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Critical Care

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of practice and research in critical care within the context of children and adolescents.

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  1. The increased intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome may emerge depending on many different neurological factors and the early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of neurologic damage and re...

    Authors: Didar Arslan, Dinçer Yıldızdaş, Özden Özgür Horoz, Nagehan Aslan and Faruk İncecik

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:88

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVI...

    Authors: Valentina Talarico, Luciano Pinto, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Antonella Centonze, Concetta Cristofaro, Rocco Reina, Agostino Nocerino, Riccardo Lubrano and Stefania Zampogna

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:47

    Content type: Research

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  3. Suspending ordinary care activities during the COVID-19 pandemic made it necessary to find alternative routes to comply with care recommendations not only for acute health needs but also for patients requiring...

    Authors: Eugenio Mercuri, Giuseppe Zampino, Alisha Morsella, Marika Pane, Roberta Onesimo, Carmen Angioletti, Piero Valentini, Claudia Rendeli, Antonio Ruggiero, Lorenzo Nanni, Antonio Chiaretti, Giovanni Vento, David Korn, Emilio Meneschincheri, Paolo Sergi, Giovanni Scambia…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:29

    Content type: Research

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  4. Italy was the first country in Europe affected by COVID-19: the emergency started on February 20, 2020, culminating with national lockdown on March 11, which terminated on May 4, 2020. We describe how the pand...

    Authors: Umberto Raucci, Anna Maria Musolino, Domenico Di Lallo, Simone Piga, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Mara Pisani, Francesco Paolo Rossi, Antonino Reale, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Alberto Villani and Massimiliano Raponi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:21

    Content type: Research

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  5. Observation Units (OU), as part of emergency department (ED), are areas reserved for short-term treatment or observation of patients with selected diagnoses to determine the need for hospitalization or home re...

    Authors: Antonio Gatto, Serena Rivetti, Lavinia Capossela, Davide Pata, Marcello Covino and Antonio Chiaretti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:11

    Content type: Research

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  6. Iatrogenic severe hyperglycemia (ISH) caused by glucose-containing i.v. solution is a potentially fatal treatment error. The objective of this study was to investigate the causes, circumstances, course of dise...

    Authors: Nora Bruns, Anja Große Lordemann, Tobias Rasche, Jochen Meyburg, Marcus Krüger, Christian Wieg, Alexander Gratopp, Marc Hoppenz, Friedhelm Heitmann, Thomas Hoppen, Günther Löffler, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser and Christian Dohna-Schwake

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:179

    Content type: Research

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  7. Globally, over 65% of maternal deaths occur during the first 42 days of postpartum while the same proportion of neonatal deaths occur during the first 7 days of life. In sab- Saharan Africa, 4.7 million mother...

    Authors: Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Lake Yazachew, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema and Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:175

    Content type: Research

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  8. Although children with special health care needs (CSHCN) represent a minority of the population, they go through more hospitalizations, more admissions to the Emergency Department (ED), and receive a major num...

    Authors: Paola Cianci, Valeria D’Apolito, Alex Moretti, Massimo Barbagallo, Sabrina Paci, Maria Teresa Carbone, Riccardo Lubrano, Antonio Urbino, Carlo Dionisi Vici, Luigi Memo, Giuseppe Zampino, Giancarlo La Marca, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello and Angelo Selicorni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:173

    Content type: Research

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  9. The rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy has dramatically impacted the National Healthcare System, causing the sudden congestion of hospitals, especially in Northern Italy, thus imposing drastic rest...

    Authors: Giovanni Trisolino, Carlo Enrico Origo, Nando De Sanctis, Daniela Dibello, Pasquale Farsetti, Cosimo Gigante, Pasquale Guida, Lorenza Marengo, Elena Panuccio, Renato Maria Toniolo, Fabio Verdoni and Antonio Memeo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:149

    Content type: Commentary

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  10. In Italy, as in many European countries, Pediatric Emergency Medicine is not formally recognized as a pediatric subspecialty, hindering nation-wide adoption of standards of care, especially in the field of pro...

    Authors: Idanna Sforzi, Silvia Bressan, Claudia Saffirio, Salvatore De Masi, Leonardo Bussolin, Liviana Da Dalt, Fabio De Iaco, Itai Shavit, Baruch Krauss and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:57

    Content type: Research

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  11. Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKHS) syndrome refers to congenital hypoplasia/aplasia of the uterus, the cervix and the upper 2/3 of the vagina, in females with normal ovaries and fallopian tubes, secondary ...

    Authors: Giuliana Morabito, Alessandro Daidone, Flora Murru, Marianna Iaquinto, Elena Faleschini, Egidio Barbi and Giorgio Cozzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:51

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Planning optimal fluid and inotrope-vasopressor-inodilator therapy is essential in critically ill children. Pulse index Contour Cardiac Output (PiCCO) monitoring is an invasive, hemodynamic monitor that provid...

    Authors: Nagehan Aslan, Dincer Yildizdas, Ozden Ozgur Horoz, Yasemin Coban, Fadli Demir, Sevcan Erdem and Yasar Sertdemir

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:47

    Content type: Research

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  13. Off- label drug use refers to the use of medicines outside of their marketing authorization with respect to dose, dosage form, route of administration, indication or age. Off-label/unlicensed drug use signific...

    Authors: Meles Tekie Gidey, Yohannes Gebrehaweria Gebretsadkan, Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik, Abraham Gebrezgabiher Welie and Brhane Teklebrhan Assefa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:41

    Content type: Research

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  14. The risk factors for multi-drug resistant infection (MDRI) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) remain unclear. It’s necessary to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for MDRI i...

    Authors: Zaihua Wang and Zhongfang Xia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:17

    Content type: Research

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  15. Children with chronic respiratory failure and/or sleep disordered breathing due to a broad range of diseases may require long-term ventilation to be managed at home. Advances in the use of long-term non-invasi...

    Authors: Martino Pavone, Elisabetta Verrillo, Alessandro Onofri, Serena Caggiano, Maria Beatrice Chiarini Testa and Renato Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:12

    Content type: Research

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  16. The efficacy of dopamine versus epinephrine for pediatric or neonatal septic shock remains controversial. We conduct a meta-analysis to explore the influence of dopamine versus epinephrine on shock reversal fo...

    Authors: Lingling Wen and Liangyin Xu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:6

    Content type: Research

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  17. Adolescents and students are encountered with a challenge so-called “internet Addiction”. This issue affects both their physical and mental health, as well as their academic, social, and family performance. Th...

    Authors: Batol Gholamian, Hossein Shahnazi and Akbar Hassanzadeh

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:164

    Content type: Research

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  18. Current guidelines recommend assessing and relieving pain in all children and in all instances; yet, in clinical practice, management is frequently suboptimal. We investigated the attitude of Italian family pe...

    Authors: Gian Luigi Marseglia, Maria Alessio, Liviana Da Dalt, Maria Giuliano, Angelo Ravelli and Paola Marchisio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:156

    Content type: Research

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  19. Pentoxifylline may be an important approach to treat neonatal sepsis. However, its use has not been well established. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of pentoxifylline...

    Authors: Jun Tian, Peifang Shen, Kaiyu Pan and Qiong Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:108

    Content type: Review

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    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:30

  20. The definition of the eligibility criteria of newborn, infant, child, or adolescent patients for palliative care (PC) is complicated by the fact that these patients generally present with very specific case hi...

    Authors: Momcilo Jankovic, Lucia De Zen, Federico Pellegatta, Pierina Lazzarin, Marina Bertolotti, Luca Manfredini, Antonino Aprea, Luigi Memo, Antonio Del Vecchio, Rino Agostiniani and Franca Benini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:89

    Content type: Debate

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  21. To date, a large number of children are hospitalized inappropriately in adult intensive care units, where the minimum standards of care are not applied to young patients. It is well-known that the child is not...

    Authors: Nicola Pozzi, Gabriella D’Angelo and Eloisa Gitto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:33

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  22. Pediatric head trauma management varies between emergency departments globally. Here we aim to compare the pediatric minor head trauma management between a US and Italian hospital.

    Authors: Brittany M. Stopa, Stefano Amoroso, Luca Ronfani, Elena Neri, Egidio Barbi and Lois K. Lee

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:24

    Content type: Research

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  23. Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) in children is an uncommon but severe condition which can be either inherited or acquired. It consists in clinical manifestation of defective production or ineffective actio...

    Authors: Stefano Pintaldi, Angela Lora, Katy Vecchiato, Andrea Taddio and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:23

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  24. Nutrition cares are of the main measures to save premature infants. In this regard, proper positioning is one of the key measures that is done by nurses; still there is a paucity of studies in this field and t...

    Authors: Alireza Khatony, Alireza Abdi, Batol Karimi, Abbas Aghaei and Hamidreza Saeidi Brojeni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Neonatal sepsis is an inflammatory systemic syndrome, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. We analyzed the expression profile data of E-MTAB-4785 to reveal the pathogenesis o...

    Authors: Li Huang, Lixing Qiao, Huan Zhu, Li Jiang and Liping Yin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is the most common inborn error of Vitamin B12 metabolism often causing severe neurological, renal, gastrointestinal and hematological symptoms. Onset with pulmonary hypertension (PAH...

    Authors: Luciano De Simone, Laura Capirchio, Rosa Maria Roperto, Paola Romagnani, Michele Sacchini, Maria Alice Donati and Maurizio de Martino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:90

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) allows to obtain real-time images to correlate with the patient’s presenting signs and symptoms. It can be used by various specialties and may be broadly divided into diag...

    Authors: Julien Le Coz, Silvia Orlandini, Luigi Titomanlio and Victoria Elisa Rinaldi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:87

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Pleural effusion is a rare complication of ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting and its diagnosis is difficult in patients with neurological and consciousness impairment.

    Authors: Federica Porcaro, Emidio Procaccini, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Alessandra Schiavino, Francesca Petreschi and Renato Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:42

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. We aim to formulate evidence-based recommendations to assist physicians decision-making in the assessment and management of children younger than 16 years presenting to the emergency department (ED) following ...

    Authors: Liviana Da Dalt, Niccolo’ Parri, Angela Amigoni, Agostino Nocerino, Francesca Selmin, Renzo Manara, Paola Perretta, Maria Paola Vardeu and Silvia Bressan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. Pediatric acute-liver-failure due to acetaminophen (APAP) administration at therapeutic dosage is rare, while viral infections and metabolic defects are the prevalent causes. Yet, as acetaminophen is routinely...

    Authors: Pier Luigi Calvo, Francesco Tandoi, Tobias B. Haak, Andrea Brunati, Michele Pinon, Dominic Dell Olio, Renato Romagnoli and Marco Spada

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:88

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  31. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by recurrent metabolic crises caused by fasting, intercurrent illness and excessive physical ...

    Authors: Juan Ignacio Muñoz-Bonet, María del Carmen Ortega-Sánchez and José Luis León Guijarro

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:12

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. High fidelity simulation has been executed to allow the evaluation of technical and non-technical skills of health caregivers. Our objective was to assess technical and non-technical performances of low level ...

    Authors: Giuseppe De Bernardo, Desirée Sordino, Francesco Cavallin, Veronica Mardegan, Nicoletta Doglioni, Maria Luisa Tataranno and Daniele Trevisanuto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:100

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Differential diagnosis between sepsis and non-infectious inflammatory disorders demands improved biomarkers. Soluble Triggering Receptor Expression on Myeloid cells (sTREM-1) is an activating receptor whose ro...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Franco De Crescenzo, Roberto Buzzetti, Francesca Calò Carducci, Alessandro Jenkner, Donato Amodio, Maia De Luca, Sara Chiurchiù, Elin Haf Davies, Alessandra Simonetti, Elena Ferretti, Martina Della Corte, Luca Gramatica, Susanna Livadiotti and Paolo Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:44

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Nephrotic syndrome confers an acquired prothrombotic phenotype due to the urinary loss of anticoagulant proteins.Patients with reactivation of nephrotic syndrome may develop thrombosis.

    Authors: Andrea Artoni, Serena Maria Passamonti, Alberto Edefonti, Francesca Gianniello, Vittorio Civelli and Ida Martinelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:22

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. Th...

    Authors: Riccardo Lubrano, Sara Paoli, Marco Bonci, Luigi Di Ruzza, Corrado Cecchetti, Raffaele Falsaperla, Piero Pavone, Nassim Matin, Giovanna Vitaliti and Isotta Gentile

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) system has become an effective treatment for acute and chronic wound defects. Although its use has been reported in wound care of children and premature infants, the managemen...

    Authors: Filomena Valentina Paradiso, Lorenzo Nanni, Laura Merli, Erika Adalgisa De Marco, Vincenzo Davide Catania, Alessandra Taddei, Carlo Manzoni and Giorgio Conti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:2

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each...

    Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Aslam, Shafaq Saleem, Rafia Afzal, Umair Iqbal, Sehrish Muhammad Saleem, Muhammad Waqas Abid Shaikh and Nazish Shahid

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:94

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Intussusception remains a common cause of bowel obstruction in children and results in significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly treated. There is a paucity of prospective studies regarding childhood...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Neema M Kayange and Alphonce B Chandika

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. We describe a girl with Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder of the X chromosome in a phenotypic female at increased risk of autoimmune and immunological diseases, who developed Kawasaki disease at the age of f...

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Stefania Losi, Francesco Chiarelli, Maurizio de Martino and Fernanda Falcini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:24

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  40. Codeine is a mild opioid widely used as an analgesic in various age groups, including various pediatric settings. It is a prodrug that owes its analgesic effect almost entirely to the principal metabolite: mor...

    Authors: Franca Benini and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  41. Awareness of the importance of strengthening investments in child health and monitoring the quality of services in the pediatric field is increasing. The Pediatric Quality Indicators developed by the US Agency...

    Authors: Jacopo Lenzi, Lorenza Luciano, Kathryn Mack McDonald, Simona Rosa, Gianfranco Damiani, Giovanni Corsello and Maria Pia Fantini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Quality assessment in pediatric care has recently gained momentum. Although many of the approaches to indicator development are similar regardless of the population of interest, few nationwide sets of indicato...

    Authors: Lorenza Luciano, Jacopo Lenzi, Kathryn Mack McDonald, Simona Rosa, Gianfranco Damiani, Giovanni Corsello and Maria Pia Fantini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:7

    Content type: Research

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  43. An increased but unpredictable risk of malnutrition is associated with hospitalization, especially in children with chronic diseases. We investigated the applicability of Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nu...

    Authors: Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Ilaria Liguoro, Fabrizia Chiatto, Daniela Mambretti and Alfredo Guarino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:81

    Content type: Research

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  44. There are few published data concerning radiological findings and their relationship with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity. The aim if this study was to assess radiographic findings in children with...

    Authors: Maria Francesca Patria, Benedetta Longhi, Mara Lelii, Carlotta Galeone, Maria Angela Pavesi and Susanna Esposito

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:56

    Content type: Research

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  45. Dehydration caused by acute rotavirus gastroenteritis is a frequent finding in pediatric patients. The most important treatment modality in these patients is recognising and treating dehydration, electrolyte i...

    Authors: Tanju Çelik, Emel Altekin, Rana İşgüder, Yasin Kenesari, Murat Duman and Nur Arslan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:52

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Herpes simplex encephalitis is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and may be related to timely diagnosis and treatment. While awaiting the results of testing, hospitalization and empiric treat...

    Authors: Dina M Kulik, Magda Mekky, Ming Yang, Ari Bitnun and Patricia C Parkin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:72

    Content type: Research

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  47. Blastomycosis, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is a systemic pyogranulomatous infection, endemic in United States and Canada, with few reported cases in Africa and Asia. It is...

    Authors: Margherita Codifava, Azzurra Guerra, Giulio Rossi, Paolo Paolucci and Lorenzo Iughetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:69

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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