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  1. In Ethiopia, stunting is the most common form of undernutriton. Identifying the determinants of severe stunting among children is crucial for public health interventions to improve child health. Therefore, thi...

    Authors: Amare Muche and Reta Dewau
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:161
  2. Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, an...

    Authors: Shao-Wen Wu, Lin Li, Fan Feng, Li Wang, Yuan-Yuan Kong, Xiao-Wei Liu and Chenghong Yin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:160
  3. Growing concerns regarding the adverse effects of antibiotics during the first days of life and the marked reduction in the incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS) are changing the clinical practice for managing...

    Authors: E. Vaccina, A. Luglio, M. Ceccoli, M. Lecis, F. Leone, T. Zini, G. Toni, L. Lugli, L. Lucaccioni, L. Iughetti and A. Berardi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:159
  4. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is one of the major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) that might be associated with invasive life-threating infections. A prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment are...

    Authors: Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Samantha Bosis, Irene Borzani, Claudia Tagliabue, Raffaella Pinzani, Paola Marchisio and Giada Maria di Pietro
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:158
  5. Haemophilia A is an X-linked genetic condition which manifests itself mainly in male children in the first 2 years of life, during gross motor skill development. This disorder is rare in females. The clinical ...

    Authors: Berendt Agnieszka, Wójtowicz-Marzec Monika, Wysokińska Barbara and Kwaśniewska Anna
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:157
  6. Evidence-based medicine relies on appropriately designed, conducted and reported clinical trials (CTs) to provide the best proofs of efficacy and safety for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Marco Ciabattini, Franco De Crescenzo, Isabella Biondi, Rossana Cocchiola, Giorgia Copponi, Claudia Frillici, Francesca Molinari, Francesca Rocchi, Alessandra Simonetti, Paolo Rossi and Susanna Livadiotti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:156
  7. Severe hypercalcemia is rare in newborns; even though often asymptomatic, it may have important sequelae. Hypophosphatemia can occur in infants experiencing intrauterine malnutrition, sepsis and early high-ene...

    Authors: Nicola Improda, Francesca Mazzeo, Alessandro Rossi, Claudia Rossi, Francesco Paolo Improda and Angelo Izzo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:155
  8. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency is a rare mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorder that results in hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy. It is caused by mutation in CP...

    Authors: Yi Gan, Fei Yu and Haining Fang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:154

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:192

  9. To investigate how life-sustaining treatment (LST) decisions are made and identify problematic ethical concerns confronted by physicians and nurses in pediatric intensive care within Italy.

    Authors: Franco A. Carnevale, Alberto Giannini, Amabile Bonaldi, Elena Bravi, Costanza Cecchi, Andrea Pettenazzo, Angela Amigoni, Silvia Maria Modesta Pulitanò, Chiara Tosin and Paolo Biban
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:153
  10. Neonatal infectious spondylodiscitis is a rare bony infection with atypical clinical presentation and non-specific systemic symptoms. Diagnosis and treatment are often delayed resulting in vertebral destructio...

    Authors: Sara Romano, Francesca Vittoria, Elisabetta Cattaruzzi, Egidio Barbi and Marco Carbone
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:152
  11. Amino acid-based formula (AAF) is a relevant dietary strategy for paediatric patients affected by cow’s milk allergy (CMA). The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoallergenicity of a new AAF in chil...

    Authors: Rita Nocerino, Carmen Di Scala, Serena Coppola, Veronica Giglio, Laura Carucci, Linda Cosenza, Luana Voto, Anna Maria Iannicelli, Anna Luzzetti and Roberto Berni Canani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:151
  12. The lives of many children and adolescents are today increasingly influenced by new technological devices, including smartphones. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic occurred in a time of outstand...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Lucia Lo Scalzo, Mario Giuffrè, Pietro Ferrara and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:150
  13. Besides major clinical/biochemical features, neutropenia and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitute common complications of Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD Ib). However, their management is still ch...

    Authors: Alessandro Rossi, Erasmo Miele, Simona Fecarotta, Maria Veiga-da-Cunha, Massimo Martinelli, Carmine Mollica, Maria D’Armiento, Enza Mozzillo, Pietro Strisciuglio, Terry G. J. Derks, Annamaria Staiano and Giancarlo Parenti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:149
  14. White-Sutton (WHSUS) is a recently recognized syndrome caused by mutations of the POGZ gene. Approximately 70 patients have been reported to date. Intellectual disability, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, ...

    Authors: Bernadette Donnarumma, Maria Pia Riccio, Gaetano Terrone, Melania Palma, Pietro Strisciuglio and Iris Scala
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:148
  15. In 1973, Petrea Jacobsen described the first patient showing dysmorphic features, developmental delay and congenital heart disease (atrial and ventricular septal defect) associated to a 11q deletion, inherited...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Luigi Memo, Vincenzo Antona, Giovanni Corsello, Valentina Favero, Paola Lago and Mario Giuffrè
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:147
  16. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs) are a group of heterogenous, acquired, autoimmune disorders that affect the muscle. While the association between IIMs and malignancy has been widely reporte...

    Authors: Simone Benvenuto, Giulia Gortani, Rossana Bussani, Federico Poropat, Flora Maria Murru, Marco Carrozzi, Alberto Tommasini and Andrea Taddio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:146
  17. A few studies have suggested that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was present in Northern Italy several weeks before its official detection on February 21, 2020. On the other h...

    Authors: Gregorio P. Milani, Giovanni Casazza, Antonio Corsello, Paola Marchisio, Alessia Rocchi, Giulia Colombo, Carlo Agostoni and Giorgio Costantino
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:145
  18. The prevalence of oral ulcers in children is reported to be 9%, however diagnosis of oral lesions can be challenging, being an unspecific symptom of several diseases. Differential diagnosis can range from clas...

    Authors: Corinne Légeret and Raoul Furlano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:144
  19. Congenital anomaly is a partial or complete structural and/or functional defect during intrauterine life. Globally, major congenital anomalies account for 6% of all newborns among which about 94% of cases occu...

    Authors: Sudi Jemal, Engidaw Fentahun, Mohammed Oumer and Abebe Muche
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:143
  20. To control the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Chinese government encouraged people to stay at home. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of home confinement on the occurrence of f...

    Authors: Jun Li, Xiaowei Yuan, Yinqiang Cao, Tao Liu, Pan Gou, Xiang Li, Ming Li and Xing Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:142
  21. Sactosalpinx means a collection of fluid (serum, blood or pus) in the fallopian tube. CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) is a typical 46XX DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) due to a steroidogenic enzymatic d...

    Authors: Maria-Grazia Scarpa, Marianna Iaquinto, Daniela Codrich and Jürgen Schleef
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:141
  22. Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a complex hip joint deformity with effects ranging from acetabulum malformation to irreversible hip dislocation. Previous studies suggest a significant association o...

    Authors: Xiaowen Xu, Binbin Wang, Yufan Chen, Weizheng Zhou and Lianyong Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:140
  23. The analysis of interregional healthcare mobility represents one of the main criteria for evaluating Regional Healthcare Systems, both in terms of its economic-financial relevance and the quality and satisfact...

    Authors: Mario De Curtis, Francesco Bortolan, Davide Diliberto and Leonardo Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:139
  24. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare genetic disease due to the peripheral resistance to aldosterone. Its clinical spectrum includes neonatal salt loss syndrome with hyponatremia and hypochloraemia,...

    Authors: Gregorio Serra, Vincenzo Antona, Maria Michela D’Alessandro, Maria Cristina Maggio, Vincenzo Verde and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:138
  25. Eating epilepsy (EE) is a form of reflex epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by eating. It is a rare condition but a high prevalence has been reported in Sri Lanka. In EE, the ictal semiology includes foc...

    Authors: Fabiana Vercellino, Laura Siri, Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Scala, Antonella Riva, Mariasavina Severino and Pasquale Striano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:137
  26. Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis (CSHRH), also called Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare and benign variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by cutaneous lesions without extracut...

    Authors: Alessandra Rizzoli, Simona Giancristoforo, Cristina Haass, Rita De Vito, Stefania Gaspari, Eleonora Scapillati, Andrea Diociaiuti and May El Hachem
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:135
  27. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. It is known for high heterogeneity and concealed onset. In recent years, the mechanism of its occurrence and development has been gra...

    Authors: Chi-yi Jiang, Xiao Xu, Bing-lin Jian, Xue Zhang, Zhi-xia Yue, Wei Guo and Xiao-li Ma
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:134
  28. Positional plagiocephaly frequently affects healthy babies. It is hypothesized that manual therapy tailored to pediatrics is more effective in improving plagiocephalic cranial asymmetry than just repositioning...

    Authors: Iñaki Pastor-Pons, María Orosia Lucha-López, Marta Barrau-Lalmolda, Iñaki Rodes-Pastor, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, César Hidalgo-García and Jose Miguel Tricás-Moreno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:132
  29. Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COV...

    Authors: Manola Comar, Simone Benvenuto, Marzia Lazzerini, Giorgio Fedele, Egidio Barbi, Alessandro Amaddeo, Francesco Maria Risso, Tamara Strajn, Paola Di Rocco, Paola Stefanelli and Giovanni Rezza
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:131
  30. Measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic led to significant lifestyle changes for children and adolescents mainly related to the closure of schools and recreational activities, reduced social interaction, and...

    Authors: Arianna Dondi, Anna Fetta, Jacopo Lenzi, Francesca Morigi, Egidio Candela, Alessandro Rocca, Duccio Maria Cordelli and Marcello Lanari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:130
  31. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is strongly associated with premature birth, but it can also affect term neonates. Unlike the extent of research in preterm neonates, risk factors associated with ...

    Authors: Paraskevi Stylianou-Riga, Theodora Boutsikou, Panayiotis Kouis, Paraskevi Kinni, Marina Krokou, Andriani Ioannou, Tania Siahanidou, Zoi Iliodromiti, Thalia Papadouri, Panayiotis K. Yiallouros and Nicoletta Iacovidou
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:129
  32. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HED) is a genetic disorder which affects structures of ectodermal origin. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of disease. XLHED is char...

    Authors: Mario Tumminello, Antonella Gangemi, Federico Matina, Melania Guardino, Bianca Lea Giuffrè and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:128
  33. Type 1 diabetes mellitus could be associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid disease, celiac disease, but the association with Familial Mediterranean Fever is rare, we describe a cas...

    Authors: Maria Francesca Gicchino, Dario Iafusco, Angela Zanfardino, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Alma Nunzia Olivieri
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:127
  34. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) or autoimmune polyglandular syndrome Type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome. The disorder is caused by mutations in the AIRE (AutoImm...

    Authors: Alessandra Fierabracci, Mariafrancesca Lanzillotta, Ivana Vorgučin, Alessia Palma, Dragan Katanić and Corrado Betterle
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:126
  35. Acute pediatric poisoning is an emerging health and social problem. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of a large pediatric cohort exposed to xenobiotics, through the analysis of a Pediat...

    Authors: M. Marano, F. Rossi, L. Ravà, M. Khalil Ramla, M. Pisani, G. Bottari, L. Genuini, G. Zampini, J. Nunziata, A. Reale, M. A. Barbieri, F. Celeani, M. Di Nardo, C. Cecchetti, F. Stoppa, A. Villani…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:125
  36. To describe clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, radiological data and outcome of pediatric cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by neurological involvement.

    Authors: L. Siracusa, A. Cascio, S. Giordano, A. A. Medaglia, G. A. Restivo, I. Pirrone, G. F. Saia, F. Collura and C. Colomba
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:123
  37. Numerous studies described the epidemiological link and main clinical features of pediatric COVID-19, during the first pandemic period. Our study encompasses several different phases since the National Lockdow...

    Authors: Francesca Crea, Filippo Maria Panfili, Maria Elisa Amodeo, Danilo Fintini, Francesco Paolo Rossi, Italo Trenta, Alessandra Menichella, Chiara Ossella, Andrea Deidda, Roberta Lidano, Giulia Macchiarulo, Caterina Lambiase, Maria Antonietta Barbieri and Massimiliano Raponi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:122
  38. Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). A worsening of clinical conditions appears before CFRD. It has been demonstrated a decline in pulmonary ...

    Authors: Francesco Maria Rosanio, Enza Mozzillo, Chiara Cimbalo, Alberto Casertano, Angela Sepe, Valeria Raia, Adriana Franzese and Antonella Tosco
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:121
  39. Children affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed various manifestations. Some of them were severe cases presenting with multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) causing multiple organ dysfunct...

    Authors: Houda Ajmi, Wissem Besghaier, Wafa Kallala, Abdelhalim Trabelsi and Saoussan Abroug
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:120
  40. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties.

    Authors: Vitangelo Clemente, Costanza Tripiciano, Patrizio Moras, Daniele Deriu, Martina Di Giuseppe, Anna Lucia Piscitelli, Michela Cammerata, Maria Antonietta De Ioris, Francesca Ippolita Calò Carducci, Stefania Bernardi, Andrea Campana, Patrizia D’Argenio and Paolo Rossi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:119
  41. In-hospital cardiac arrest is a major public health issue. It is a serious condition; most probably end up with death within a few minutes even with corrective measures. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation ...

    Authors: Melaku Bimerew, Adam Wondmieneh, Getnet Gedefaw, Teshome Gebremeskel, Asmamaw Demis and Addisu Getie
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:118
  42. Regular blood transfusion has improved the overall survival and quality of life for patients with hereditary hemolytic anemias. Nevertheless, it carries a real risk of acquisition of blood-borne virus infectio...

    Authors: Laila M. Sherief, Seham M. Ragab, Mohamed A. Helwa, Naglaa M. Kamal, Mona R. Afify, Rasha T. S. Mohammed, Ghada Abd Elmoniem Mokhtar and Hanan S. Sherbiny
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:117
  43. Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) is a rare disease characterized by profound vascular leakage and presents as a classic triad of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia and hemoconcentration. Severe CLS is mostly induced by...

    Authors: Li-Fen Yang, Jia-Chang Ding, Ling-Ping Zhu, Li-Xia Li, Meng-Qi Duan, Zhuang-gui Chen, Xin-Yi Tang and Ya-Ting Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:116
  44. Delayed cord clamping in full-term neonates is widely recommended, while in practice, it is rarely implemented in cesarean section due to the fear of neonatal jaundice and excessive maternal blood loss. The op...

    Authors: Hailing Shao, Shichu Gao, Qiujing Lu, Xiaomin Zhao, Ying Hua and Xiaomei Wang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:115
  45. Trachoma is an infectious disease of the eye caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and transmitted via contact with eye discharge from infected persons and leading to blindness worldwide. Children less than 9 years of ...

    Authors: Kessete Ayelgn, Tadesse Guadu and Atalay Getachew
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:114
  46. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a group of conditions resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Patients with FASD experience a variety of neuropsychological symptoms resulting from central ne...

    Authors: Katarzyna Anna Dylag, Bożena Bando, Zbigniew Baran, Paulina Dumnicka, Katarzyna Kowalska, Paulina Kulaga, Katarzyna Przybyszewska, Jakub Radlinski, Sylvia Roozen and Leopold Curfs
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:113

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