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  1. To evaluate cyclosporine A (CSA)-related neurotoxicity after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HID-HSCT) in children with hematopathy.

    Authors: Yong Wang, Yongzhi Zheng, Jingjing Wen, Jinhua Ren, Xiaohong Yuan, Ting Yang and Jianda Hu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:83
  2. De novo pathogenic variants in the DDX3X gene are reported to account for 1–3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) in females, leading to the rare disease known as DDX3X syndrome (MRXSSB, OMIM #300958). B...

    Authors: Giada Moresco, Jole Costanza, Carlo Santaniello, Ornella Rondinone, Federico Grilli, Elisabetta Prada, Simona Orcesi, Ilaria Coro, Anna Pichiecchio, Paola Marchisio, Monica Miozzo, Laura Fontana and Donatella Milani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:81
  3. Intestinal Ganglioneuromatosis (IG) is a rare disorder of the enteric nervous system. In pediatric age it is often associated with genetic syndromes such as Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), multiple endocrine neopla...

    Authors: Angela Mauro, Letizia Zenzeri, Francesco Esposito, Giovanni Gaglione, Caterina Strisciuglio, Emanuela Pilozzi, Vito Domenico Corleto, Chiara Ziparo and Giovanni Di Nardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:80
  4. Despite the substantial efforts to improve timely/early initiation of breastfeeding, avoidance of colostrum, and delayed initiation of breastfeeding remains a big challenge in developing countries. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Tilahun Yemanu Birhan, Wullo Sisay Seretew and Muluneh Alene
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:77
  5. National service systems in child healthcare are characterized by diversity and complexity. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary healthcare services create complex networks covering pediatric subspecial...

    Authors: Jochen Ehrich, Jürgen Manemann, Velibor Tasic and Natale Gaspare DeSanto
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:76
  6. Children and adolescents affected by somatization and somatic symptom disorder commonly refer to emergency services. Due to the absence of specific guidelines for the emergency setting and to a possible lack o...

    Authors: Giorgio Cozzi, Annunziata Lucarelli, Fabio Borrometi, Ilaria Corsini, Eva Passone, Sara Pusceddu, Giuliana Morabito, Egidio Barbi and Franca Benini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:74
  7. According to most early-onset sepsis (EOS) management guidelines, approximately 10% of the total neonatal population are exposed to antibiotics in the first postnatal days with subsequent increase of neonatal ...

    Authors: Gianluigi Laccetta, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Cristina Tuoni, Emilio Sigali, Mario Miccoli and Armando Cuttano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:73
  8. COVID-19 pandemic was responsible for disrupting routine immunization activities all over the world. Aim of the study was to investigate the reduced adherence to the national children vaccination schedule duri...

    Authors: Rocco Russo, Elena Bozzola, Paolo Palma, Giovanni Corsello and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:72
  9. Gastrointestinal diseases such as celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), inflammatory bowel disease (IBDs) and acute or chronic diarrhea are quite frequent in the pediatric population. ...

    Authors: Valeria Dipasquale, Stefano Passanisi, Ugo Cucinotta, Antonio Cascio and Claudio Romano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:71
  10. Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are malformations in the septum separating the heart’s ventricles. VSDs may present as a single anomaly (isolated/nonsyndromic VSD) or as part of a group of phenotypes (syndromic

    Authors: Sumbal Sarwar, Farah Ehsan, Shabana, Amna Tahir, Mahrukh Jamil, Saleem Ullah Shahid, Asim Khan and Shahida Hasnain
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:70
  11. Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. According to the current clinical recommendations, its use during pregnancy should be ca...

    Authors: Elisabetta Godano, Fabio Barra, Alessandra Allodi, Antonella Ferraiolo, Alice Laroni, Giovanni Novi, Giovanni Luigi Mancardi, Claudio Gustavino and Cesare Arioni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:69
  12. Recent guidelines advocate the use of real-time ultrasound to locate umbilical venous catheter tip. So far, training programs are not well established.

    Authors: Serena Antonia Rubortone, Simonetta Costa, Alessandro Perri, Vito D’Andrea, Giovanni Vento and Giovanni Barone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:68
  13. Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition with wide variation in type and severity that involves persistent challenges in social interaction, speech and nonverbal communication, restricted/repetitive beh...

    Authors: Magda Di Renzo, Federico Bianchi di Castelbianco, Villani Alberto, Del Vecchio Antonio, Corsello Giovanni, Elena Vanadia, Massimiliano Petrillo, Trapolino Davide, Lidia Racinaro and Monica Rea
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:67
  14. Early postanal growth of preterm infants has many effects on early and late health. However, evidence on growth pattern in Chinese preterm infant population during early life is insufficient. This study aims t...

    Authors: Junyan Han, Yuan Jiang, Jun Huang, Yue Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yi Zhang, Xiaotian Chen, Yun Li and Weili Yan
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:66
  15. Children often develop an asymptomatic form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but it is debated if children are at higher risk than adults to be asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV...

    Authors: Gregorio P. Milani, Paola Marchisio, Alessia Rocchi, Giuseppe Bertolozzi, Ludovico Furlan, Adriano La Vecchia, Carlo Agostoni and Giorgio Costantino
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:65
  16. Non-negligible differences in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its risk factors between different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are reported. Our aim was to assess the incidence and risk factors fo...

    Authors: Carlo Dani, Caterina Coviello, Fiorenza Panin, Saverio Frosini, Simonetta Costa, Velia Purcaro, Domenico Lepore and Giovanni Vento
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:64
  17. Metabolic Acidosis (MA) is a disturbance of the acid-base balance that can occur in preterm and critically ill term neonates due to different etiologies. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been traditiona...

    Authors: Luca Massenzi, Roberto Aufieri, Silvia Donno, Rocco Agostino and Andrea Dotta
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:63
  18. Failure to thrive is a common reason for referral to paediatric services. Malnutrition or inadequate caloric intake is the most common cause, while organic form is unlikely in children who are asymptomatic and...

    Authors: Roberto Franceschi, Caterina Rizzardi, Evelina Maines, Alice Liguori, Massimo Soffiati and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:62
  19. We reported the case of a two-old-year boy with a painful acute hemorrhagic edema. This is a self-limited benign condition: usually, affected children are well appearing and this strongly support the diagnosis...

    Authors: Sarah Contorno, Giorgio Cozzi, Irene Berti, Egidio Barbi and Andrea Taddio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:61
  20. Preschool children with clinically-diagnosed asthma have a higher rate of emergency department visits and consume more resources for management than older children. However, no clinical trials have yet been pe...

    Authors: Sebastiano Guarnaccia, Cristina Quecchia, Andrea Festa, Michele Magoni, Giuseppe Zenoni, Emanuele D’Agata, Valentina Brivio, Elena Zanardini, Carmelo Scarcella, Valeria Gretter, Susanna Facchetti, Cinzia Gasparotti, Ada Pluda, Malica Frassine, Rosa Maria Limina, Raffaele Spiazzi…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:60
  21. Potential overlaps exist between psychopathological features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The impact of malnutrition on autistic traits in patients with AN should be considered....

    Authors: Jacopo Pruccoli, Altea Solari, Letizia Terenzi, Elisabetta Malaspina, Marida Angotti, Veronica Pignataro, Paola Gualandi, Leonardo Sacrato, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Emilio Franzoni and Antonia Parmeggiani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:59
  22. Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a self-limited syndrome associated with viral infections characterized by symmetric lower extremity pain typically affecting school-aged children. Evolution in rhabdom...

    Authors: Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Mariani, Daniela Pirlo, Marta Romanengo, Angela Pistorio, Alberto Gaiero, Chiara Panicucci, Emanuela Piccotti and Claudio Bruno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:57
  23. To verify the prevalence of novel definitions of familial short stature on a cross-sectional cohort of children referred for short stature when their height and that of both parents were measured.

    Authors: Veronica Grigoletto, Alessandro Agostino Occhipinti, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Fabio Sirchia, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:56
  24. Lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half-year of life is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, less than 40% of infants below 6 months are exclusively breas...

    Authors: Alemnesh Abebe Taye, Wondwosen Asegidew, Mitku Mammo Taderegew, Yonas Girma Bizuwork and Betregiorgis Zegeye
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:55
  25. Transcobalamin deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of cobalamin transport (prevalence: < 1/1000000) which clinically manifests in early infancy.

    Authors: Francesco Martino, Alessandra Magenta, Maria Letizia Troccoli, Eliana Martino, Concetta Torromeo, Carolina Putotto and Francesco Barillà
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:54
  26. The Neonatal Assessment Manual scorE (NAME) was developed to assist in the clinical management of infants in the neonatal ward by assessing their body’s compliance and homogeneity. The present study begins its...

    Authors: Andrea Manzotti, Marco Chiera, Matteo Galli, Erica Lombardi, Simona La Rocca, Pamela Biasi, Jorge Esteves, Gianluca Lista and Francesco Cerritelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:53
  27. At the end of 2019, an emerging atypical pneumonia called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), caused by the novel coronavirus defined as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), was first...

    Authors: Martina Verzani, Carla Bizzarri, Laura Chioma, Giorgia Bottaro, Stefania Pedicelli and Marco Cappa
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:52
  28. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in Italy. Hypercholesterolemia is a modifiable CVD risk factor. The detection and treatment of hypercholesterolemia can modify ...

    Authors: Maria Elena Capra, Cristina Pederiva, Giuseppe Banderali and Giacomo Biasucci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:51
  29. Central precocious puberty is a condition characterized by precocious activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to organic causes, including syndromes such as Neu...

    Authors: Valentina Orlandi, Paolo Cavarzere, Laura Palma, Rossella Gaudino and Franco Antoniazzi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:50
  30. Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), also known as 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, is a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome resulting from a deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

  31. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) represents a heterogeneous group of rare endocrine disorders caused by (epi) genetic abnormalities affecting the GNAS locus. It is mainly characterized by resistance to PTH and T...

    Authors: Daniele Tessaris, Elisa Bonino, Giovanna Weber, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Domenico Corica, Marco Pitea, Giuseppe Scirè, Manuela Caruso-Nicoletti, Danilo Fintini and Luisa de Sanctis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:48
  32. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVI...

    Authors: Valentina Talarico, Luciano Pinto, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Antonella Centonze, Concetta Cristofaro, Rocco Reina, Agostino Nocerino, Riccardo Lubrano and Stefania Zampogna
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:47
  33. Glucocorticoid treatment is used in children with Graves’ disease (GD) only in cases of exophthalmos. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of glucocorticoid pulse therapy on thyroid function an...

    Authors: Yanyan Hu, Yulin Man, Xuemei Sun and Yongzhen Xue
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:46
  34. The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian...

    Authors: Riccardo Davanzo, Massimo Agosti, Irene Cetin, Antonio Chiantera, Giovanni Corsello, Luca A. Ramenghi, Annamaria Staiano, Marcello Tavio, Alberto Villani, Elsa Viora and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:45
  35. Serious bacterial infection (SBI) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamically increased value of the red cell distribut...

    Authors: Bin-Fang Guo and Su-Zhen Sun
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:44
  36. Home chemotherapy programs for children with cancer are safe and feasible, and their impact on the quality of life has been reported in different countries. A home chemotherapy program was implemented between ...

    Authors: Lucia De Zen, Irene Del Rizzo, Luca Ronfani, Francesca Barbieri, Marco Rabusin, Roberto Dall’Amico, Egidio Barbi and Margherita Robazza
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:43
  37. We aimed to evaluate the degree of realism and involvement, stress management and awareness of performance improvement in practitioners taking part in high fidelity simulation (HFS) training program for delive...

    Authors: Mariachiara Martina Strozzi, Alessandro Varrica, Micaela Colivicchi, Claudia Pelazzo, Rossana Negri, Anna Galante, Patrizia Ianniello, Rossella Sterpone, Priscilla Nannini, Daniela Leo, Francesca Mannarino, Manuel Striani, Stefania Montani and Diego Gazzolo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:42
  38. Positional plagiocephaly (PP) is a cranial deformation frequent amongst children and consisting in a flattened and asymmetrical head shape. PP is associated with excessive time in supine and with congenital mu...

    Authors: Iñaki Pastor-Pons, César Hidalgo-García, María Orosia Lucha-López, Marta Barrau-Lalmolda, Iñaki Rodes-Pastor, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández and José Miguel Tricás-Moreno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:41
  39. The year 2020 will be remembered as the “year of the COVID-19 pandemic”. The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the...

    Authors: Giuseppina Salzano, Stefano Passanisi, Francesco Pira, Lacrima Sorrenti, Giuseppa La Monica, Giovanni Battista Pajno, Maria Pecoraro and Fortunato Lombardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:40
  40. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that causes vision loss, vision impairment, and blindness, most frequently manifesting among preterm infants. ROPScore and CHOP ROP (Children’s Hospital of Philade...

    Authors: Huiqing Sun, Yubin Dong, Yanxia Liu, Qingqin Chen, Yanxi Wang, Bin Cheng, Shaobo Qin, Liping Meng, Shanxiu Li, Yanlun Zhang, Aiguo Zhang, Weiling Yan, Yuhong Dong, Shuyi Cheng, Mingchao Li and Zengyuan Yu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:39
  41. Isolated Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome (HHS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by elevated serum glucose concentrations and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis. It is often described...

    Authors: Angelika Mohn, Nella Polidori, Valeria Castorani, Laura Comegna, Cosimo Giannini, Francesco Chiarelli and Annalisa Blasetti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:38
  42. The aim of this study was to collect consistent data on the efficacy and safety and evaluation hepatotoxicity of intravenous acetaminophen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants.

    Authors: Reza Bahrami, Aida Ezzatabadi, Nima Mehdizadegan, Hamid Mohammadi, Hamid Amoozgar and Mohammadreza Edraki
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:37
  43. Technology-enhanced simulation has emerged as a great educational tool for pediatric education. Indeed, it represents an effective method to instruct on technical and non-technical skills, employed by a large ...

    Authors: Manuela Spadea, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Nicoletta Fossati and Armando Cuttano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:36
  44. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia is frequently encountered during neonatal period. Although it has different causes, in some cases it can’t be explained. Previous studies have illustrated that jaundice could be a m...

    Authors: Ahmed Mahrous Kamal Baz, Osama Abd El-Fattah El-Agamy and Ashraf Mohamed Ibrahim
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:35
  45. A national consensus document on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use in childhood, produced by the main Italian pediatric scientific societies, has been recently released. The aim of this study was to gather inf...

    Authors: Giovanni Cerimoniale, Paolo Becherucci, Maria Carmen Verga, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Luciana Indinnimeo, Alberto Villani, Mariangela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Marzia Duse, Paolo Biasci, Mattia Doria, Diego Peroni, Giorgio Piacentini, Maria Di Cicco, Gabriella Pozzobon and Riccardo Lubrano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:34

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