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  1. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a type of encephalopathy mediated by an antigenic immune response in the central nervous system. Most research related to autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is focused on early diagno...

    Authors: Jin-Yue Huang, Wen-Xuan Fan, Jing Meng, Chun-Quan Cai and Dong Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:94
  2. COVID toes or chilblain-like skin lesions have been widely reported during COVID-19 pandemic. Most cases were described in patients with negative microbiological tests for SARS-CoV-2, therefore the possible re...

    Authors: Roberto Paparella, Luigi Tarani, Enrico Properzi, Francesco Costantino, Chiara Saburri, Roberta Lucibello, Antonio Richetta, Alberto Spalice and Lucia Leonardi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:93
  3. In this study, we used the novel DeepGestalt technology powered by Face2Gene (FDNA Inc., MA, USA) in suggesting a correct diagnosis based on the facial gestalt of well-known multiple anomaly syndromes. Only mo...

    Authors: Giulia Pascolini, Mauro Calvani and Paola Grammatico
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:91
  4. Intercepting earlier suspected TB (Tuberculosis) cases clinically is necessary to reduce TB incidence, so we described signs and symptoms of retrospective cases of pulmonary TB and tried to evaluate which coul...

    Authors: Elisa Farina, Carmen D’Amore, Laura Lancella, Elena Boccuzzi, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Antonino Reale, Paolo Rossi, Alberto Villani, Massimiliano Raponi and Umberto Raucci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:90
  5. The Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of genital ambiguity in persons with XX sexual chromosomes. Genital ambiguity among persons with XY sexual chromosom...

    Authors: Reinaldo Luna de Omena Filho, Reginaldo José Petroli, Fernanda Caroline Soardi, Débora de Paula Michelatto, Taís Nitsch Mazzola, Helena Fabbri-Scallet, Maricilda Palandi de Mello, Susane Vasconcelos Zanotti, Ida Cristina Gubert and Isabella Monlleo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:89
  6. COVID-19 lockdown caused sudden changes in people’s lifestyle, as a consequence of the forced lockdown imposed by governments all over the world. We aimed to evaluate the impact of lockdown on body mass index ...

    Authors: Giulia Brindisi, Vincenza Patrizia Di Marino, Francesca Olivero, Daniela De Canditiis, Giovanna De Castro, Anna Maria Zicari and Caterina Anania
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:88
  7. Epidemiologic data suggest an increased prevalence of pediatric food allergies and intolerances (FAIs) during the last decades. This changing scenario has led to an increase in the overall healthcare costs, du...

    Authors: Roberto Berni Canani, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Alberto Martelli, Laura Carucci, Tommaso Cozzolino, Patrizia Alvisi, Carlo Agostoni, Paolo Lionetti and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:87
  8. Children’s HIV-positive status disclosure is an essential component of chronic care & long-term disease management. The modalities of status disclosure are complex and vary across different communities. Althou...

    Authors: Belete Gelaw Walle, Chalie Marew Tiruneh, Tigabu Dessie, Nigusie Selomon, Amare Kassaw, Bogale Chekole, Moges Wubneh, Tadele Lankrew and Wubet Alebachew Bayih
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:86
  9. Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by cardiovascular manifestations, especially aortic dilatations and arterial tortuosity, craniofacial and skeletal features, joint ...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Laura Morra, Agnese Feresin, Flavio Faletra, Yasmin Al Naber, Luigi Memo and Laura Travan
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:85
  10. Limping and/or refusal to walk is a common complaint in the setting of the pediatric department, with a widely diverse differential diagnosis. An unusual etiology, is that of a hereditary neuropathy.

    Authors: Shani Karklinsky, Shir Kugler, Omer Bar-Yosef, Andreea Nissenkorn, Anat Grossman-Jonish, Irit Tirosh, Asaf Vivante and Ben Pode-Shakked
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:84
  11. Long COVID-19 syndrome is a complex of symptoms that occurs after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the absence of other possible diagnoses. Studies on Long COVID-19 in pediatric population are scanty and het...

    Authors: Gianfranco Trapani, Giuseppe Verlato, Enrico Bertino, Giulia Maiocco, Roberta Vesentini, Alessia Spadavecchia, Angelica Dessì and Vassilios Fanos
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:83
  12. Ophthalmoplegic migraine, renamed "Recurrent Painful Ophthalmoplegic Neuropathy" (RPON) in 2013 by the International Headache Society is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of ophthalmop...

    Authors: Raffaele Falsaperla, Santiago Presti, Manuela Lo Bianco, Stefano Catanzaro, Silvia Marino and Martino Ruggieri
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:82
  13. Providing appropriate care at birth remains a crucial strategy for reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the consistency of practice and the adherence to the international guidelines ...

    Authors: Camilla Gizzi, Daniele Trevisanuto, Luigi Gagliardi, Giulia Vertecchi, Stefano Ghirardello, Sandra Di Fabio, Corrado Moretti and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:81
  14. S100B is an established biomarker of brain development and damage. Lutein (LT) is a naturally occurring xanthophyll carotenoid mainly concentrated in the central nervous system (CNS), but its neurotrophic role...

    Authors: Simonetta Picone, Alberto Ritieni, Giulia Graziani, Piermichele Paolillo, Ebe D’Adamo, Valentina Botondi, Daniele Panichi, Sara Torresi, Daniela David, Armando di Ludovico, Francesco Chiarelli and Diego Gazzolo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:80
  15. SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric age group has a milder course than in adults, but in some cases even children may present with severe forms or develop long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to...

    Authors: Silvia Bloise, Sara Isoldi, Alessia Marcellino, Enrica De Luca, Anna Dilillo, Saverio Mallardo, Vanessa Martucci, Mariateresa Sanseviero, Emanuela Del Giudice, Donatella Iorfida, Rita Leone, Alessia Testa, Beatrice Frasacco, Pietro Gizzone, Claudia Proietti Ciolli, Alessandro Sinceri…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:79
  16. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and exacerbation of extant chronic disease worldwide. Influenza vaccination is thus fundamental to reduce the burden of disease. In this study, we describe th...

    Authors: Floriana D’Ambrosio, Teresa Eleonora Lanza, Rosaria Messina, Leonardo Villani, Angelo Maria Pezzullo, Walter Ricciardi, Aldo Rosano and Chiara Cadeddu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:77
  17. BNT162b2 vaccine, developed by BioNTech and Pfizer ha recently approved for use in children aged 5 to 11 years. Recent data show evidence of safety on the administration and serious adverse events have been ra...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mariangela Tosca, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Fabio Cardinale, Riccardo Castagnoli, Elena Chiappini, Claudio Cravidi, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Marzia Duse, Amelia Licari, Sara Manti, Alberto Martelli, Giampaolo Ricci, Giuseppe Pingitore and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:76
  18. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak pushed the Italian government to start a strict lockdown, replacing school attendance with long-distance learning. This caused reduced exposure to sunlight but increased exposure to scr...

    Authors: Marzio Masini, Giulia Brindisi, Mattia Giovannini, Elia Pignataro, Laura Di Grande, Cinzia De Libero, Marcella Nebbioso, Francesca Mori, Roberto Caputo and Anna Maria Zicari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:74
  19. The pathogenic variation of CASK gene can cause CASK related mental disorders. The main clinical manifestations are microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, X-linked mental disorders with or without n...

    Authors: Ying Zhang, Yanyan Nie, Yu Mu, Jie Zheng, Xiaowei Xu, Fang Zhang, Jianbo Shu and Yang Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:73
  20. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a well-defined disorder, whose core phenotype encompasses growth restriction, facial gestalt, intellectual disability and seizures. Nevertheless, great phenotypic variability ...

    Authors: Luisa Cortellazzo Wiel, Irene Bruno, Egidio Barbi and Fabio Sirchia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:72
  21. Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome is a rare multiple-malformation syndrome secondary to somatic activating mutations in the PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway. This is included in a heterogeneous group of diso...

    Authors: Roberta Rotunno, Andrea Diociaiuti, Elisa Pisaneschi, Claudia Carnevale, Marialisa Dentici and May El Hachem
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:71
  22. To date, there is insufficient knowledge about the association of air pollution and childhood nephrotic syndrome in the real world. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the three common gaseous air poll...

    Authors: Chieh Wang, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Lei Wan, Cheng-Li Lin and Chang-Ching Wei
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:70
  23. The association between medically assisted reproduction and pregnancy planning on overall developmental outcomes of infants has been studied in relatively few studies. The availability of accurate tools for th...

    Authors: Anna Szabina Szele, József Mihály Gáll and Beáta Erika Nagy
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:69
  24. Children and adolescents and low-income individuals are considered particularly vulnerable for mental health implications during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Depression is a frequent negative emotional respo...

    Authors: Maria Serra, Anna Presicci, Luigi Quaranta, Maria Rosaria Erminia Urbano, Lucia Marzulli, Emilia Matera, Francesco Margari and Lucia Margari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:68
  25. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent worldwide and can cause severe diseases. MRSA is associated with other antibiotic resistance. COVID-19 pandemic increased antimicrobial resis...

    Authors: Adriano La Vecchia, Giulio Ippolito, Vittoria Taccani, Elisabetta Gatti, Patrizia Bono, Silvia Bettocchi, Raffaella Pinzani, Claudia Tagliabue, Samantha Bosis, Paola Marchisio and Carlo Agostoni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:67

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:134

  26. Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) represents one of the most common chronic diseases in pediatric age, few studies on the epidemiology of T1D exist globally and the exact prevalence and incidence rates of the dis...

    Authors: Stefano Passanisi, Giuseppina Salzano, Monica Aloe, Bruno Bombaci, Felice Citriniti, Fiorella De Berardinis, Rosaria De Marco, Nicola Lazzaro, Maria C. Lia, Rosanna Lia, Francesco Mammì, Filomena A. Stamati, Rosanna M. R. Toscano, Claudia Ventrici, Dario Iafusco and Fortunato Lombardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:66
  27. Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS) belongs to RASopathies, a group of conditions caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway. It is...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Sofia Felice, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Rita Di Pace, Mario Giuffrè, Ettore Piro and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:65
  28. In recent years, reports of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) have gradually increased, including reports on how these conditions threaten the lives of children. However, the specific mechanism of...

    Authors: Yujie Fan, Ying Ding, Yuqin Li, Dandan Zhang, Min Yu, Wei-fang Zhou and Xiaoxing Kong
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:64
  29. For infants exposed in utero to Toxoplasma gondii, current guidelines recommend monitoring the specific antibody titer until 12 months of age. In this study, we investigated the antibody titer decay in the mother...

    Authors: Serena Salomè, Claudia Grieco, Pasquale Fabio Barra, Eleonora Capone, Fiorentino Grasso, Francesca Carraturo, Pasquale Dolce, Paola Salvatore, Letizia Capasso and Francesco Raimondi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:63
  30. Osteoarthritis and condylar resorption of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has rarely been reported in children as consequence of otologic disease. We describe the management of a case in a 9-year-old female as l...

    Authors: Paola Festa, Elena Arezzo, Giulia Vallogini, Anna Chiara Vittucci, Domenico Barbuti and Angela Galeotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:62
  31. Trachoma is an infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydial trachomatis. It is a major health problem in poor nations, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the severity of the problem, there was a scarcity of da...

    Authors: Alebachew Shimelash, Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Henok Dagne, Getenet Mihiretie, Yonas Lamore, Eniyew Tegegne and Lake Kumlachew
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:61
  32. Increased incidence of central precocious puberty (CPP) after coronavirus infectious disease-19 lockdown has been reported. Our study aims in investigating changes in CPP rates and in sleep patterns in CPP and...

    Authors: Giuseppina R Umano, Ivan Maddaluno, Simona Riccio, Francesca Lanzaro, Rachele Antignani, Maria Giuliano, Caterina Luongo, Adalgisa Festa, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Anna Grandone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:60
  33. Several mutations of bilirubin uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1) have been reported in patients with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Few reports are available about the p.Pro364Leu mut...

    Authors: Laura Cozzi, Federica Nuti, Irene Degrassi, Daniela Civeriati, Giulia Paolella and Gabriella Nebbia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:59
  34. Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a disabling and chronic genodermatosis characterized by mucocutaneous fragility with blister formation after minimal trauma. Severity ranges between very mild forms to extremely s...

    Authors: Chiara Retrosi, Andrea Diociaiuti, Cristiana De Ranieri, Marialuisa Corbeddu, Claudia Carnevale, Simona Giancristoforo, Maria Rosaria Marchili, Guglielmo Salvatori, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Maya El Hachem and Massimiliano Raponi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:58
  35. Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of death and health costs in developed countries. Although cardiovascular diseases are thought to affect only adulthood, the underlying process of atherosclerosis be...

    Authors: Maria Candelino, Veronica Maria Tagi and Francesco Chiarelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:57
  36. Bullying is recognized as one of the most significant social and health problems in the school environment for children and adolescents. In Italy, bullying involved 2 in 10 kids between 11–17 years that referr...

    Authors: Claudio Costantino, Walter Mazzucco, Francesco Scarpitta, Gianmarco Ventura, Claudia Marotta, Stefania Enza Bono, Evelina Arcidiacono, Maurizio Gentile, Pierfrancesco Sannasardo, Carlo Roberto Gambino, Claudia Emilia Sannasardo, Carlotta Vella, Francesco Vitale, Alessandra Casuccio and Vincenzo Restivo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:56
  37. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inborn error of immunity. It is characterized by recurrent bacterial or fungal infections, including infections by Burkholderia species. This is due to respiratory burst ...

    Authors: Qianqian Zhao, Jing Yin, Jijun Ma, Xiaoxue Liu, Jiawen Wu and Chongwei Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:55
  38. Understanding how the use of hoverboards (HBs) can affect a child’s safety is crucial. We describe the characteristics of HB related injuries and provide key messages about child prevention when using these le...

    Authors: Valentina Ferro, Raffaella Nacca, Elena Boccuzzi, Tatiana Federici, Chiara Ossella, Alessandra Merenda, Renato Maria Toniolo, Anna Maria Musolino, Antonino Reale and Umberto Raucci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:54
  39. Childhood obesity increases the risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are traditional obesity indices, but the exten...

    Authors: Xiao Tang, Yang Liu, Jiajin Hu, Lingling Zhai, Lihong Jia, Ning Ding, Yanan Ma and Deliang Wen
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:53
  40. One reason that asthma remains poorly controlled in children is poor inhaler technique. Guidelines recommend checking inhaler technique at each clinical visit. However, they do not specify how best to train ch...

    Authors: Patrick McCrossan, Orla Mallon, Michael D. Shields, Catherine Russell, Lesley Kennedy and Dara O’Donoghue
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:52
  41. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a rare disease in childhood with the prevalence of 4 cases per 1 million children and an incidence of 2 cases per year. The average age of diagnosis at pediatric age is app...

    Authors: Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Stefania Arasi, Simona Barni, Lucia Caminiti, Riccardo Castagnoli, Mattia Giovannini, Lucia Liotti, Francesca Mori, Francesca Saretta, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:51
  42. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a multi-factorial condition, with inheritance playing a major role. Recognizing parents’ ADHD represents a clue not only for an earlier diagnosis of the d...

    Authors: Luisa Cortellazzo Wiel, Francesco Rispoli, Giulia Peccolo, Valentina Rosolen, Egidio Barbi and Aldo Skabar
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:50
  43. While several studies have been published so far on the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on health care for non-COVID-19 diseases, to date no study evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the entire field ...

    Authors: Martina Peinkhofer, Benedetta Bossini, Arturo Penco, Manuela Giangreco, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Viviana Vidonis, Giada Vittori, Nicoletta Grassi, Elena Faleschini, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:49
  44. Pompe disease (PD) is a disorder of glycogen metabolism conditioning a progressive and life conditioning myopathy. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is currently the best treatment option for PD, but is not res...

    Authors: Valentina Rovelli, Juri Zuvadelli, Marta Piotto, Andrea Scopari, Alice Re Dionigi, Vittoria Ercoli, Sabrina Paci, Graziella Cefalo, Elisabetta Salvatici and Giuseppe Banderali
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:48
  45. Over 100 mutations in the SRD5A2 gene have been identified in subjects with 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD). Exploration of SRD5A2 mutations and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind their effect...

    Authors: Liwei Li, Junhong Zhang, Qing Li, Li Qiao, Pengcheng Li, Yi Cui, Shujun Li, Shirui Hao, Tongqian Wu, Lili Liu, Jianmin Yin, Pingsheng Hu, Xiaowei Dou, Shuping Li and Hui Yang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:47
  46. Vaccine is an important and effective tool to protect from preventable infectious diseases. Neverthless, in the COVID-19 pandemic era, scientific and accurate information are required to responde to false and ...

    Authors: Annamaria Staiano, Rino Agostiniani, Elena Bozzola, Rocco Russo and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:46
  47. Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is classified as the most frequent cause of delayed puberty (DP). Finding out the etiology of DP during first evaluation may be a challenge. In details, pediat...

    Authors: Rossella Gaudino, Gianpaolo De Filippo, Elena Bozzola, Manuela Gasparri, Mauro Bozzola, Alberto Villani and Giorgio Radetti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:45
  48. The causes of an early onset of puberty are still not clearly defined and may vary from subject to subject. In girls, even if 90% of early puberty is idiopathic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain i...

    Authors: Gianpaolo De Filippo, Rossella Gaudino, Valeria Calcaterra, Alberto Villani, Elena Bozzola and Mauro Bozzola
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:44

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