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  1. Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a kind of common neurally mediated syncope in children and adolescents. Decreased blood volume is one of the pathogenesis of VVS. The diagnosis of VVS is mainly based on head-up tilt...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Xingfang Zeng, Wanzhen Mei, Yuwen Wang, Runmei Zou and Cheng Wang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:93

    Content type: Research

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  2. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common immune-mediated skin disease in childhood. Several treatment options for pediatric AD, both topical and systemic, are currently available. We carried out a single-cent...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Manuela Pace, Francesca Mori, Elio Novembre, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:92

    Content type: Research

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  3. Several studies have investigated the efficacy of balneotherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD), including a pediatric open randomized clinical trial conducted at the Comano thermal spring water center, which showed...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Ezio Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Stefania Farina, Manuela Pace, Cesare Filippeschi, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:91

    Content type: Research

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  4. Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and ad...

    Authors: Isabella Tarissi De Jacobis, Rosa Vona, Camilla Cittadini, Alessandra Marchesi, Laura Cursi, Lucrezia Gambardella, Alberto Villani and Elisabetta Straface

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:90

    Content type: Research

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  5. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

  6. The increased intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome may emerge depending on many different neurological factors and the early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of neurologic damage and re...

    Authors: Didar Arslan, Dinçer Yıldızdaş, Özden Özgür Horoz, Nagehan Aslan and Faruk İncecik

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:88

    Content type: Research

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  7. Cystic Fibrosis newborn screening (CFNBS) is the optimal method to diagnose the disease during the asymptomatic period. The aim of the study was to determine how CFNBS affects long term clinical outcomes.

    Authors: M. Olszowiec-Chlebna, E. Mospinek and J. Jerzynska

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:87

    Content type: Research

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  8. Several studies have shown that during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, emotional symptoms increased in the general population. Less is known about youths.

    Authors: Simone Pisano, Gennaro Catone, Antonella Gritti, Luisa Almerico, Anna Pezzella, Pia Santangelo, Carmela Bravaccio, Raffaella Iuliano and Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:86

    Content type: Research

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  9. The existing treatment options for neonatal seizures have expanded over the last few decades, but no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal therapeutic protocols. We systematically reviewed the avail...

    Authors: Raffaele Falsaperla, Bruna Scalia, Andrea Giugno, Piero Pavone, Milena Motta, Martina Caccamo and Martino Ruggieri

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:85

    Content type: Review

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  10. Despite the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy, virologic failure has become global public health concern and challenge, especially in developing countries. Viral load monitoring is an important approach...

    Authors: Belete Gelaw, Getasew Mulatu, Getasew Tesfa, Chalie Marew, Bogale Chekole and Animut Alebel

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:84

    Content type: Research

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  11. To evaluate cyclosporine A (CSA)-related neurotoxicity after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HID-HSCT) in children with hematopathy.

    Authors: Yong Wang, Yongzhi Zheng, Jingjing Wen, Jinhua Ren, Xiaohong Yuan, Ting Yang and Jianda Hu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:83

    Content type: Research

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  12. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is approved in Europe as a treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA) since 2003. However, no study evaluated the prevalence of SGA children with ...

    Authors: Gianluca Tamaro, Mariagrazia Pizzul, Giuliana Gaeta, Raffaella Servello, Marina Trevisan, Patricia Böhm, Paola Manera Ada Materassi, Anna Macaluso, Denis Valentini, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:82

    Content type: Research

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  13. De novo pathogenic variants in the DDX3X gene are reported to account for 1–3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) in females, leading to the rare disease known as DDX3X syndrome (MRXSSB, OMIM #300958). B...

    Authors: Giada Moresco, Jole Costanza, Carlo Santaniello, Ornella Rondinone, Federico Grilli, Elisabetta Prada, Simona Orcesi, Ilaria Coro, Anna Pichiecchio, Paola Marchisio, Monica Miozzo, Laura Fontana and Donatella Milani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:81

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Intestinal Ganglioneuromatosis (IG) is a rare disorder of the enteric nervous system. In pediatric age it is often associated with genetic syndromes such as Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), multiple endocrine neopla...

    Authors: Angela Mauro, Letizia Zenzeri, Francesco Esposito, Giovanni Gaglione, Caterina Strisciuglio, Emanuela Pilozzi, Vito Domenico Corleto, Chiara Ziparo and Giovanni Di Nardo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:80

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Despite the substantial efforts to improve timely/early initiation of breastfeeding, avoidance of colostrum, and delayed initiation of breastfeeding remains a big challenge in developing countries. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Tilahun Yemanu Birhan, Wullo Sisay Seretew and Muluneh Alene

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:77

    Content type: Research

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  16. National service systems in child healthcare are characterized by diversity and complexity. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary healthcare services create complex networks covering pediatric subspecial...

    Authors: Jochen Ehrich, Jürgen Manemann, Velibor Tasic and Natale Gaspare DeSanto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:76

    Content type: Review

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  17. Children and adolescents affected by somatization and somatic symptom disorder commonly refer to emergency services. Due to the absence of specific guidelines for the emergency setting and to a possible lack o...

    Authors: Giorgio Cozzi, Annunziata Lucarelli, Fabio Borrometi, Ilaria Corsini, Eva Passone, Sara Pusceddu, Giuliana Morabito, Egidio Barbi and Franca Benini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:74

    Content type: Research

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  18. According to most early-onset sepsis (EOS) management guidelines, approximately 10% of the total neonatal population are exposed to antibiotics in the first postnatal days with subsequent increase of neonatal ...

    Authors: Gianluigi Laccetta, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Cristina Tuoni, Emilio Sigali, Mario Miccoli and Armando Cuttano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:73

    Content type: Research

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  19. COVID-19 pandemic was responsible for disrupting routine immunization activities all over the world. Aim of the study was to investigate the reduced adherence to the national children vaccination schedule duri...

    Authors: Rocco Russo, Elena Bozzola, Paolo Palma, Giovanni Corsello and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:72

    Content type: Research

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  20. Gastrointestinal diseases such as celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), inflammatory bowel disease (IBDs) and acute or chronic diarrhea are quite frequent in the pediatric population. ...

    Authors: Valeria Dipasquale, Stefano Passanisi, Ugo Cucinotta, Antonio Cascio and Claudio Romano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:71

    Content type: Review

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  21. Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are malformations in the septum separating the heart’s ventricles. VSDs may present as a single anomaly (isolated/nonsyndromic VSD) or as part of a group of phenotypes (syndromic

    Authors: Sumbal Sarwar, Farah Ehsan, Shabana, Amna Tahir, Mahrukh Jamil, Saleem Ullah Shahid, Asim Khan and Shahida Hasnain

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:70

    Content type: Research

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  22. Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. According to the current clinical recommendations, its use during pregnancy should be ca...

    Authors: Elisabetta Godano, Fabio Barra, Alessandra Allodi, Antonella Ferraiolo, Alice Laroni, Giovanni Novi, Giovanni Luigi Mancardi, Claudio Gustavino and Cesare Arioni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:69

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Recent guidelines advocate the use of real-time ultrasound to locate umbilical venous catheter tip. So far, training programs are not well established.

    Authors: Serena Antonia Rubortone, Simonetta Costa, Alessandro Perri, Vito D’Andrea, Giovanni Vento and Giovanni Barone

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:68

    Content type: Research

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  24. Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition with wide variation in type and severity that involves persistent challenges in social interaction, speech and nonverbal communication, restricted/repetitive beh...

    Authors: Magda Di Renzo, Federico Bianchi di Castelbianco, Villani Alberto, Del Vecchio Antonio, Corsello Giovanni, Elena Vanadia, Massimiliano Petrillo, Trapolino Davide, Lidia Racinaro and Monica Rea

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:67

    Content type: Research

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  25. Early postanal growth of preterm infants has many effects on early and late health. However, evidence on growth pattern in Chinese preterm infant population during early life is insufficient. This study aims t...

    Authors: Junyan Han, Yuan Jiang, Jun Huang, Yue Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yi Zhang, Xiaotian Chen, Yun Li and Weili Yan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:66

    Content type: Research

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  26. Children often develop an asymptomatic form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but it is debated if children are at higher risk than adults to be asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV...

    Authors: Gregorio P. Milani, Paola Marchisio, Alessia Rocchi, Giuseppe Bertolozzi, Ludovico Furlan, Adriano La Vecchia, Carlo Agostoni and Giorgio Costantino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:65

    Content type: Research

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  27. Non-negligible differences in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its risk factors between different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are reported. Our aim was to assess the incidence and risk factors fo...

    Authors: Carlo Dani, Caterina Coviello, Fiorenza Panin, Saverio Frosini, Simonetta Costa, Velia Purcaro, Domenico Lepore and Giovanni Vento

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:64

    Content type: Research

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  28. Metabolic Acidosis (MA) is a disturbance of the acid-base balance that can occur in preterm and critically ill term neonates due to different etiologies. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been traditiona...

    Authors: Luca Massenzi, Roberto Aufieri, Silvia Donno, Rocco Agostino and Andrea Dotta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:63

    Content type: Research

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  29. Failure to thrive is a common reason for referral to paediatric services. Malnutrition or inadequate caloric intake is the most common cause, while organic form is unlikely in children who are asymptomatic and...

    Authors: Roberto Franceschi, Caterina Rizzardi, Evelina Maines, Alice Liguori, Massimo Soffiati and Gianluca Tornese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:62

    Content type: Research

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  30. We reported the case of a two-old-year boy with a painful acute hemorrhagic edema. This is a self-limited benign condition: usually, affected children are well appearing and this strongly support the diagnosis...

    Authors: Sarah Contorno, Giorgio Cozzi, Irene Berti, Egidio Barbi and Andrea Taddio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:61

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  31. Preschool children with clinically-diagnosed asthma have a higher rate of emergency department visits and consume more resources for management than older children. However, no clinical trials have yet been pe...

    Authors: Sebastiano Guarnaccia, Cristina Quecchia, Andrea Festa, Michele Magoni, Giuseppe Zenoni, Emanuele D’Agata, Valentina Brivio, Elena Zanardini, Carmelo Scarcella, Valeria Gretter, Susanna Facchetti, Cinzia Gasparotti, Ada Pluda, Malica Frassine, Rosa Maria Limina, Raffaele Spiazzi…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:60

    Content type: Research

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  32. Potential overlaps exist between psychopathological features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The impact of malnutrition on autistic traits in patients with AN should be considered....

    Authors: Jacopo Pruccoli, Altea Solari, Letizia Terenzi, Elisabetta Malaspina, Marida Angotti, Veronica Pignataro, Paola Gualandi, Leonardo Sacrato, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Emilio Franzoni and Antonia Parmeggiani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:59

    Content type: Research

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  33. Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a self-limited syndrome associated with viral infections characterized by symmetric lower extremity pain typically affecting school-aged children. Evolution in rhabdom...

    Authors: Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Mariani, Daniela Pirlo, Marta Romanengo, Angela Pistorio, Alberto Gaiero, Chiara Panicucci, Emanuela Piccotti and Claudio Bruno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:57

    Content type: Research

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  34. To verify the prevalence of novel definitions of familial short stature on a cross-sectional cohort of children referred for short stature when their height and that of both parents were measured.

    Authors: Veronica Grigoletto, Alessandro Agostino Occhipinti, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Fabio Sirchia, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:56

    Content type: Research

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  35. Lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half-year of life is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, less than 40% of infants below 6 months are exclusively breas...

    Authors: Alemnesh Abebe Taye, Wondwosen Asegidew, Mitku Mammo Taderegew, Yonas Girma Bizuwork and Betregiorgis Zegeye

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:55

    Content type: Research

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  36. Transcobalamin deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of cobalamin transport (prevalence: < 1/1000000) which clinically manifests in early infancy.

    Authors: Francesco Martino, Alessandra Magenta, Maria Letizia Troccoli, Eliana Martino, Concetta Torromeo, Carolina Putotto and Francesco Barillà

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:54

    Content type: Case report

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  37. The Neonatal Assessment Manual scorE (NAME) was developed to assist in the clinical management of infants in the neonatal ward by assessing their body’s compliance and homogeneity. The present study begins its...

    Authors: Andrea Manzotti, Marco Chiera, Matteo Galli, Erica Lombardi, Simona La Rocca, Pamela Biasi, Jorge Esteves, Gianluca Lista and Francesco Cerritelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:53

    Content type: Research

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  38. At the end of 2019, an emerging atypical pneumonia called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), caused by the novel coronavirus defined as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), was first...

    Authors: Martina Verzani, Carla Bizzarri, Laura Chioma, Giorgia Bottaro, Stefania Pedicelli and Marco Cappa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:52

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  39. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in Italy. Hypercholesterolemia is a modifiable CVD risk factor. The detection and treatment of hypercholesterolemia can modify ...

    Authors: Maria Elena Capra, Cristina Pederiva, Giuseppe Banderali and Giacomo Biasucci

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:51

    Content type: Research

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  40. Central precocious puberty is a condition characterized by precocious activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to organic causes, including syndromes such as Neu...

    Authors: Valentina Orlandi, Paolo Cavarzere, Laura Palma, Rossella Gaudino and Franco Antoniazzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:50

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), also known as 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, is a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome resulting from a deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

  42. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) represents a heterogeneous group of rare endocrine disorders caused by (epi) genetic abnormalities affecting the GNAS locus. It is mainly characterized by resistance to PTH and T...

    Authors: Daniele Tessaris, Elisa Bonino, Giovanna Weber, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Domenico Corica, Marco Pitea, Giuseppe Scirè, Manuela Caruso-Nicoletti, Danilo Fintini and Luisa de Sanctis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:48

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVI...

    Authors: Valentina Talarico, Luciano Pinto, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Antonella Centonze, Concetta Cristofaro, Rocco Reina, Agostino Nocerino, Riccardo Lubrano and Stefania Zampogna

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:47

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Glucocorticoid treatment is used in children with Graves’ disease (GD) only in cases of exophthalmos. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of glucocorticoid pulse therapy on thyroid function an...

    Authors: Yanyan Hu, Yulin Man, Xuemei Sun and Yongzhen Xue

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:46

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian...

    Authors: Riccardo Davanzo, Massimo Agosti, Irene Cetin, Antonio Chiantera, Giovanni Corsello, Luca A. Ramenghi, Annamaria Staiano, Marcello Tavio, Alberto Villani, Elsa Viora and Fabio Mosca

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:45

    Content type: Commentary

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  46. Serious bacterial infection (SBI) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamically increased value of the red cell distribut...

    Authors: Bin-Fang Guo and Su-Zhen Sun

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:44

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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