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  1. Cough is an extremely common problem in pediatrics, mostly triggered and perpetuated by inflammatory processes or mechanical irritation leading to viscous mucous production and increased sensitivity of the cou...

    Authors: Mario Canciani, Vitalia Murgia, Davide Caimmi, Sreedhar Anapurapu, Amelia Licari and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:56
  2. In recent years, as knowledge regarding the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of bone involvement characterizing many diseases has increased and diagnostic techniques evaluating bone health have progressively improv...

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Loredana Cavalli, Salvatore Seminara, Maurizio de Martino and Maria Luisa Brandi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:55
  3. Vitamin D plays an important role in health promotion during adolescence. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common in adolescents worldwide. Few data on vitamin D status and risk factors for hypovitam...

    Authors: Francesco Vierucci, Marta Del Pistoia, Margherita Fanos, Paola Erba and Giuseppe Saggese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:54
  4. Infantile colic is a common disturbance occurring in the first three months of life. It is a benign condition and one of the main causes of pediatric consultation in the early part of life because of its great...

    Authors: Francesco Savino, Simone Ceratto, Angela De Marco and Luca Cordero di Montezemolo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:53
  5. To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI).

    Authors: Miria Natile, Maria Luisa Ventura, Marco Colombo, Davide Bernasconi, Anna Locatelli, Cristina Plevani, Maria Grazia Valsecchi and Paolo Tagliabue
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:52
  6. CHARGE association is characterized by ocular Coloboma, Heart malformations, choanal Atresia, Retardation of growth and development, Genital abnormalities and inner and external Ear abnormalities. Growth failu...

    Authors: Andrea Esposito, Maria Tufano, Iolanda Di Donato, Martina Rezzuto, Nicola Improda, Daniela Melis and Mariacarolina Salerno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:51
  7. The aim of our study was to evaluate factors affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to assess the level of agreement on HRQol between children and their parents.

    Authors: Reka Bodnar, Laszlo Kadar, Klara Holics, Rita Ujhelyi, Lajos Kovacs, Katalin Bolbas, Gyongyi Szekely, Kalman Gyurkovits, Eniko Solyom and Agnes Meszaros
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:50
  8. Aims of this commentary is to report the most recent views about epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, malignancy risk factors and clinical management of thyroid nodules in children. On the basis of our persona...

    Authors: Filippo De Luca, Tommaso Aversa, Luca Alessi, Valeria Cama, Daria Costanzo, Cristina Genovese, Veronica Scuderi, Roberta Vadalà and Giuseppe Zoccali
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:48
  9. It has been shown that nasal saline irrigation (NSI) alone can be effective in children with infectious and/or allergic respiratory problems, but no study has assessed the awareness or clinical use of NSI amon...

    Authors: Paola Marchisio, Marina Picca, Sara Torretta, Elena Baggi, Angela Pasinato, Sonia Bianchini, Erica Nazzari, Susanna Esposito and Nicola Principi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:47
  10. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and can be the first step of the atopic march.

    Authors: Giampaolo Ricci, Arianna Dondi, Iria Neri, Lorenza Ricci, Annalisa Patrizi and Andrea Pession
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:46
  11. Neutropenia encompasses a family of neutropenic disorders, both permanent and intermittent, ranging from severe (<500 neutrophils/mm3) to mild (500–1500 neutrophils/mm3), which may also affect other organ systems...

    Authors: Veronica Folsi, Nunzia Miglietti, Annamaria Lombardi, Sara Boccacci, Tatiana Utyatnikova, Chiara Donati, Livia Squassabia, Laura Gazzola, Ilaria Bosio, Adele Borghi, Veronica Grassi, Lucia D Notarangelo and Alessandro Plebani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:45
  12. Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has...

    Authors: Cynthia Sau Ting Wu, Cathrine Fowler, Winsome Yuk Yin Lam, Ho Ting Wong, Charmaine Hei Man Wong and Alice Yuen Loke
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:44
  13. Twins, compared to singletons, have an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity, due mainly to a higher prevalence of preterm birth and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is als...

    Authors: Giuseppe Puccio, Mario Giuffré, Maria Piccione, Ettore Piro, Valentina Malerba and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:43
  14. Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) molecules are more atherogenic compared with large buoyant ones. Phytosterols-enriched diets are effective in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and low...

    Authors: Anastasia Garoufi, Styliani Vorre, Alexandra Soldatou, Charalampos Tsentidis, Lydia Kossiva, Antonios Drakatos, Antonios Marmarinos and Dimitrios Gourgiotis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:42
  15. Ability to maintain a normal body temperature in an open crib is an important physiologic competency generally requested to discharge preterm infants from the hospital. The aim of this study is to assess the f...

    Authors: Giovanni Barone, Mirta Corsello, Patrizia Papacci, Francesca Priolo, Costantino Romagnoli and Enrico Zecca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:41
  16. The best criteria for surfactant treatment in the perinatal period are unknown and this makes it of interest to consider the possible economic implications of lessening the use of more restrictive criteria.

    Authors: Carlo Dani, Roberto Ravasio, Leonardo Fioravanti and Maria Circelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:40
  17. Array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) has become the first-tier investigation in patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID). Although the costs are progressively de...

    Authors: Elisa Caramaschi, Ilaria Stanghellini, Pamela Magini, Maria Grazia Giuffrida, Silvia Scullin, Tiziana Giuva, Patrizia Bergonzini, Azzurra Guerra, Paolo Paolucci and Antonio Percesepe
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:39
  18. Aim of this study was to obtain a picture of the nature of the primary care pediatricians’ visits during a winter season. We investigated reasons for visits, diagnosis, and pattern of prescription in 284 child...

    Authors: Antonietta Giannattasio, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Carmen Napolitano, Laura Di Florio and Alfredo Guarino
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:38
  19. There are few prospective evaluations of point-of-care ultrasonography (US) for the diagnosis of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In particular, there are very few data concerning the efficiency o...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Simone Sferrazza Papa, Irene Borzani, Raffaella Pinzani, Caterina Giannitto, Dario Consonni and Nicola Principi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:37
  20. Hypereosinophilia as first clinical presentation has rarely been reported in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. It is commonly associated with specific cytogenetic abnormalities. Although eosinophilia i...

    Authors: Rosanna Parasole, Fara Petruzziello, Antonia De Matteo, Giovanna Maisto, Luisa Castelli, Maria Elena Errico, Giuseppe Menna and Vincenzo Poggi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:36
  21. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disorder that can occur at any age and is characterized by the triad of hemoptysis, iron deficiency anemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. The clinical course is...

    Authors: Ilirjana Bakalli, Luljeta Kota, Durim Sala, Ermela Celaj, Elmira Kola, Robert Lluka and Sashenka Sallabanda
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:35
  22. Mitochondrial dysfunction accounts for a large group of inherited metabolic disorders most of which are due to a dysfunctional mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) and, consequently, deficient energy producti...

    Authors: Célia Nogueira, Ligia S Almeida, Claudia Nesti, Ilaria Pezzini, Arnaldo Videira, Laura Vilarinho and Filippo M Santorelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:34
  23. Although individual occurrence is rare, syndromic obesity with mental retardation has been reported in conjunction with 140 different diseases.

    Authors: Donatella Milani, Marta Cerutti, Lidia Pezzani, Pietro Maffei, Gabriella Milan and Susanna Esposito
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:33
  24. Gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health and energy balance, and provides protection against disease states. An altered balance between microbiota and its host (dysbiosis) would appear to contri...

    Authors: Donatella Comito, Antonio Cascio and Claudio Romano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:32
  25. During the last century, mass vaccination programs have achieved considerable success across the world in immunizing against several serious infectious diseases. However, vaccinations are threatened by their o...

    Authors: Luciana Nicolosi, Annachiara Vittucci, Rossella Mancini, Elena Bozzola, Alberto Cagigi, Annalisa Grandin and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:31
  26. Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clini...

    Authors: Daniela Melis, Roberto Della Casa, Francesca Balivo, Giorgia Minopoli, Alessandro Rossi, Mariacarolina Salerno, Generoso Andria and Giancarlo Parenti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:30
  27. The low uptake of tetanus vaccine and its resultant high burden of tetanus in Nigeria suggest the need to improve routine and booster vaccination in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological evidence ...

    Authors: Adebola E Orimadegun, Akinlolu A Adepoju and Olusegun O Akinyinka
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:29
  28. Intussusception remains a common cause of bowel obstruction in children and results in significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly treated. There is a paucity of prospective studies regarding childhood...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Neema M Kayange and Alphonce B Chandika
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:28
  29. Surfactant treatment reduces respiratory morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Data on its haemodynamic consequences are conflicting. The aim was to characterise the haemodynamic effects of surfactant tr...

    Authors: Francesca Vitali, Silvia Galletti, Arianna Aceti, Giulia Aquilano, Marianna Fabi, Anna Balducci and Giacomo Faldella
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:26
  30. Orbital cellulitis is an infrequent complication of acute ethmoiditis possibly leading to life- or visual-threatening complications. Despite its natural history is well known, its clinical evolution may widely...

    Authors: Sara Torretta, Paola Marchisio, Michele Gaffuri, Pasquale Capaccio, Susanna Esposito and Lorenzo Pignataro
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:25
  31. We describe a girl with Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder of the X chromosome in a phenotypic female at increased risk of autoimmune and immunological diseases, who developed Kawasaki disease at the age of f...

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Stefania Losi, Francesco Chiarelli, Maurizio de Martino and Fernanda Falcini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:24
  32. Aim of our study is to analyze the immunological status in pregnancy for two main TORCH agents, Toxoplasma and Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the results of group B streptococcus (GBS) screening, assessing the ris...

    Authors: Giuseppe Puccio, Cinzia Cajozzo, Laura Antonella Canduscio, Lucia Cino, Amelia Romano, Maria Gabriella Schimmenti, Mario Giuffrè and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:23
  33. Asthma is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic variants that confer susceptibility. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1 and GSTM1) are phase II enzymes thought to pro...

    Authors: Nihal El Rifai, Nadia Moustafa, Nelly Degheidy and Manal Wilson
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:22
  34. Inhibitors of the cyclo-oxygenase component of prostaglandin-H2 synthetase, namely indomethacin and ibuprofen, are commonly used in the treatment of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus. These dru...

    Authors: Gianluca Terrin, Francesca Conte, Antonella Scipione, Erica Bacchio, Maria Giulia Conti, Rosalia Ferro, Flavia Ventriglia and Mario De Curtis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:21
  35. To date, only a few studies on child obesity concerned Trace Elements (TE). TE is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity related diseases. We tried to assess trace elements status [zinc (Zn), copp...

    Authors: Seham FA Azab, Safaa H Saleh, Wafaa F Elsaeed, Mona A Elshafie, Laila M Sherief and Asmaa MH Esh
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:20
  36. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of behavioural and emotional problems in a sample of school children living in Campania, a region of South Italy.

    Authors: Antonella Gritti, Carmela Bravaccio, Simona Signoriello, Filomena Salerno, Simone Pisano, Gennaro Catone, Ciro Gallo and Antonio Pascotto
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:19
  37. Plastic bronchitis is a rare complication of a variety of respiratory diseases and congenital heart disease surgery, particularly Fontan procedure. Bronchial casts with rubber-like consistency develop acutely ...

    Authors: Massimo Colaneri, Andrea Quarti, Marco Pozzi, Stefano Gasparini, Ines Carloni and Fernando Maria de Benedictis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:18
  38. Cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis is a rare disease, associated with either nonmalignant conditions or subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, and often also associated with hemophagocytic lymphohist...

    Authors: Claudia Pasqualini, Mauro Jorini, Ines Carloni, Mirella Giangiacomi, Valentina Cetica, Maurizio Aricò, and Fernando Maria de Benedictis
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:17
  39. The editors of Italian Journal of Pediatrics would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 39 (2013).

    Authors: Sergio Bernasconi, Carlo Caffarelli and Francesca Santamaria
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:15
  40. Codeine is a mild opioid widely used as an analgesic in various age groups, including various pediatric settings. It is a prodrug that owes its analgesic effect almost entirely to the principal metabolite: mor...

    Authors: Franca Benini and Egidio Barbi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:16
  41. Awareness of the importance of strengthening investments in child health and monitoring the quality of services in the pediatric field is increasing. The Pediatric Quality Indicators developed by the US Agency...

    Authors: Jacopo Lenzi, Lorenza Luciano, Kathryn Mack McDonald, Simona Rosa, Gianfranco Damiani, Giovanni Corsello and Maria Pia Fantini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:14
  42. There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of...

    Authors: Liviana Da Dalt, Giovanni Putoto, Dante Carraro, Alessandra Gatta, Eugenio Baraldi and Giorgio Perilongo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:13
  43. Hyperbilirubinaemia is one of the most frequent problems in otherwise healthy newborn infants. Early discharge of the healthy newborn infants, particularly those in whom breastfeeding is not fully established,...

    Authors: Costantino Romagnoli, Giovanni Barone, Simone Pratesi, Francesco Raimondi, Letizia Capasso, Enrico Zecca and Carlo Dani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:11
  44. Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune ...

    Authors: Paola Giordano, Giuseppe Lassandro, Maria Sangerardi, Maria Felicia Faienza, Federica Valente and Baldassarre Martire
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:10
  45. Auxology (Greek αυξω - I let grow) is the science of human growth and development. Significant public interest focuses on questions like: how does my child grow? How did our ancestors grow? How do other people...

    Authors: Michael Hermanussen and Barry Bogin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:8

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