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  1. The potential use of biomarkers in the diagnosis of fungal infections is a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a biomarker-guided antifungal stewardship program for hospitalized pediat...

    Authors: Parisa Badiee, Ali Amanati, Fatemeh Ghasemi and Hadis Jafarian
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:109
  2. Myogenic Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita type 3 (AMC-3), is a rare congenital condition characterized by severe hypotonia, club feet, and multiple joint contractures often affecting both arms and legs which...

    Authors: Naglaa M. Kamal, AlaaEddin M. Alzeky, Maher R. Omair, Ruwayd A. Attar, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Abdullah Safar, Nawal S. Alosaimi and Sara A. S. Abosabie
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:107
  3. The assessment of body composition is central in diagnosis and treatment of paediatric obesity, but a criterion method is not feasible in clinical practice. Even the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BI...

    Authors: Maria Rosaria Licenziati, Giada Ballarin, Gabriella Iannuzzo, Maria Serena Lonardo, Olivia Di Vincenzo, Arcangelo Iannuzzi and Giuliana Valerio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:106
  4. Beta thalassemia major (β-TM) is a common cause of skeletal morbidity and is associated with increased bone fracture risk, particularly in inadequately transfused children. The aim of this study was to investi...

    Authors: Tanju Çelik, Özlem Sangün, Şule Ünal, Ali Balcı and Sedat Motor
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:105
  5. To investigate the coping strategies of a group of adolescents with somatic symptom disorder compared to non-somatic symptom disorder peers during the COVID-19 related lockdown.

    Authors: Andrea Trombetta, Laura De Nardi, Giorgio Cozzi, Luca Ronfani, Lara Bigolin, Egidio Barbi, Matteo Bramuzzo and Giuseppe Abbracciavento
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:104
  6. Phototherapy (PT) is the most often utilized technique for treating and preventing severe hyperbilirubinemia in the term and preterm newborns. PT's proven benefit is that it decreases the requirement for excha...

    Authors: Mai Rabie El-Sheikh, Amira Youssef Ahmed, Abd EL-Rahman Mohamed ELMashad, Ibrahim Ibrahim Talaye and Eslam El-Sayed El-Hawary
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:103
  7. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although many reports have detailed a range of neurological symptoms in SARS-C...

    Authors: Martina Capponi, Bianca Laura Cinicola, Giulia Brindisi, Cristiana Alessia Guido, Maria Cristina Torcé, Anna Maria Zicari and Alberto Spalice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:102
  8. Multiple gestations represent a considerable proportion of pregnancies delivering in the late preterm (LP) period. Only 30% of LP twins are due to spontaneous preterm labor and 70% are medically indicated; amo...

    Authors: Francesca Monari, Giuseppe Chiossi, Michela Ballarini, Daniela Menichini, Giancarlo Gargano, Alessandra Coscia, Dante Baronciani and Fabio Facchinetti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:101
  9. In our third-level Neonatal Unit in Northern Italy, we recorded a high rate of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy in March-November 2020, during the first phase of COVID-19 pandemic, compared t...

    Authors: Alice Monzani, Valentino Remorgida and Ivana Rabbone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:100
  10. Brain abscesses are uncommon but life-threatening in extremely preterm (EP, Gestational Age < 28 weeks) infants. The information of long-time follow-up is rare, but very few cases presented almost intact neura...

    Authors: Shulin Pan, Su Lin, Jing Lin, Shangqin Chen and Zhenlang Lin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:99
  11. The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) and vaping devices started as a potential aid for cessation and reducing the harmful consequences of cigarette smoking, mainly in the adult population. Today e-ci...

    Authors: Fabrizio Virgili, Raffaella Nenna, Shira Ben David, Enrica Mancino, Greta Di Mattia, Luigi Matera, Laura Petrarca and Fabio Midulla
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:97
  12. Although Anorexia Nervosa (AN) patients show dysfunctional behaviour in information processing, visual and verbal memory performance, and different cognitive fields, regardless of their BMI, the literature on ...

    Authors: Salvatore Ferdinando Aruta, Jacopo Pruccoli, Nicole Bandini, Paola Rucci and Antonia Parmeggiani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:96
  13. Currently, there are a few detailed guidelines on the overall management of children and adolescents with moderate-severe atopic dermatitis. AD ​​is a complex disease presenting with different clinical phenoty...

    Authors: Elena Galli, Anna Belloni Fortina, Giampaolo Ricci, Nunzia Maiello, Iria Neri, Ermanno Baldo, Irene Berti, Domenico Bonamonte, Lucetta Capra, Elena Carboni, Rossella Carello, Francesca Caroppo, Giovanni Cavagni, Iolanda Chinellato, Francesca Cipriani, Pasquale Comberiati…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:95
  14. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a type of encephalopathy mediated by an antigenic immune response in the central nervous system. Most research related to autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is focused on early diagno...

    Authors: Jin-Yue Huang, Wen-Xuan Fan, Jing Meng, Chun-Quan Cai and Dong Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:94
  15. COVID toes or chilblain-like skin lesions have been widely reported during COVID-19 pandemic. Most cases were described in patients with negative microbiological tests for SARS-CoV-2, therefore the possible re...

    Authors: Roberto Paparella, Luigi Tarani, Enrico Properzi, Francesco Costantino, Chiara Saburri, Roberta Lucibello, Antonio Richetta, Alberto Spalice and Lucia Leonardi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:93
  16. Evidence suggests that many parents who care for their children with cancer are affected by the care burden due to the chronic nature of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the burden of care l...

    Authors: Mahnaz Chaghazardi, Maryam Janatolmakan, Shahab Rezaeian and Alireza Khatony
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:92
  17. In this study, we used the novel DeepGestalt technology powered by Face2Gene (FDNA Inc., MA, USA) in suggesting a correct diagnosis based on the facial gestalt of well-known multiple anomaly syndromes. Only mo...

    Authors: Giulia Pascolini, Mauro Calvani and Paola Grammatico
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:91
  18. Intercepting earlier suspected TB (Tuberculosis) cases clinically is necessary to reduce TB incidence, so we described signs and symptoms of retrospective cases of pulmonary TB and tried to evaluate which coul...

    Authors: Elisa Farina, Carmen D’Amore, Laura Lancella, Elena Boccuzzi, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Antonino Reale, Paolo Rossi, Alberto Villani, Massimiliano Raponi and Umberto Raucci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:90
  19. The Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of genital ambiguity in persons with XX sexual chromosomes. Genital ambiguity among persons with XY sexual chromosom...

    Authors: Reinaldo Luna de Omena Filho, Reginaldo José Petroli, Fernanda Caroline Soardi, Débora de Paula Michelatto, Taís Nitsch Mazzola, Helena Fabbri-Scallet, Maricilda Palandi de Mello, Susane Vasconcelos Zanotti, Ida Cristina Gubert and Isabella Monlleo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:89
  20. COVID-19 lockdown caused sudden changes in people’s lifestyle, as a consequence of the forced lockdown imposed by governments all over the world. We aimed to evaluate the impact of lockdown on body mass index ...

    Authors: Giulia Brindisi, Vincenza Patrizia Di Marino, Francesca Olivero, Daniela De Canditiis, Giovanna De Castro, Anna Maria Zicari and Caterina Anania
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:88
  21. Epidemiologic data suggest an increased prevalence of pediatric food allergies and intolerances (FAIs) during the last decades. This changing scenario has led to an increase in the overall healthcare costs, du...

    Authors: Roberto Berni Canani, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Alberto Martelli, Laura Carucci, Tommaso Cozzolino, Patrizia Alvisi, Carlo Agostoni, Paolo Lionetti and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:87
  22. Children’s HIV-positive status disclosure is an essential component of chronic care & long-term disease management. The modalities of status disclosure are complex and vary across different communities. Althou...

    Authors: Belete Gelaw Walle, Chalie Marew Tiruneh, Tigabu Dessie, Nigusie Selomon, Amare Kassaw, Bogale Chekole, Moges Wubneh, Tadele Lankrew and Wubet Alebachew Bayih
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:86
  23. Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by cardiovascular manifestations, especially aortic dilatations and arterial tortuosity, craniofacial and skeletal features, joint ...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Laura Morra, Agnese Feresin, Flavio Faletra, Yasmin Al Naber, Luigi Memo and Laura Travan
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:85
  24. Limping and/or refusal to walk is a common complaint in the setting of the pediatric department, with a widely diverse differential diagnosis. An unusual etiology, is that of a hereditary neuropathy.

    Authors: Shani Karklinsky, Shir Kugler, Omer Bar-Yosef, Andreea Nissenkorn, Anat Grossman-Jonish, Irit Tirosh, Asaf Vivante and Ben Pode-Shakked
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:84
  25. Long COVID-19 syndrome is a complex of symptoms that occurs after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the absence of other possible diagnoses. Studies on Long COVID-19 in pediatric population are scanty and het...

    Authors: Gianfranco Trapani, Giuseppe Verlato, Enrico Bertino, Giulia Maiocco, Roberta Vesentini, Alessia Spadavecchia, Angelica Dessì and Vassilios Fanos
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:83

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:12

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:200

  26. Ophthalmoplegic migraine, renamed "Recurrent Painful Ophthalmoplegic Neuropathy" (RPON) in 2013 by the International Headache Society is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of ophthalmop...

    Authors: Raffaele Falsaperla, Santiago Presti, Manuela Lo Bianco, Stefano Catanzaro, Silvia Marino and Martino Ruggieri
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:82
  27. Providing appropriate care at birth remains a crucial strategy for reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the consistency of practice and the adherence to the international guidelines ...

    Authors: Camilla Gizzi, Daniele Trevisanuto, Luigi Gagliardi, Giulia Vertecchi, Stefano Ghirardello, Sandra Di Fabio, Corrado Moretti and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:81
  28. S100B is an established biomarker of brain development and damage. Lutein (LT) is a naturally occurring xanthophyll carotenoid mainly concentrated in the central nervous system (CNS), but its neurotrophic role...

    Authors: Simonetta Picone, Alberto Ritieni, Giulia Graziani, Piermichele Paolillo, Ebe D’Adamo, Valentina Botondi, Daniele Panichi, Sara Torresi, Daniela David, Armando di Ludovico, Francesco Chiarelli and Diego Gazzolo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:80
  29. SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric age group has a milder course than in adults, but in some cases even children may present with severe forms or develop long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to...

    Authors: Silvia Bloise, Sara Isoldi, Alessia Marcellino, Enrica De Luca, Anna Dilillo, Saverio Mallardo, Vanessa Martucci, Mariateresa Sanseviero, Emanuela Del Giudice, Donatella Iorfida, Rita Leone, Alessia Testa, Beatrice Frasacco, Pietro Gizzone, Claudia Proietti Ciolli, Alessandro Sinceri…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:79
  30. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and exacerbation of extant chronic disease worldwide. Influenza vaccination is thus fundamental to reduce the burden of disease. In this study, we describe th...

    Authors: Floriana D’Ambrosio, Teresa Eleonora Lanza, Rosaria Messina, Leonardo Villani, Angelo Maria Pezzullo, Walter Ricciardi, Aldo Rosano and Chiara Cadeddu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:77
  31. BNT162b2 vaccine, developed by BioNTech and Pfizer ha recently approved for use in children aged 5 to 11 years. Recent data show evidence of safety on the administration and serious adverse events have been ra...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mariangela Tosca, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Fabio Cardinale, Riccardo Castagnoli, Elena Chiappini, Claudio Cravidi, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Marzia Duse, Amelia Licari, Sara Manti, Alberto Martelli, Giampaolo Ricci, Giuseppe Pingitore and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:76
  32. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak pushed the Italian government to start a strict lockdown, replacing school attendance with long-distance learning. This caused reduced exposure to sunlight but increased exposure to scr...

    Authors: Marzio Masini, Giulia Brindisi, Mattia Giovannini, Elia Pignataro, Laura Di Grande, Cinzia De Libero, Marcella Nebbioso, Francesca Mori, Roberto Caputo and Anna Maria Zicari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:74
  33. The pathogenic variation of CASK gene can cause CASK related mental disorders. The main clinical manifestations are microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, X-linked mental disorders with or without n...

    Authors: Ying Zhang, Yanyan Nie, Yu Mu, Jie Zheng, Xiaowei Xu, Fang Zhang, Jianbo Shu and Yang Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:73
  34. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a well-defined disorder, whose core phenotype encompasses growth restriction, facial gestalt, intellectual disability and seizures. Nevertheless, great phenotypic variability ...

    Authors: Luisa Cortellazzo Wiel, Irene Bruno, Egidio Barbi and Fabio Sirchia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:72
  35. Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome is a rare multiple-malformation syndrome secondary to somatic activating mutations in the PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway. This is included in a heterogeneous group of diso...

    Authors: Roberta Rotunno, Andrea Diociaiuti, Elisa Pisaneschi, Claudia Carnevale, Marialisa Dentici and May El Hachem
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:71
  36. To date, there is insufficient knowledge about the association of air pollution and childhood nephrotic syndrome in the real world. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the three common gaseous air poll...

    Authors: Chieh Wang, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Lei Wan, Cheng-Li Lin and Chang-Ching Wei
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:70
  37. The association between medically assisted reproduction and pregnancy planning on overall developmental outcomes of infants has been studied in relatively few studies. The availability of accurate tools for th...

    Authors: Anna Szabina Szele, József Mihály Gáll and Beáta Erika Nagy
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:69
  38. Children and adolescents and low-income individuals are considered particularly vulnerable for mental health implications during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Depression is a frequent negative emotional respo...

    Authors: Maria Serra, Anna Presicci, Luigi Quaranta, Maria Rosaria Erminia Urbano, Lucia Marzulli, Emilia Matera, Francesco Margari and Lucia Margari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:68
  39. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent worldwide and can cause severe diseases. MRSA is associated with other antibiotic resistance. COVID-19 pandemic increased antimicrobial resis...

    Authors: Adriano La Vecchia, Giulio Ippolito, Vittoria Taccani, Elisabetta Gatti, Patrizia Bono, Silvia Bettocchi, Raffaella Pinzani, Claudia Tagliabue, Samantha Bosis, Paola Marchisio and Carlo Agostoni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:67

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:134

  40. Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) represents one of the most common chronic diseases in pediatric age, few studies on the epidemiology of T1D exist globally and the exact prevalence and incidence rates of the dis...

    Authors: Stefano Passanisi, Giuseppina Salzano, Monica Aloe, Bruno Bombaci, Felice Citriniti, Fiorella De Berardinis, Rosaria De Marco, Nicola Lazzaro, Maria C. Lia, Rosanna Lia, Francesco Mammì, Filomena A. Stamati, Rosanna M. R. Toscano, Claudia Ventrici, Dario Iafusco and Fortunato Lombardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:66
  41. Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS) belongs to RASopathies, a group of conditions caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway. It is...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Sofia Felice, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Rita Di Pace, Mario Giuffrè, Ettore Piro and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:65
  42. In recent years, reports of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) have gradually increased, including reports on how these conditions threaten the lives of children. However, the specific mechanism of...

    Authors: Yujie Fan, Ying Ding, Yuqin Li, Dandan Zhang, Min Yu, Wei-fang Zhou and Xiaoxing Kong
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:64
  43. For infants exposed in utero to Toxoplasma gondii, current guidelines recommend monitoring the specific antibody titer until 12 months of age. In this study, we investigated the antibody titer decay in the mother...

    Authors: Serena Salomè, Claudia Grieco, Pasquale Fabio Barra, Eleonora Capone, Fiorentino Grasso, Francesca Carraturo, Pasquale Dolce, Paola Salvatore, Letizia Capasso and Francesco Raimondi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:63
  44. Osteoarthritis and condylar resorption of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has rarely been reported in children as consequence of otologic disease. We describe the management of a case in a 9-year-old female as l...

    Authors: Paola Festa, Elena Arezzo, Giulia Vallogini, Anna Chiara Vittucci, Domenico Barbuti and Angela Galeotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:62
  45. Trachoma is an infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydial trachomatis. It is a major health problem in poor nations, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the severity of the problem, there was a scarcity of da...

    Authors: Alebachew Shimelash, Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Henok Dagne, Getenet Mihiretie, Yonas Lamore, Eniyew Tegegne and Lake Kumlachew
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:61
  46. Increased incidence of central precocious puberty (CPP) after coronavirus infectious disease-19 lockdown has been reported. Our study aims in investigating changes in CPP rates and in sleep patterns in CPP and...

    Authors: Giuseppina R Umano, Ivan Maddaluno, Simona Riccio, Francesca Lanzaro, Rachele Antignani, Maria Giuliano, Caterina Luongo, Adalgisa Festa, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Anna Grandone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:60
  47. Several mutations of bilirubin uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1) have been reported in patients with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Few reports are available about the p.Pro364Leu mut...

    Authors: Laura Cozzi, Federica Nuti, Irene Degrassi, Daniela Civeriati, Giulia Paolella and Gabriella Nebbia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:59

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