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  1. During the COVID-19 pandemic, accesses to pediatric health care services decreased, as well as the consumption of traditional drugs, while the median cost per patient at the emergency department slightly incre...

    Authors: Roberto Franceschi, Evelina Maines, Angelamaria Petrone, Simone Bilato, Ilaria Trentini, Lorenzo Di Spazio, Luca Leonardi, Massimo Soffiati and Andrea Francesconi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:82
  2. Robust routine immunization schedules for pertussis-containing vaccines have been applied for years, but pertussis outbreaks remain a worldwide problem. This study aimed to investigate the association between ...

    Authors: Yuning Wang, Naiyang Shi, Qiang Wang, Liuqing Yang, Tingting Cui and Hui Jin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:81
  3. To examine the clinical impact of bronchoscope alveolar lavage (BAL) combination with budesonide, ambroxol + budesonide, or acetylcysteine + budesonide in the treatment of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneu...

    Authors: Yanli Wang, Kai Liu, Chuangui Chen and Chengyun Zhang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:80
  4. In recent decades some studies described the frequent co-occurrence of celiac disease autoimmunity and overt celiac disease in patients with autism. Therefore, it was suggested that celiac disease could play a...

    Authors: Stefania Zambrano, Barbara Parma, Valeria Morabito, Silvia Borini, Roberta Romaniello, Massimo Molteni, Elisa Mani and Angelo Selicorni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:79
  5. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been the mainstay of treatment for Kawasaki disease (KD) over the past decades. However, 10–20% of KD patients are resistant to IVIG treatment which puts those patients at...

    Authors: Rui Zhang, Shuping Shuai, Hongxi Zhang, Jianghui Cai, Na Cui, Mi Tang, Shasha Xing, Yu Gao, Xia Liu and Xiao Yang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:78
  6. Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a frequent genetic disorder characterised by high plasma levels of total and LDL-cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis. If left untreated, affected subjects have a hi...

    Authors: Maria Elena Capra, Giacomo Biasucci, Elisa Crivellaro, Giuseppe Banderali and Cristina Pederiva
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:77
  7. The prevalence of children with medical complexity is increasing, therefore drug formulations must be updated in accordance with their needs. Furthermore, a different drug formulation may be also needed for pa...

    Authors: Francesca Burlo, Davide Zanon, Paola Minghetti, Valentina Taucar, Giulia Benericetti, Giada Bennati, Egidio Barbi and Lucia De Zen
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:76
  8. Malnutrition including undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies are considerable problems worldwide, with variable burdens among different communities. Its complications include physical a...

    Authors: Hanan Mina Fouad, Aly Yousef, Ahmed Afifi, Ahmed A. Ghandour, Amira Elshahawy, Ayman Elkhawass, Hazem Hawees, Eman Shaheen, Mohamed Alaaeldin, Mostafa Kamal, Samah Bastawy, Samah Rabie, Farah Wissa and Sherine Shalaby
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:75
  9. Drowning is the third leading cause of injury death in the pediatric population worldwide, with incidence peaking among those aged 1–4 years and again in adolescence.

    Authors: Francesco Pellegrino, Irene Raffaldi, Roberta Rossi, Barbara De Vito, Manuela Pagano, Davide Garelli and Claudia Bondone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:74
  10. Pyomyositis is an unusual bacterial infection but potential severe in children. Staphylococcus Aureus is the main caused of this disease (70–90%), following by Streptococcus Pyogenes (4–16%). Streptococcus Pne...

    Authors: Luca Barchi, Michele Fastiggi, Ilaria Bassoli, Federico Bonvicini, Monica Silvotti, Lorenzo Iughetti and Alessandro De Fanti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:73
  11. It is known that human milk fortifiers (HMF) increases osmolality of human milk (HM) but some aspects of fortification have not been deeply investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fortification on ...

    Authors: Serena Elia, Martina Ciarcià, Nicoletta Cini, Francesca Luceri, Mauro Leucio Mattei, Francesca Miselli, Silvia Perugi, Alessandra Fanelli and Carlo Dani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:72
  12. Gender dysphoria is a clinical condition characterized by significant distress due to the discordance between biological sex and gender identity. Currently, gender dysphoria is also found more frequently in ch...

    Authors: Ginevra Micangeli, Giovanni Profeta, Fiorenza Colloridi, Federica Pirro, Francesca Tarani, Giampiero Ferraguti, Matteo Spaziani, Andrea M. Isidori, Michela Menghi, Marco Fiore and Luigi Tarani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:71
  13. This Position Statement updates the different components of the therapy of obesity (lifestyle intervention, drugs, and surgery) in children and adolescents, previously reported in the consensus position statem...

    Authors: Claudio Maffeis, Francesca Olivieri, Giuliana Valerio, Elvira Verduci, Maria Rosaria Licenziati, Valeria Calcaterra, Gloria Pelizzo, Mariacarolina Salerno, Annamaria Staiano, Sergio Bernasconi, Raffaele Buganza, Antonino Crinò, Nicola Corciulo, Domenico Corica, Francesca Destro, Procolo Di Bonito…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:69
  14. Sleep disorders refer to physiological and psychological states that cause adverse consequences due to the inability to fall asleep or poor sleep quality. The prevalence of sleep disorders varies greatly in di...

    Authors: Yongwei Gao, Peiru Xu, Maiming Aizetiguli, Shan Surong, Zhaoxuan Zhu and Jing Zhang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:68
  15. To explore the impact of the transition from a traditional face-to-face course delivering essential contents in pediatric critical care to a hybrid format consisting of an online pre-course self-directed learn...

    Authors: Anna Zanin, Angela Aramburo Caragol, Luca Tortorolo, Michele Patui, Beatrice Pedrini, Joe Brierley, Bruce Lister and Paola Cogo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:67
  16. Bronchiolitis is a major cause of hospitalization in infants, particularly in the first six months of life, with approximately 60–80% of admissions due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Currently...

    Authors: Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Daniela Loconsole, Francesca Centrone, Desiree Caselli, Baldassarre Martire, Lorenzo Quartulli, Angelo Acquafredda, Gabriele D’Amato, Gianfranco Maffei, Giuseppe Latorre, Anita Riganti, Michele Di Noia, Maria Chironna and Nicola Laforgia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:66
  17. This narrative non-systematic review addresses the sex-specific differences observed both in prenatal period and, subsequently, in early childhood. Indeed, gender influences the type of birth and related compl...

    Authors: Claudio Migliori, Marta Braga, Virginia Siragusa, Maria Cristina Villa and Livio Luzi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:65
  18. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) could be classified as 5q and non-5q, based on the chromosomal location of causative genes. A rare form of non-5q SMA is an autosomal-recessive condition called spinal muscular at...

    Authors: Ali Najafi, Behnoosh Tasharrofi, Farshid Zandsalimi, Maryam Rasulinezhad, Masood Ghahvechi Akbari, Gholamreza Zamani, Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi and Morteza Heidari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:64
  19. In patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI), adrenal crisis (AC) represents a clinical emergency. Early recognition and prompt management of AC or AC-risk conditions in the Emergency Department (ED) can reduce...

    Authors: Enrica Abrigo, Jessica Munarin, Claudia Bondone, Gerdi Tuli, Emanuele Castagno, Luisa de Sanctis and Patrizia Matarazzo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:63
  20. To investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic electrocoagulation haemostasis via a percutaneous transhepatic approach for the treatment of grade IV haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogeneic haematopoi...

    Authors: Hai-chao Liu, Yun-bo Yang, Peng Zhang, Jia-xing Zhang, Zhi-sheng Pei, Bo-wen Chen, Gui-qian Liu and Hui Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:62
  21. Acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) and acute cerebellitis represent disorders characterized by a para-infectious, post-infectious, or post-vaccination cerebellar inflammation. They are relatively common neurologic ...

    Authors: Nicola Adriano Monzani, Antonio Corsello, Claudia Tagliabue, Raffaella Pinzani, Eleonora Mauri, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio Paolo Milani and Robertino Dilena
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:61
  22. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a medium vessel vasculitis, of unknown etiology, typically presenting in children younger than 5 years of age. Prolonged fever (at least five days) is a major clinical criterion of KD,...

    Authors: Wenyan Jiao, Li Wei, Fuyong Jiao, Dorina Pjetraj, Jianying Feng, Jvyan Wang, Carlo Catassi and Simona Gatti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:60
  23. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most alarming concerns in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in pediatric age. Prevalence of DKA at the onset of diabetes ranges from 30 to 40%. In selected cases...

    Authors: Stefano Passanisi, Giuseppina Salzano, Pietro Basile, Bruno Bombaci, Flavia Caime, Immacolata Rulli, Mariella Valenzise, Eloisa Gitto and Fortunato Lombardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:58
  24. Tacrolimus is the backbone drug in kidney transplantation. Single nucleotide polymorphism of Multidrug resistant 1 gene can affect tacrolimus metabolism consequently it can affect tacrolimus trough level and i...

    Authors: Mai S Korkor, Tarek el-desoky, Youssef M Mosaad, Doaa M. Salah and Ayman Hammad
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:57
  25. Preterm birth is a risk factor for a child’s neurological development. Preterm children have unusual neurodevelopmental profiles with executive, visual-motor functions, fine and gross motor skills, language an...

    Authors: Nadia Battajon, Chiara Bechini, Federica De Osti, Anna Galletti, Anna Chiara Frigo and Paola Lago
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:56
  26. Stress and over-care burden are problems for mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Therefore, it seems necessary to evaluation of coping with stress according to the burden of care for these...

    Authors: Shabnam Rasoulpoor, Nader Salari, Amir Shiani, Behnam Khaledi-Paveh and Masoud Mohammadi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:53
  27. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of fluconazole for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and to provide a basis for the clinical...

    Authors: Jinghong Xie, Jiayue Zeng and Shouyan Zheng
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:51
  28. Social distancing and quarantine imposed by the authority during the COVID-19 pandemic caused restrictions, which had a negative impact on eating behavior, especially among adolescents. We proposed a retrospec...

    Authors: Elisabetta Straface, Isabella Tarissi De Jacobis, Teresa Capriati, Italo Pretelli, Annalisa Grandin, Cristina Mascolo, Rosa Vona, Lucrezia Gambardella, Camilla Cittadini, Alberto Villani and Maria Rosaria Marchili
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:50
  29. Clinical manifestations of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection are diverse. This study aimed to explore the immune response in EBV-related diseases and the correlation between immune cells and adenosine deamina...

    Authors: Ting Shi, Qi Ding, Xinglou Liu, Guo Ai, Hua Zhou and Linlin Huang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:49
  30. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is a developmental neurological disorder that has three basic characteristics: Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study aimed to investigate the ...

    Authors: Nader Salari, Hooman Ghasemi, Nasrin Abdoli, Adibeh Rahmani, Mohammad Hossain Shiri, Amir Hossein Hashemian, Hakimeh Akbari and Masoud Mohammadi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:48
  31. A stressor such as a pandemic is a trigger to focus on the study of the psycho-emotional impact on children and adolescents from a nursing care perspective. The aim of this systematized review was to know the ...

    Authors: Mª Teresa García-Rodríguez, Iria Juanatey-Rodríguez, Rocío Seijo-Bestilleiro and Cristina González-Martin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:47
  32. The optimal therapeutic window to start intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for Kawasaki disease (KD) is highly debatable. We aimed to summarize the existing literature to evaluate the therapeutic window of IVIG...

    Authors: Zheng Li, Jianghui Cai, Jing Lu, Mingju Wang, Chenmei Yang, Zheng Zeng, Qian Tang, Jianhong Li, Wen Tang, Huiling Luo, Gaofeng Pan and Xingmao Zeng
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:45
  33. There is still a lack of effective scoring criteria for assessing the severity of pulmonary infection associated with changes in the endobronchial lining of the bronchus in children. This study aimed to ascert...

    Authors: Xiangtao Wu, Weihong Lu, Xinquan Sang, Yali Xu, Tuanjie Wang, Xiaowen Zhan, Jie Hao, Ruijuan Ren, Hanshi Zeng and Shujun Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:44
  34. Maternal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is at greater risk of pregnancy complications and is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery. However hardly any study has looked at the influence of SLE ...

    Authors: Xiafang Chen, Wen Di, Lili Ye, Yabin Hu, Meng Jiang, Jiayue Wu, Jun Bu, Jianhua Sun and Fei Bei
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:43
  35. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, is a slow-growing Gram-negative coccobacillus, member of the HACEK group of bacteria colonizing oral flora....

    Authors: Maria Alessia Mesturino, Carol Bitetti, Anna Clemente, Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Laura Lancella, Roberta Lombardi, Laura Cursi, Elena Boccuzzi, Anna Maria Musolino and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:42
  36. In 2016, we performed a one-day investigation to analyze the prevalence of pain, pain intensity, and pain therapy in the Departments of Surgery and Onco-Hematology of the Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù. To i...

    Authors: Giuliano Marchetti, Alessandro Vittori, Marco Cascella, Ilaria Mascilini, Simone Piga, Emiliano Petrucci, Aurora Castellano, Roberta Caruso, Elisa Francia, Francesca Stocchi, Franco Marinangeli, Alessandro Inserra and Sergio Giuseppe Picardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:41
  37. Rates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased worldwide over recent years, but the Italian Institute of Health reported a disruption to this trend in 2021 compared with 2020. Children are often recipie...

    Authors: Alice Monzani, Giulia Minelli and Ivana Rabbone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:40
  38. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe condition in immunocompromised children, but the optimal management is still under debate. In order to better clarify this issue, a literature search was perf...

    Authors: Vito Terlizzi, Marco Antonio Motisi, Roberta Pellegrino, Luisa Galli, Giovanni Taccetti and Elena Chiappini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:39
  39. Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by elevated serum titers of autoantibodies IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (TGA-IgA) and IgA anti-endomysial (EMA), with small bowel mucosa atrophy. We evaluated age dif...

    Authors: Chiara Maria Trovato, Monica Montuori, Beatrice Leter, Ilaria Laudadio, Giusy Russo and Salvatore Oliva
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:38
  40. In Sicily, the first wave of COVID-19 showed a low epidemic impact in paediatric population, while the second and the third waves had a higher impact on clinical presentation of COVID-19 in children and a sign...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Salvatore Giordano, Maria Concetta Failla, Martina Gioacchina Campione, Annalisa Alaimo and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:37
  41. Acute pain is a common symptom in children of all ages, and is associated with a variety of conditions. Despite the availability of guidelines, pain often remains underestimated and undertreated. Paracetamol a...

    Authors: Niccolò Parri, Davide Silvagni, Alberto Chiarugi, Elisabetta Cortis, Antonio D’Avino, Marcello Lanari, Paola Giovanna Marchisio, Cesare Vezzoli, Stefania Zampogna and Annamaria Staiano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:36
  42. To date, no studies on presepsin values in cord blood of term infants with risk factors for early-onset sepsis (EOS) are available, whereas only one study reported presepsin values in cord blood of preterm inf...

    Authors: Francesca Priolo, Luca Maggio, Simona Fattore, Marta Tedesco, Domenico Umberto De Rose, Alessandro Perri, Giorgia Prontera, Roberto Chioma, Annamaria Sbordone, Maria Letizia Patti and Giovanni Vento
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:35
  43. In Italy, the State Regions Conference on 1st August 2019 approved the Guidelines for Short-Stay Observation (SSO). At the beginning of 2022, the main Scientific Societies of the pediatric hospital emergency-urge...

    Authors: Luciano Pinto, Sonia Bianchini, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Gabriella Cherchi, Andrea Miceli, Maria Pia Mirauda, Valeria Spica Russotto, Irene Raffaldi, Tiziana Zangardi, Domenico Perri, Rino Agostiniani, Simone Rugolotto, Fabio Cardinale, Stefania Zampogna and Annamaria Staiano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:34

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