management and prevention of the mo...

    Authors: Marzia Duse, Francesca Santamaria, Maria Carmen Verga, Marcello Bergamini, Giovanni Simeone, Lucia Leonardi, Giovanna Tezza, Annamaria Bianchi, Annalisa Capuano, Fabio Cardinale, Giovanni Cerimoniale, Massimo Landi, Monica Malventano, Mariangela Tosca, Attilio Varricchio, Anna Maria Zicari…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:97

    Content type: Research

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  13. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of unknown origin of small and medium caliber blood vessels, especially involving coronary arteries and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood in deve...

    Authors: Alice Annalisa Medaglia, Lucia Siracusa, Claudia Gioè, Salvatore Giordano, Antonio Cascio and Claudia Colomba

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:95

    Content type: Review

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  14. Genetic diseases are chronic conditions with relevant impact on the lives of patients and their families. In USA and Europe it is estimated a prevalence of 60 million affected subjects, 75% of whom are in deve...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Luigi Memo, Alessandra Coscia, Mario Giuffré, Ambra Iuculano, Mariano Lanna, Diletta Valentini, Anna Contardi, Sauro Filippeschi, Tiziana Frusca, Fabio Mosca, Luca A. Ramenghi, Corrado Romano, Annalisa Scopinaro, Alberto Villani, Giuseppe Zampino…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:94

    Content type: Research

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  15. Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a kind of common neurally mediated syncope in children and adolescents. Decreased blood volume is one of the pathogenesis of VVS. The diagnosis of VVS is mainly based on head-up tilt...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Xingfang Zeng, Wanzhen Mei, Yuwen Wang, Runmei Zou and Cheng Wang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:93

    Content type: Research

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  16. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common immune-mediated skin disease in childhood. Several treatment options for pediatric AD, both topical and systemic, are currently available. We carried out a single-cent...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Manuela Pace, Francesca Mori, Elio Novembre, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:92

    Content type: Research

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  17. Several studies have investigated the efficacy of balneotherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD), including a pediatric open randomized clinical trial conducted at the Comano thermal spring water center, which showed...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Ezio Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Stefania Farina, Manuela Pace, Cesare Filippeschi, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:91

    Content type: Research

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  18. Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and ad...

    Authors: Isabella Tarissi De Jacobis, Rosa Vona, Camilla Cittadini, Alessandra Marchesi, Laura Cursi, Lucrezia Gambardella, Alberto Villani and Elisabetta Straface

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:90

    Content type: Research

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  19. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

  20. The increased intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome may emerge depending on many different neurological factors and the early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of neurologic damage and re...

    Authors: Didar Arslan, Dinçer Yıldızdaş, Özden Özgür Horoz, Nagehan Aslan and Faruk İncecik

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:88

    Content type: Research

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  21. Cystic Fibrosis newborn screening (CFNBS) is the optimal method to diagnose the disease during the asymptomatic period. The aim of the study was to determine how CFNBS affects long term clinical outcomes.

    Authors: M. Olszowiec-Chlebna, E. Mospinek and J. Jerzynska

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:87

    Content type: Research

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  22. Several studies have shown that during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, emotional symptoms increased in the general population. Less is known about youths.

    Authors: Simone Pisano, Gennaro Catone, Antonella Gritti, Luisa Almerico, Anna Pezzella, Pia Santangelo, Carmela Bravaccio, Raffaella Iuliano and Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:86

    Content type: Research

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  23. The existing treatment options for neonatal seizures have expanded over the last few decades, but no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal therapeutic protocols. We systematically reviewed the avail...

    Authors: Raffaele Falsaperla, Bruna Scalia, Andrea Giugno, Piero Pavone, Milena Motta, Martina Caccamo and Martino Ruggieri

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:85

    Content type: Review

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  24. Despite the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy, virologic failure has become global public health concern and challenge, especially in developing countries. Viral load monitoring is an important approach...

    Authors: Belete Gelaw, Getasew Mulatu, Getasew Tesfa, Chalie Marew, Bogale Chekole and Animut Alebel

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:84

    Content type: Research

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  25. To evaluate cyclosporine A (CSA)-related neurotoxicity after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HID-HSCT) in children with hematopathy.

    Authors: Yong Wang, Yongzhi Zheng, Jingjing Wen, Jinhua Ren, Xiaohong Yuan, Ting Yang and Jianda Hu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:83

    Content type: Research

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  26. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is approved in Europe as a treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA) since 2003. However, no study evaluated the prevalence of SGA children with ...

    Authors: Gianluca Tamaro, Mariagrazia Pizzul, Giuliana Gaeta, Raffaella Servello, Marina Trevisan, Patricia Böhm, Paola Manera Ada Materassi, Anna Macaluso, Denis Valentini, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:82

    Content type: Research

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  27. De novo pathogenic variants in the DDX3X gene are reported to account for 1–3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) in females, leading to the rare disease known as DDX3X syndrome (MRXSSB, OMIM #300958). B...

    Authors: Giada Moresco, Jole Costanza, Carlo Santaniello, Ornella Rondinone, Federico Grilli, Elisabetta Prada, Simona Orcesi, Ilaria Coro, Anna Pichiecchio, Paola Marchisio, Monica Miozzo, Laura Fontana and Donatella Milani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:81

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Intestinal Ganglioneuromatosis (IG) is a rare disorder of the enteric nervous system. In pediatric age it is often associated with genetic syndromes such as Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), multiple endocrine neopla...

    Authors: Angela Mauro, Letizia Zenzeri, Francesco Esposito, Giovanni Gaglione, Caterina Strisciuglio, Emanuela Pilozzi, Vito Domenico Corleto, Chiara Ziparo and Giovanni Di Nardo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:80

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Despite the substantial efforts to improve timely/early initiation of breastfeeding, avoidance of colostrum, and delayed initiation of breastfeeding remains a big challenge in developing countries. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Tilahun Yemanu Birhan, Wullo Sisay Seretew and Muluneh Alene

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:77

    Content type: Research

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  30. National service systems in child healthcare are characterized by diversity and complexity. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary healthcare services create complex networks covering pediatric subspecial...

    Authors: Jochen Ehrich, Jürgen Manemann, Velibor Tasic and Natale Gaspare DeSanto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:76

    Content type: Review

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  31. Children and adolescents affected by somatization and somatic symptom disorder commonly refer to emergency services. Due to the absence of specific guidelines for the emergency setting and to a possible lack o...

    Authors: Giorgio Cozzi, Annunziata Lucarelli, Fabio Borrometi, Ilaria Corsini, Eva Passone, Sara Pusceddu, Giuliana Morabito, Egidio Barbi and Franca Benini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:74

    Content type: Research

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  32. According to most early-onset sepsis (EOS) management guidelines, approximately 10% of the total neonatal population are exposed to antibiotics in the first postnatal days with subsequent increase of neonatal ...

    Authors: Gianluigi Laccetta, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Cristina Tuoni, Emilio Sigali, Mario Miccoli and Armando Cuttano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:73

    Content type: Research

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  33. COVID-19 pandemic was responsible for disrupting routine immunization activities all over the world. Aim of the study was to investigate the reduced adherence to the national children vaccination schedule duri...

    Authors: Rocco Russo, Elena Bozzola, Paolo Palma, Giovanni Corsello and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:72

    Content type: Research

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  34. Gastrointestinal diseases such as celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), inflammatory bowel disease (IBDs) and acute or chronic diarrhea are quite frequent in the pediatric population. ...

    Authors: Valeria Dipasquale, Stefano Passanisi, Ugo Cucinotta, Antonio Cascio and Claudio Romano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:71

    Content type: Review

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  35. Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are malformations in the septum separating the heart’s ventricles. VSDs may present as a single anomaly (isolated/nonsyndromic VSD) or as part of a group of phenotypes (syndromic

    Authors: Sumbal Sarwar, Farah Ehsan, Shabana, Amna Tahir, Mahrukh Jamil, Saleem Ullah Shahid, Asim Khan and Shahida Hasnain

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:70

    Content type: Research

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  36. Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. According to the current clinical recommendations, its use during pregnancy should be ca...

    Authors: Elisabetta Godano, Fabio Barra, Alessandra Allodi, Antonella Ferraiolo, Alice Laroni, Giovanni Novi, Giovanni Luigi Mancardi, Claudio Gustavino and Cesare Arioni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:69

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Recent guidelines advocate the use of real-time ultrasound to locate umbilical venous catheter tip. So far, training programs are not well established.

    Authors: Serena Antonia Rubortone, Simonetta Costa, Alessandro Perri, Vito D’Andrea, Giovanni Vento and Giovanni Barone

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:68

    Content type: Research

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  38. Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition with wide variation in type and severity that involves persistent challenges in social interaction, speech and nonverbal communication, restricted/repetitive beh...

    Authors: Magda Di Renzo, Federico Bianchi di Castelbianco, Villani Alberto, Del Vecchio Antonio, Corsello Giovanni, Elena Vanadia, Massimiliano Petrillo, Trapolino Davide, Lidia Racinaro and Monica Rea

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:67

    Content type: Research

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  39. Early postanal growth of preterm infants has many effects on early and late health. However, evidence on growth pattern in Chinese preterm infant population during early life is insufficient. This study aims t...

    Authors: Junyan Han, Yuan Jiang, Jun Huang, Yue Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yi Zhang, Xiaotian Chen, Yun Li and Weili Yan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:66

    Content type: Research

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  40. Children often develop an asymptomatic form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but it is debated if children are at higher risk than adults to be asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV...

    Authors: Gregorio P. Milani, Paola Marchisio, Alessia Rocchi, Giuseppe Bertolozzi, Ludovico Furlan, Adriano La Vecchia, Carlo Agostoni and Giorgio Costantino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:65

    Content type: Research

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  41. Non-negligible differences in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its risk factors between different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are reported. Our aim was to assess the incidence and risk factors fo...

    Authors: Carlo Dani, Caterina Coviello, Fiorenza Panin, Saverio Frosini, Simonetta Costa, Velia Purcaro, Domenico Lepore and Giovanni Vento

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:64

    Content type: Research

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  42. Metabolic Acidosis (MA) is a disturbance of the acid-base balance that can occur in preterm and critically ill term neonates due to different etiologies. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been traditiona...

    Authors: Luca Massenzi, Roberto Aufieri, Silvia Donno, Rocco Agostino and Andrea Dotta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:63

    Content type: Research

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  43. Failure to thrive is a common reason for referral to paediatric services. Malnutrition or inadequate caloric intake is the most common cause, while organic form is unlikely in children who are asymptomatic and...

    Authors: Roberto Franceschi, Caterina Rizzardi, Evelina Maines, Alice Liguori, Massimo Soffiati and Gianluca Tornese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:62

    Content type: Research

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  44. We reported the case of a two-old-year boy with a painful acute hemorrhagic edema. This is a self-limited benign condition: usually, affected children are well appearing and this strongly support the diagnosis...

    Authors: Sarah Contorno, Giorgio Cozzi, Irene Berti, Egidio Barbi and Andrea Taddio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:61

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. Preschool children with clinically-diagnosed asthma have a higher rate of emergency department visits and consume more resources for management than older children. However, no clinical trials have yet been pe...

    Authors: Sebastiano Guarnaccia, Cristina Quecchia, Andrea Festa, Michele Magoni, Giuseppe Zenoni, Emanuele D’Agata, Valentina Brivio, Elena Zanardini, Carmelo Scarcella, Valeria Gretter, Susanna Facchetti, Cinzia Gasparotti, Ada Pluda, Malica Frassine, Rosa Maria Limina, Raffaele Spiazzi…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:60

    Content type: Research

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