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  1. Metabolic Acidosis (MA) is a disturbance of the acid-base balance that can occur in preterm and critically ill term neonates due to different etiologies. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been traditiona...

    Authors: Luca Massenzi, Roberto Aufieri, Silvia Donno, Rocco Agostino and Andrea Dotta
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:63
  2. Failure to thrive is a common reason for referral to paediatric services. Malnutrition or inadequate caloric intake is the most common cause, while organic form is unlikely in children who are asymptomatic and...

    Authors: Roberto Franceschi, Caterina Rizzardi, Evelina Maines, Alice Liguori, Massimo Soffiati and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:62
  3. We reported the case of a two-old-year boy with a painful acute hemorrhagic edema. This is a self-limited benign condition: usually, affected children are well appearing and this strongly support the diagnosis...

    Authors: Sarah Contorno, Giorgio Cozzi, Irene Berti, Egidio Barbi and Andrea Taddio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:61
  4. Preschool children with clinically-diagnosed asthma have a higher rate of emergency department visits and consume more resources for management than older children. However, no clinical trials have yet been pe...

    Authors: Sebastiano Guarnaccia, Cristina Quecchia, Andrea Festa, Michele Magoni, Giuseppe Zenoni, Emanuele D’Agata, Valentina Brivio, Elena Zanardini, Carmelo Scarcella, Valeria Gretter, Susanna Facchetti, Cinzia Gasparotti, Ada Pluda, Malica Frassine, Rosa Maria Limina, Raffaele Spiazzi…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:60
  5. Potential overlaps exist between psychopathological features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The impact of malnutrition on autistic traits in patients with AN should be considered....

    Authors: Jacopo Pruccoli, Altea Solari, Letizia Terenzi, Elisabetta Malaspina, Marida Angotti, Veronica Pignataro, Paola Gualandi, Leonardo Sacrato, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Emilio Franzoni and Antonia Parmeggiani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:59
  6. Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a self-limited syndrome associated with viral infections characterized by symmetric lower extremity pain typically affecting school-aged children. Evolution in rhabdom...

    Authors: Giacomo Brisca, Marcello Mariani, Daniela Pirlo, Marta Romanengo, Angela Pistorio, Alberto Gaiero, Chiara Panicucci, Emanuela Piccotti and Claudio Bruno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:57
  7. To verify the prevalence of novel definitions of familial short stature on a cross-sectional cohort of children referred for short stature when their height and that of both parents were measured.

    Authors: Veronica Grigoletto, Alessandro Agostino Occhipinti, Maria Chiara Pellegrin, Fabio Sirchia, Egidio Barbi and Gianluca Tornese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:56
  8. Lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half-year of life is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, less than 40% of infants below 6 months are exclusively breas...

    Authors: Alemnesh Abebe Taye, Wondwosen Asegidew, Mitku Mammo Taderegew, Yonas Girma Bizuwork and Betregiorgis Zegeye
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:55
  9. Transcobalamin deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of cobalamin transport (prevalence: < 1/1000000) which clinically manifests in early infancy.

    Authors: Francesco Martino, Alessandra Magenta, Maria Letizia Troccoli, Eliana Martino, Concetta Torromeo, Carolina Putotto and Francesco Barillà
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:54
  10. The Neonatal Assessment Manual scorE (NAME) was developed to assist in the clinical management of infants in the neonatal ward by assessing their body’s compliance and homogeneity. The present study begins its...

    Authors: Andrea Manzotti, Marco Chiera, Matteo Galli, Erica Lombardi, Simona La Rocca, Pamela Biasi, Jorge Esteves, Gianluca Lista and Francesco Cerritelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:53
  11. At the end of 2019, an emerging atypical pneumonia called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), caused by the novel coronavirus defined as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), was first...

    Authors: Martina Verzani, Carla Bizzarri, Laura Chioma, Giorgia Bottaro, Stefania Pedicelli and Marco Cappa
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:52
  12. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in Italy. Hypercholesterolemia is a modifiable CVD risk factor. The detection and treatment of hypercholesterolemia can modify ...

    Authors: Maria Elena Capra, Cristina Pederiva, Giuseppe Banderali and Giacomo Biasucci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:51
  13. Central precocious puberty is a condition characterized by precocious activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to organic causes, including syndromes such as Neu...

    Authors: Valentina Orlandi, Paolo Cavarzere, Laura Palma, Rossella Gaudino and Franco Antoniazzi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:50
  14. Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), also known as 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, is a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome resulting from a deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22.

    Authors: Rui Jin Xie, Tian Xiao Li, Chenyu Sun, Ce Cheng, Jinlin Zhao, Hua Xu and Yueying Liu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:49

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:89

  15. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) represents a heterogeneous group of rare endocrine disorders caused by (epi) genetic abnormalities affecting the GNAS locus. It is mainly characterized by resistance to PTH and T...

    Authors: Daniele Tessaris, Elisa Bonino, Giovanna Weber, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Domenico Corica, Marco Pitea, Giuseppe Scirè, Manuela Caruso-Nicoletti, Danilo Fintini and Luisa de Sanctis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:48
  16. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVI...

    Authors: Valentina Talarico, Luciano Pinto, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Antonella Centonze, Concetta Cristofaro, Rocco Reina, Agostino Nocerino, Riccardo Lubrano and Stefania Zampogna
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:47
  17. Glucocorticoid treatment is used in children with Graves’ disease (GD) only in cases of exophthalmos. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of glucocorticoid pulse therapy on thyroid function an...

    Authors: Yanyan Hu, Yulin Man, Xuemei Sun and Yongzhen Xue
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:46
  18. The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian...

    Authors: Riccardo Davanzo, Massimo Agosti, Irene Cetin, Antonio Chiantera, Giovanni Corsello, Luca A. Ramenghi, Annamaria Staiano, Marcello Tavio, Alberto Villani, Elsa Viora and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:45
  19. Serious bacterial infection (SBI) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamically increased value of the red cell distribut...

    Authors: Bin-Fang Guo and Su-Zhen Sun
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:44
  20. Home chemotherapy programs for children with cancer are safe and feasible, and their impact on the quality of life has been reported in different countries. A home chemotherapy program was implemented between ...

    Authors: Lucia De Zen, Irene Del Rizzo, Luca Ronfani, Francesca Barbieri, Marco Rabusin, Roberto Dall’Amico, Egidio Barbi and Margherita Robazza
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:43
  21. We aimed to evaluate the degree of realism and involvement, stress management and awareness of performance improvement in practitioners taking part in high fidelity simulation (HFS) training program for delive...

    Authors: Mariachiara Martina Strozzi, Alessandro Varrica, Micaela Colivicchi, Claudia Pelazzo, Rossana Negri, Anna Galante, Patrizia Ianniello, Rossella Sterpone, Priscilla Nannini, Daniela Leo, Francesca Mannarino, Manuel Striani, Stefania Montani and Diego Gazzolo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:42
  22. Positional plagiocephaly (PP) is a cranial deformation frequent amongst children and consisting in a flattened and asymmetrical head shape. PP is associated with excessive time in supine and with congenital mu...

    Authors: Iñaki Pastor-Pons, César Hidalgo-García, María Orosia Lucha-López, Marta Barrau-Lalmolda, Iñaki Rodes-Pastor, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández and José Miguel Tricás-Moreno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:41
  23. The year 2020 will be remembered as the “year of the COVID-19 pandemic”. The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the...

    Authors: Giuseppina Salzano, Stefano Passanisi, Francesco Pira, Lacrima Sorrenti, Giuseppa La Monica, Giovanni Battista Pajno, Maria Pecoraro and Fortunato Lombardo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:40
  24. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that causes vision loss, vision impairment, and blindness, most frequently manifesting among preterm infants. ROPScore and CHOP ROP (Children’s Hospital of Philade...

    Authors: Huiqing Sun, Yubin Dong, Yanxia Liu, Qingqin Chen, Yanxi Wang, Bin Cheng, Shaobo Qin, Liping Meng, Shanxiu Li, Yanlun Zhang, Aiguo Zhang, Weiling Yan, Yuhong Dong, Shuyi Cheng, Mingchao Li and Zengyuan Yu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:39
  25. Isolated Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome (HHS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by elevated serum glucose concentrations and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis. It is often described...

    Authors: Angelika Mohn, Nella Polidori, Valeria Castorani, Laura Comegna, Cosimo Giannini, Francesco Chiarelli and Annalisa Blasetti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:38
  26. The aim of this study was to collect consistent data on the efficacy and safety and evaluation hepatotoxicity of intravenous acetaminophen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants.

    Authors: Reza Bahrami, Aida Ezzatabadi, Nima Mehdizadegan, Hamid Mohammadi, Hamid Amoozgar and Mohammadreza Edraki
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:37
  27. Technology-enhanced simulation has emerged as a great educational tool for pediatric education. Indeed, it represents an effective method to instruct on technical and non-technical skills, employed by a large ...

    Authors: Manuela Spadea, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Nicoletta Fossati and Armando Cuttano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:36
  28. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia is frequently encountered during neonatal period. Although it has different causes, in some cases it can’t be explained. Previous studies have illustrated that jaundice could be a m...

    Authors: Ahmed Mahrous Kamal Baz, Osama Abd El-Fattah El-Agamy and Ashraf Mohamed Ibrahim
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:35
  29. A national consensus document on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use in childhood, produced by the main Italian pediatric scientific societies, has been recently released. The aim of this study was to gather inf...

    Authors: Giovanni Cerimoniale, Paolo Becherucci, Maria Carmen Verga, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Luciana Indinnimeo, Alberto Villani, Mariangela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Marzia Duse, Paolo Biasci, Mattia Doria, Diego Peroni, Giorgio Piacentini, Maria Di Cicco, Gabriella Pozzobon and Riccardo Lubrano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:34
  30. The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immun...

    Authors: Giorgio Costagliola, Erika Spada, Pasquale Comberiati and Diego G. Peroni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:32
  31. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common genomic disorders, characterized by the variable presence of facial dysmorphisms, congenital cardiac defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency/cleft palate, thym...

    Authors: Erica Rosina, Berardo Rinaldi, Rosamaria Silipigni, Luca Bergamaschi, Giovanna Gattuso, Stefano Signoroni, Silvana Guerneri, Alessandra Carnevali, Paola Giovanna Marchisio and Donatella Milani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:31

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:185

  32. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13052-019-0697-8

    Authors: Jun Tian, Peifang Shen, Kaiyu Pan and Qiong Zhou
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:30

    The original article was published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:108

  33. Suspending ordinary care activities during the COVID-19 pandemic made it necessary to find alternative routes to comply with care recommendations not only for acute health needs but also for patients requiring...

    Authors: Eugenio Mercuri, Giuseppe Zampino, Alisha Morsella, Marika Pane, Roberta Onesimo, Carmen Angioletti, Piero Valentini, Claudia Rendeli, Antonio Ruggiero, Lorenzo Nanni, Antonio Chiaretti, Giovanni Vento, David Korn, Emilio Meneschincheri, Paolo Sergi, Giovanni Scambia…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:29
  34. Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is one of the most challenging complications in children undergoing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment, but acute fungal osteomyelitis (OM) is rarely encountered.

    Authors: Lichun Xie, Qingling Long, Guichi Zhou, Sixi Liu and Fei-Qiu Wen
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:27
  35. Hookworm infections (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale) are common in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Human acquisition results from direct percutaneous invasion of infective larvae fro...

    Authors: G. Umbrello, R. Pinzani, A. Bandera, F. Formenti, G. Zavarise, M. Arghittu, D. Girelli, A. Maraschini, A. Muscatello, P. Marchisio and S. Bosis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:26
  36. Italy was the first Western country to be hit by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. There is now mounting evidence that a minority of children infected with SARS-CoV2 may experience a severe multisystem inflammatory syn...

    Authors: Marco Cattalini, Andrea Taddio, Claudia Bracaglia, Rolando Cimaz, Sara Della Paolera, Giovanni Filocamo, Francesco La Torre, Bianca Lattanzi, Alessandra Marchesi, Gabriele Simonini, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Fiammetta Zunica, Alberto Villani and Angelo Ravelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:24
  37. During the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic phase, the sudden closure of schools was one of the main measures to minimize the spread of the virus. In the second phase, several safety procedures were implemented to av...

    Authors: Alberto Villani, Luana Coltella, Stefania Ranno, Federico Bianchi di Castelbianco, Paola Maria Murru, Rossella Sonnino, Teresa Mazzone, Livia Piccioni, Giulia Linardos, Stefano Chiavelli, Fabrizio Pontarelli, Giovanni Corsello, Massimiliano Raponi, Carlo Federico Perno and Carlo Concato
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:23
  38. Acute Cerebral Nervous System Infections (ACNS) may cause death or severe complications even to promptly treated children. The role of the immune system in influencing the course and the outcome of meningitis ...

    Authors: Giulia Spina, Elena Bozzola, Rita Carsetti, Eva Piano Mortari, Cristina Mascolo, Marco Roversi and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:22

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:213

  39. Italy was the first country in Europe affected by COVID-19: the emergency started on February 20, 2020, culminating with national lockdown on March 11, which terminated on May 4, 2020. We describe how the pand...

    Authors: Umberto Raucci, Anna Maria Musolino, Domenico Di Lallo, Simone Piga, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Mara Pisani, Francesco Paolo Rossi, Antonino Reale, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Alberto Villani and Massimiliano Raponi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:21
  40. Despite its recognized efficacy and tolerability profile, during the last decade a rise of adverse events following ibuprofen administration in children has been reported, including a possible role in worsenin...

    Authors: Lucia Quaglietta, Massimo Martinelli and Annamaria Staiano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:20
  41. COVID-19 pandemic has markedly affected emergency care, due to sudden limitation of health care capacity by general practitioners (GP) and urgent need for infection control strategies. We evaluated the activit...

    Authors: Angela Mauro, Nicola Improda, Letizia Zenzeri, Francesco Valitutti, Erica Vecchione, Sara Esposito and Vincenzo Tipo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:19
  42. Transition from pediatric to adult care of patients affected by Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a critical step that needs specific care and multidisciplinary involvement. The aim of our study was to evalu...

    Authors: Antonio Corsello, Daniela Pugliese, Fiammetta Bracci, Daniela Knafelz, Bronislava Papadatou, Marina Aloi, Salvatore Cucchiara, Luisa Guidi, Antonio Gasbarrini and Alessandro Armuzzi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:18
  43. Post-Infectious Neurological Syndromes (PINS) are heterogeneous neurological disorders with post or para-infectious onset. PINS diagnosis is complex, mainly related to the absence of any recognized guidelines ...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Giulia Spina, Massimiliano Valeriani, Laura Papetti, Fabiana Ursitti, Rino Agostiniani, Cristina Mascolo, Margherita Ruggiero, Chiara Di Camillo, Anna Quondamcarlo, Luigi Matera, Davide Vecchio, Luigi Memo and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:17
  44. Aim of these revised recommendations for the general management of Kawasaki disease is to encourage its prompter recognition and warrant the most appropriate therapy, based on ascertained scientific data, rais...

    Authors: Alessandra Marchesi, Donato Rigante, Rolando Cimaz, Angelo Ravelli, Isabella Tarissi de Jacobis, Alessandro Rimini, Fabio Cardinale, Marco Cattalini, Andrea De Zorzi, Rosa Maria Dellepiane, Patrizia Salice, Aurelio Secinaro, Andrea Taddio, Paolo Palma, Maya El Hachem, Elisabetta Cortis…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:16
  45. Growth monitoring is an essential part of primary health care in children and short stature is frequently regarded as a relatively early sign of poor health. The association of short stature and dysmorphic fea...

    Authors: Davide Mattei, Paolo Cavarzere, Rossella Gaudino, Franco Antoniazzi and Giorgio Piacentini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:15
  46. Suicide attempts and self-harm in adolescence are a major public health concern: they are among the main causes of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide, with severe long-term health consequences in terms o...

    Authors: Caterina Zanus, Sara Battistutta, Renata Aliverti, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Luca Ronfani and Marco Carrozzi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:14

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