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  1. Child development is shaped throughout the first years of life through the interaction of genetics and the environment. Bayley-III is valuably used to determine early developmental delay (DD). The aim of this ...

    Authors: Zeinab M. Monir, Ebtissam M. Salah El-Din, Wafaa A. Kandeel, Sara F. Sallam, Eman Elsheikh, Mones M. Abushady, Fawzia Hasseb Allah, Sawsan Tawfik and Dina Abu Zeid
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:68
  2. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) appears in neurological conditions where some brain areas are likely to be injured, such as deep grey matter, basal ganglia area, and white matter subcortical periventricu...

    Authors: Juan Pablo Velasquez-Minoli, Natalia Cardona-Ramirez, Hernan Felipe Garcia-Arias, Feliza Restrepo-Restrepo and Gloria Liliana Porras-Hurtado
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:66
  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is responsible for the majority of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and can affect also older age groups. Restrictions linked to the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 p...

    Authors: Renato Cutrera, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Andrea Dotta, Carmen D’Amore, Lucilla Ravà, Carlo Federico Perno and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:65
  4. Functional constipation is a common problem in childhood and has a great impact on social, physical, and emotional functioning of affected children and their caregivers. No organic cause of the constipation ca...

    Authors: Flora Fedele, Maria Teresa Fioretti, Elena Scarpato, Massimo Martinelli, Caterina Strisciuglio and Erasmo Miele
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:64
  5. This study aims to thoroughly study the connection between congenital heart disease (CHD) and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) through observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) designs.

    Authors: Zhi-yuan Liu, Qiong-qiong Wang, Xian-yong Pang, Xiao-bi Huang, Gui-ming Yang and Sheng Zhao
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:63
  6. Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common form of congenital heart disease. Although several genes related to ASD have been found, the genetic factors of ASD remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the corre...

    Authors: Ye Jin, Miao Zhao, Qiuzhe Guo, Wanyu Zhao, Min Lei, Yifei Zhang, Yunhan zhang, Yan Shen, Keqin Lin, Zhaoqing Yang, Jiayou Chu, Hao Sun and Zhiling Luo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:62
  7. Breastfeeding plays a primary role in the events that characterize the development of the relationship between a mother and her newborn. However, this essential process sometimes does not fully cover the nutri...

    Authors: Andrea Arcusio, Maria Cristina Villa, Federica Felloni and Claudio Migliori
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:61
  8. The goal of our contribution is to discuss a preschool intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model and the use of the main tools for the detection of adaptive behaviour in cases of autism: Vineland, AB...

    Authors: Rosaria Ferrara, Felice Damato, Leonardo Iovino, Flavio Marti, Roberto Latina, Costanza Colombi and Pasquale Ricci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:60
  9. The aim of this study is to compare two groups of celiac patients: the first one, in which diagnosis was based on a “biopsy sparing” approach according to the 2012 ESPGHAN criteria, and the second one, based o...

    Authors: Salvatore Accomando, Ilenia Rita Piazza, Francesca Cacciatore, Veronica Notarbartolo, Giovanni Corsello and Mario Giuffrè
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:59
  10. Several studies have identified graded oxygen saturation targets to prevent retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a serious complication in preterm infants. We aimed to analyze the critical period of oxygen supple...

    Authors: Ho Jung Choi, Baek Sup Shin, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim and Han-Suk Kim
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:58
  11. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the leading causes of hospitalization due to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children younger than 5 years worldwide and the second cause of infant deat...

    Authors: Melania Dovizio, Chiara Veronesi, Fausto Bartolini, Arturo Cavaliere, Stefano Grego, Romina Pagliaro, Cataldo Procacci, Loredana Ubertazzo, Lorenzo Bertizzolo, Barbara Muzii, Salvatore Parisi, Valentina Perrone, Eugenio Baraldi, Elena Bozzola, Fabio Mosca and Luca Degli Esposti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:57
  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infections may lead to severe consequences in infants born preterm with breathing problems (such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)) o...

    Authors: Michela Servadio, Marco Finocchietti, Chiara Vassallo, Riccardo Cipelli, Franca Heiman, Giulia Di Lucchio, Bianca Oresta, Antonio Addis and Valeria Belleudi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:56
  13. Accurate estimation of the specialized pediatric palliative care (PPC) burden and the definition of the extent and quality of PPC service in Italy represent urgent needs to enable the proper allocation of PPC ...

    Authors: Franca Benini, Anna Mercante, Sara Di Nunzio and Simonetta Papa
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:55
  14. There are different findings on heart rate variability (HRV) and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (pOSA) by an overnight HRV or a 1-hr HRV. However, there is limited data of HRV and pOSA diagnosis by using a ...

    Authors: Nuntigar Sonsuwan, Krittika Houngsuwannakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn and Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:54
  15. Despite pediatric acute illnesses being leading causes of death and disability among children, acute and critical care services are not universally available in low-middle income countries, such as Tanzania, e...

    Authors: Vincenzo Mancini, Martina Borellini, Paolo Belardi, Maria Carolina Colucci, Emanuel Yuda Kadinde, Christina Mwibuka, Donald Maziku, Pasquale Parisi and Anteo Di Napoli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:53
  16. Orthostatic intolerance, which includes vasovagal syncope and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, is common in children and adolescents. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels might participate in the path...

    Authors: Yaqi Li, Baoling Bai, Hui Wang, Haojie Wu, Yanjun Deng, Chen Shen, Qin Zhang and Lin Shi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:52
  17. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), whose prevalence has widely increased in pediatric population during the past two decades. The exact pathophysiological mech...

    Authors: Giovanni Di Nardo, Giovanni Barbara, Osvaldo Borrelli, Cesare Cremon, Valentina Giorgio, Luigi Greco, Michele La Pietra, Giovanni Marasco, Licia Pensabene, Marisa Piccirillo, Claudio Romano, Silvia Salvatore, Michele Saviano, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Caterina Strisciuglio, Renato Tambucci…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:51
  18. Despite strategies and recommendations for complementary feeding initiation were applied globally, mothers initiated complementary feeding to the infants on time was low. Previous works of literatures were not...

    Authors: Tilahun Degu Tsega, Gashaw Melkie Bayeh, Kassaye Demeke Alemu, Abaynew Assemu Asrade, Abebaw Molla Kebede, Tamiru Alene, Zewdu Bishaw Aynalem, Bezawit Adane, Melaku Yalew, Molla Getie Mehari, Almaw Genet Yeshiwas, Tadesse Miretie Dessie, Eniyew Talie Fenta and Kefale Mitiku Haylu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:49
  19. Urinary and fecal incontinence in people dealing with spina bifida, has inevitably an influence on the quality of life. In this analysis, the degree of education on how to manage incontinence and retention is ...

    Authors: Fabiana Calabrese, Antonio Poziello, Gennaro Spiezia, Tiziana Rotunno, Ciro Chervino and Anna Maria Iannicelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:48
  20. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is characterized by the narrowing of airways during or after physical activity, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Distinguishin...

    Authors: Angela Klain, Mattia Giovannini, Luca Pecoraro, Simona Barni, Francesca Mori, Lucia Liotti, Carla Mastrorilli, Francesca Saretta, Riccardo Castagnoli, Stefania Arasi, Lucia Caminiti, Mariannita Gelsomino, Cristiana Indolfi, Michele Miraglia del Giudice and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:47
  21. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency or CIRCI is characterized by acute and life-threatening disfunction of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis observed among intensive care unit- stayin...

    Authors: Letteria Anna Morabito, Domenico Corica, Giorgia Pepe, Alessandra Li Pomi, Tommaso Aversa and Malgorzata Gabriela Wasniewska
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:46
  22. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a single-stranded RNA virus, is a leading cause of hospitalization in infants, especially ≤ 2 months of life. In the light new immunization strategies adoption, we described ...

    Authors: Francesca Fortunato, Angelo Campanozzi, Gianfranco Maffei, Fabio Arena, Valeria Delli Carri, Tiziana Rollo, Pier Luigi Lopalco and Domenico Martinelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:45
  23. In Italy, there is a network of centres headed by the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) for the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric cancers on almost the entire national territ...

    Authors: Roberto Rondelli, Tamara Belotti, Riccardo Masetti, Franco Locatelli, Maura Massimino, Alessandra Biffi, Carlo Dufour, Franca Fagioli, Giuseppe Menna, Andrea Biondi, Claudio Favre, Marco Zecca, Nicola Santoro, Giovanna Russo, Silverio Perrotta, Andrea Pession…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:44
  24. There is still a lack of data on blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood lead levels (BLLs) in healthy children of all ages from 0 to 18 years in China. This study was performed to analyze the BLLs and BCLs in heal...

    Authors: Hui Yan, Bo Zhai, Ruiling Feng, Penggao Wang, Fang Yang and Yang Zhou
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:43
  25. Asthma is one of the most common non-communicable diseases, and its prevalence and morbidity are influenced by a wide array of factors that are only partially understood. In addition to individual predispositi...

    Authors: Laura Bisoffi, Giovanni Sassudelli, Fabio Agostinis, Annalisa Cogo, Renato Cutrera, Irene Dalpiaz, Maria Elisa Di Cicco, Battista Guidi, Stefania La Grutta, Andrea Miceli, Francesca Mori, Giorgio Piacentini, Diego Peroni, Deborah Snjiders, Mattia Giovannini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:42
  26. TBX4 gene, located on human chromosome 17q23.2, encodes for T-Box Transcription Factor 4, a transcription factor that belongs to the T-box gene family and it is involved in the regulation of some embryonic develo...

    Authors: Chiara Maddaloni, Sara Ronci, Domenico Umberto De Rose, Iliana Bersani, Francesca Campi, Matteo Di Nardo, Francesca Stoppa, Rachele Adorisio, Antonio Amodeo, Alessandra Toscano, Maria Cristina Digilio, Antonio Novelli, Giovanni Chello, Annabella Braguglia, Andrea Dotta and Flaminia Calzolari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:41
  27. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening reaction characterized by the acute onset of symptoms involving different organ systems and requiring immediate medical intervention. The incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis i...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mariannita Gelsomino, Lucia Liotti, Simona Barni, Francesca Mori, Mattia Giovannini, Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Francesca Saretta, Riccardo Castagnoli, Stefania Arasi, Lucia Caminiti, Angela Klain and Michele Miraglia del Giudice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:40
  28. Previous studies of maternal iron and birth outcomes have been limited to single indicators that do not reflect the comprehensive relationship with birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship betw...

    Authors: Geng-dong Chen, Peng-sheng Li, Zi-xing Zhou, Hai-yan Wang, Xiao-yan Gou, Shao-xin Ye, Dong-xin Lin, Da-zhi Fan, Li-juan Wang and Zheng-ping Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:39
  29. The prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae has increased considerably. Treatment in children has become challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of doxycycline therapy for macrol...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Yan Zhang, Qiong-Ni Tang and Hong-Bo Shi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:38
  30. Home phototherapy (HPT) remains a contentious alternative to inpatient phototherapy (IPT) for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. To guide evidence-based clinical decision-making, we conducted a meta-analysis of rand...

    Authors: Rui Li, Tingting Li, Xudong Yan, Jing Feng, Zhangbin Yu and Cheng Chen
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:37
  31. Imported allergens are involved in many allergic reactions, with unexpected and unusual implications. They can be involved in developing asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, Hymenoptera venom allergies and fo...

    Authors: Luca Pecoraro, Mattia Giovannini, Francesca Mori, Simona Barni, Riccardo Castagnoli, Stefania Arasi, Carla Mastrorilli, Francesca Saretta, Lucia Liotti, Lucia Caminiti, Angela Klain, Mariannita Gelsomino, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:36
  32. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection mainly affects newborns, infants and young children aged < 2 years. Since an RSV vaccine is in the European Medicines Agency’s waitlist validation, nowadays the prev...

    Authors: Giulia Congedo, Gaia Surya Lombardi, Doris Zjalic, Mattia Di Russo, Emanuele La Gatta, Luca Regazzi, Giuseppe Indolfi, Annamaria Staiano and Chiara Cadeddu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:35
  33. The effect of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in the neonatal period on developing brain is still unknown. This study aims to investigate the long-term neurodevelopmental out...

    Authors: Ezgi Yangin Ergon, Senem Alkan Ozdemir, Sinem Akbay Ak, Meltem Yenilmez, Buse Soysal, Oğuz Han Kalkanlı, Şebnem Çalkavur and Tülin Gokmen Yıldırım
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:34
  34. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorders which may potentially led to a high risk of health medical complications, suicide and self-harming behaviour. Since Covid-19 pandemic onset in March 2020, evide...

    Authors: Maria Rosaria Marchili, Elena Bozzola, Stefano Guolo, Silvio Marchesani, Giulia Spina, Cristina Mascolo, Stefano Vicari, Isabella Tarissi De Jacobis, Massimiliano Raponi and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:33
  35. COVID-19 is generally milder in children than in adults, however severe infection has been described in some patients. Few data are available on use of Remdesivir (RDV) in children, as most clinical trials foc...

    Authors: Lorenza Romani, Marco Roversi, Stefania Bernardi, Elisabetta Venturini, Silvia Garazzino, Daniele Donà, Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Carlotta Montagnani, Elisa Funiciello, Francesca Ippolita Calò Carducci, Caterina Marabotto, Elio Castagnola, Filippo Salvini, Laura Lancella, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Luisa Galli…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:32
  36. Gram-negative bacilli represents an important pathogen in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) worldwide. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in these pathogens warrants attention for the proper management o...

    Authors: Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed Elsayed, Dina F. Badr, Nermene Youssef Abo El Kheir, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Abdelrahman Eid Mahmoud Mossad and Ehab Mohammed Fahmy Mahmoud
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:31
  37. Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (R-URTIs) pose a significant challenge in pediatric healthcare, affecting both children and their families. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk fac...

    Authors: Antonio Corsello, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Marina Picca, Roberto Buzzetti, Romeo Carrozzo, Mirko Gambino, Giovanni Chiaffoni, Paola Marchisio and Chiara Mameli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:30
  38. Notifications of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections have significantly increased in many European Countries compared to the previous season. In Italy, there has been an increase in streptococcal ...

    Authors: Maria De Filippo, Angela Klain, Ilaria Brambilla, Silvia Caimmi, Riccardo Castagnoli, Cristiana Indolfi, Giulio Dinardo, Amelia Licari, Alberto Martelli, Maria Angela Tosca, Martina Votto, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Michele Miraglia del Giudice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:29
  39. Limited evidence exists regarding the association between COVID-19 and Long COVID manifestations in children, particularly concerning variants of concern (VOCs). We aimed to characterize a cohort of pediatric ...

    Authors: Valeria Calcaterra, Veronica Maria Tagi, Enza D’Auria, Alessia Lai, Sara Zanelli, Chiara Montanari, Elia Maria Biganzoli, Giuseppe Marano, Elisa Borghi, Valentina Massa, Agostino Riva and Gianvincenzo Zuccotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:27
  40. The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) related containment measures led to the disruption of all virus distribution. Bronchiolitis-related hospitalizations shrank during 2020–2021, rebounding to pre-pandemic numbers ...

    Authors: Sergio Ghirardo, Nicola Ullmann, Alessandro Zago, Michele Ghezzi, Marta Minute, Barbara Madini, Enza D’Auria, Cecilia Basile, Francesca Castelletti, Federica Chironi, Agata Capodiferro, Beatrice Andrenacci, Francesco Maria Risso, Salvatore Aversa, Laura Dotta, Antonella Coretti…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:25
  41. Delirium, a form of acute cerebral dysfunction, is a common complication of postoperative cardiac surgery in children. It is strongly associated with adverse outcomes, including prolonged hospitalization, incr...

    Authors: Maoling Fu, Quan Yuan, Qiaoyue Yang, Wenshuai Song, Yaqi Yu, Ying Luo, Xiaoju Xiong and Genzhen Yu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:24
  42. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), COVID-19 related infection has been increasingly recognized with a paucity of data on AKI incidence, related mortality, and t...

    Authors: Hanan El-Halaby, Riham Eid, Ahmed Elagamy, Ahmed El-Hussiny, Fatma Moustafa, Ayman Hammad and Mayada Zeid
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:23
  43. Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS), though rare, has increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Early diagnosis is crucial to improve the prognosis of KDSS patients. Our study aimed to identify risk ...

    Authors: Mingming Zhang, Congying Wang, Qirui Li, Hongmao Wang and Xiaohui Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:22
  44. Diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) in children can be challenging, given that symptoms are often non-specific or absent, and that the direct observation of the tympanic membrane in its entirety through otos...

    Authors: Francesco Folino, Marco Caruso, Pietro Bosi, Mirko Aldè, Sara Torretta and Paola Marchisio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:19
  45. Within 6 months of the coronavirus pandemic, a new disease entity associated with a multisystem hyperinflammation syndrome as a result of a previous infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus is increasingly being id...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Chen, Hsu-Yen Kao, Ching-Hua Huang, Chia-Jung Li, Cheng-Hsien Hung and Su-Boon Yong
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:18
  46. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology that predominantly affects children, and no specific diagnostic biomarkers for KD are available. Platelet-derived growth factor CC (PDG...

    Authors: Jing Zhang, Penghui Yang, Yihao Liu, Zhuo Chen, Jinhui Wu, Siqi Feng and Qijian Yi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:16
  47. The term “sharenting”, defining the practice of sharing children’s photos on social media, has become widespread globally. This phenomenon introduces new risks for children, often overlooked by parents lacking...

    Authors: Antonio Gatto, Antonio Corsello and Pietro Ferrara
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:15

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