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Critical Care

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of practice and research in critical care within the context of children and adolescents.

  1. Content type: Review

    Pentoxifylline may be an important approach to treat neonatal sepsis. However, its use has not been well established. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of pentoxifylline...

    Authors: Jun Tian, Peifang Shen, Kaiyu Pan and Qiong Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:108

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  2. Content type: Debate

    The definition of the eligibility criteria of newborn, infant, child, or adolescent patients for palliative care (PC) is complicated by the fact that these patients generally present with very specific case hi...

    Authors: Momcilo Jankovic, Lucia De Zen, Federico Pellegatta, Pierina Lazzarin, Marina Bertolotti, Luca Manfredini, Antonino Aprea, Luigi Memo, Antonio Del Vecchio, Rino Agostiniani and Franca Benini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:89

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  3. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    To date, a large number of children are hospitalized inappropriately in adult intensive care units, where the minimum standards of care are not applied to young patients. It is well-known that the child is not...

    Authors: Nicola Pozzi, Gabriella D’Angelo and Eloisa Gitto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:33

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  4. Content type: Research

    Pediatric head trauma management varies between emergency departments globally. Here we aim to compare the pediatric minor head trauma management between a US and Italian hospital.

    Authors: Brittany M. Stopa, Stefano Amoroso, Luca Ronfani, Elena Neri, Egidio Barbi and Lois K. Lee

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:24

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) in children is an uncommon but severe condition which can be either inherited or acquired. It consists in clinical manifestation of defective production or ineffective actio...

    Authors: Stefano Pintaldi, Angela Lora, Katy Vecchiato, Andrea Taddio and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:23

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  6. Content type: Research

    Nutrition cares are of the main measures to save premature infants. In this regard, proper positioning is one of the key measures that is done by nurses; still there is a paucity of studies in this field and t...

    Authors: Alireza Khatony, Alireza Abdi, Batol Karimi, Abbas Aghaei and Hamidreza Saeidi Brojeni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:6

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  7. Content type: Research

    Neonatal sepsis is an inflammatory systemic syndrome, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. We analyzed the expression profile data of E-MTAB-4785 to reveal the pathogenesis o...

    Authors: Li Huang, Lixing Qiao, Huan Zhu, Li Jiang and Liping Yin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:145

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is the most common inborn error of Vitamin B12 metabolism often causing severe neurological, renal, gastrointestinal and hematological symptoms. Onset with pulmonary hypertension (PAH...

    Authors: Luciano De Simone, Laura Capirchio, Rosa Maria Roperto, Paola Romagnani, Michele Sacchini, Maria Alice Donati and Maurizio de Martino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:90

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  9. Content type: Review

    Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) allows to obtain real-time images to correlate with the patient’s presenting signs and symptoms. It can be used by various specialties and may be broadly divided into diag...

    Authors: Julien Le Coz, Silvia Orlandini, Luigi Titomanlio and Victoria Elisa Rinaldi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:87

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  10. Content type: Case report

    Pleural effusion is a rare complication of ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting and its diagnosis is difficult in patients with neurological and consciousness impairment.

    Authors: Federica Porcaro, Emidio Procaccini, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Alessandra Schiavino, Francesca Petreschi and Renato Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:42

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  11. Content type: Review

    We aim to formulate evidence-based recommendations to assist physicians decision-making in the assessment and management of children younger than 16 years presenting to the emergency department (ED) following ...

    Authors: Liviana Da Dalt, Niccolo’ Parri, Angela Amigoni, Agostino Nocerino, Francesca Selmin, Renzo Manara, Paola Perretta, Maria Paola Vardeu and Silvia Bressan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:7

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  12. Content type: Case report

    Pediatric acute-liver-failure due to acetaminophen (APAP) administration at therapeutic dosage is rare, while viral infections and metabolic defects are the prevalent causes. Yet, as acetaminophen is routinely...

    Authors: Pier Luigi Calvo, Francesco Tandoi, Tobias B. Haak, Andrea Brunati, Michele Pinon, Dominic Dell Olio, Renato Romagnoli and Marco Spada

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:88

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  13. Content type: Case report

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by recurrent metabolic crises caused by fasting, intercurrent illness and excessive physical ...

    Authors: Juan Ignacio Muñoz-Bonet, María del Carmen Ortega-Sánchez and José Luis León Guijarro

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:12

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  14. Content type: Research

    High fidelity simulation has been executed to allow the evaluation of technical and non-technical skills of health caregivers. Our objective was to assess technical and non-technical performances of low level ...

    Authors: Giuseppe De Bernardo, Desirée Sordino, Francesco Cavallin, Veronica Mardegan, Nicoletta Doglioni, Maria Luisa Tataranno and Daniele Trevisanuto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:100

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  15. Content type: Research

    Differential diagnosis between sepsis and non-infectious inflammatory disorders demands improved biomarkers. Soluble Triggering Receptor Expression on Myeloid cells (sTREM-1) is an activating receptor whose ro...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Franco De Crescenzo, Roberto Buzzetti, Francesca Calò Carducci, Alessandro Jenkner, Donato Amodio, Maia De Luca, Sara Chiurchiù, Elin Haf Davies, Alessandra Simonetti, Elena Ferretti, Martina Della Corte, Luca Gramatica, Susanna Livadiotti and Paolo Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:44

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  16. Content type: Case report

    Nephrotic syndrome confers an acquired prothrombotic phenotype due to the urinary loss of anticoagulant proteins.Patients with reactivation of nephrotic syndrome may develop thrombosis.

    Authors: Andrea Artoni, Serena Maria Passamonti, Alberto Edefonti, Francesca Gianniello, Vittorio Civelli and Ida Martinelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:22

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  17. Content type: Research

    Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. Th...

    Authors: Riccardo Lubrano, Sara Paoli, Marco Bonci, Luigi Di Ruzza, Corrado Cecchetti, Raffaele Falsaperla, Piero Pavone, Nassim Matin, Giovanna Vitaliti and Isotta Gentile

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:20

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  18. Content type: Case report

    The Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) system has become an effective treatment for acute and chronic wound defects. Although its use has been reported in wound care of children and premature infants, the managemen...

    Authors: Filomena Valentina Paradiso, Lorenzo Nanni, Laura Merli, Erika Adalgisa De Marco, Vincenzo Davide Catania, Alessandra Taddei, Carlo Manzoni and Giorgio Conti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:2

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  19. Content type: Research

    Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each...

    Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Aslam, Shafaq Saleem, Rafia Afzal, Umair Iqbal, Sehrish Muhammad Saleem, Muhammad Waqas Abid Shaikh and Nazish Shahid

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:94

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  20. Content type: Research

    Intussusception remains a common cause of bowel obstruction in children and results in significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly treated. There is a paucity of prospective studies regarding childhood...

    Authors: Phillipo L Chalya, Neema M Kayange and Alphonce B Chandika

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:28

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  21. Content type: Case report

    We describe a girl with Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder of the X chromosome in a phenotypic female at increased risk of autoimmune and immunological diseases, who developed Kawasaki disease at the age of f...

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Stefania Losi, Francesco Chiarelli, Maurizio de Martino and Fernanda Falcini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:24

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  22. Content type: Review

    Codeine is a mild opioid widely used as an analgesic in various age groups, including various pediatric settings. It is a prodrug that owes its analgesic effect almost entirely to the principal metabolite: mor...

    Authors: Franca Benini and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:16

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  23. Content type: Research

    Awareness of the importance of strengthening investments in child health and monitoring the quality of services in the pediatric field is increasing. The Pediatric Quality Indicators developed by the US Agency...

    Authors: Jacopo Lenzi, Lorenza Luciano, Kathryn Mack McDonald, Simona Rosa, Gianfranco Damiani, Giovanni Corsello and Maria Pia Fantini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:14

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  24. Content type: Research

    Quality assessment in pediatric care has recently gained momentum. Although many of the approaches to indicator development are similar regardless of the population of interest, few nationwide sets of indicato...

    Authors: Lorenza Luciano, Jacopo Lenzi, Kathryn Mack McDonald, Simona Rosa, Gianfranco Damiani, Giovanni Corsello and Maria Pia Fantini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:7

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  25. Content type: Research

    An increased but unpredictable risk of malnutrition is associated with hospitalization, especially in children with chronic diseases. We investigated the applicability of Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nu...

    Authors: Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Ilaria Liguoro, Fabrizia Chiatto, Daniela Mambretti and Alfredo Guarino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:81

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  26. Content type: Research

    There are few published data concerning radiological findings and their relationship with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity. The aim if this study was to assess radiographic findings in children with...

    Authors: Maria Francesca Patria, Benedetta Longhi, Mara Lelii, Carlotta Galeone, Maria Angela Pavesi and Susanna Esposito

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:56

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  27. Content type: Research

    Dehydration caused by acute rotavirus gastroenteritis is a frequent finding in pediatric patients. The most important treatment modality in these patients is recognising and treating dehydration, electrolyte i...

    Authors: Tanju Çelik, Emel Altekin, Rana İşgüder, Yasin Kenesari, Murat Duman and Nur Arslan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:52

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  28. Content type: Research

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and may be related to timely diagnosis and treatment. While awaiting the results of testing, hospitalization and empiric treat...

    Authors: Dina M Kulik, Magda Mekky, Ming Yang, Ari Bitnun and Patricia C Parkin

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:72

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  29. Content type: Case report

    Blastomycosis, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is a systemic pyogranulomatous infection, endemic in United States and Canada, with few reported cases in Africa and Asia. It is...

    Authors: Margherita Codifava, Azzurra Guerra, Giulio Rossi, Paolo Paolucci and Lorenzo Iughetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:69

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Acquired complete heart block, in pediatric age is mainly the results of direct injury to conduction tissue during cardiac surgery or cardiac catheterisation. It can also be observed in different clinical sett...

    Authors: Nicola Carano, Ilaria Bo, Bertrand Tchana, Erica Vecchione, Silvia Fantoni and Aldo Agnetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:61

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  31. Content type: Case report

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). This syndrome may be associated with connective tissue disorder...

    Authors: Nicola Improda, Maria Alessio, Donatella Capalbo, Giustina Russo, Ida D’Acunzo, Loredana Palamaro, Claudio Pignata and Mariacarolina Salerno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:49

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Foreign body aspiration continues to be a serious problem in childhood and adolescent period with significant rate of morbidity and rarely mortality. Half of the foreign body aspiration cases have no history o...

    Authors: Erkan Cakir, Emel Torun, Zeynep Seda Uyan, Ozge Akca and Omer Soysal

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:17

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Oxatomide at therapeutic doses generates occasionally drowsiness in children. When administered at toxic doses, however oxatomide may induce long lasting impaired consciousness. We now report a case of severe ...

    Authors: Stefania Antoniazzi, Dario Cattaneo, Valentina Perrone, Carla Carnovale, Simonetta Cherubini, Maria Carmela Mugolino, Francesco Clementi, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Emilio Clementi and Sonia Radice

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:11

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  34. Content type: Research

    This study aimed to examine the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to determine the risk factors as...

    Authors: Ali Ertug Arslankoylu, Necdet Kuyucu, Berna Seker Yilmaz and Semra Erdogan

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:56

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  35. Content type: Case report

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many ...

    Authors: Federico Matina, Mirella Collura, Maria Cristina Maggio, Patrizio Vitulo, Caterina Lo Piparo and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:47

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  36. Content type: Research

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of...

    Authors: Aya M Fattouh, Yasmeen A Mansi, Mervat G El-anany, Amany A El-kholy and Hanaa M El-karaksy

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:14

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  37. Content type: Research

    Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine...

    Authors: Olatunde Aremu, Stephen Lawoko, Tahereh Moradi and Koustuv Dalal

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:13

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  38. Content type: Research

    We describe difficult weaning after prolonged mechanical ventilation in three tracheostomized children affected by respiratory virus infection. Although the spontaneous breathing trials were successful, the pa...

    Authors: Gustavo Caprotta, Patricia Gonzalez Crotti and Judith Frydman

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:5

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  39. Content type: Review

    There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehyd...

    Authors: Mattia Peruzzo, Gregorio P Milani, Luca Garzoni, Laura Longoni, Giacomo D Simonetti, Alberto Bettinelli, Emilio F Fossali and Mario G Bianchetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:78

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  40. Content type: Research

    Bronchiolitis guidelines suggest that neither bronchodilators nor corticosteroids, antiviral and antibacterial agents should be routinely used. Although recommendations, many clinicians persistently prescribe ...

    Authors: Daniele De Brasi, Fortunato Pannuti, Fabio Antonelli, Federica de Seta, Paolo Siani and Luciano de Seta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:67

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  41. Content type: Case report

    A 12 year old boy presented with an acute onset of anisocoria and blurred vision. Ocular motility was normal but his right pupil was dilated, round but sluggishly reactive to light. There was no history of tra...

    Authors: Marina Macchiaiolo, Elettra Vignati, Michaela V Gonfiantini, Annalisa Grandin, Maria Teresa Romano, Michele Salata, Diletta Valentini and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:50

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  42. Content type: Research

    To validate the SICK scoring system's ability to differentiate between individuals with higher and lower probabilities of death

    Authors: Manoj A Gupta, Anjan Chakrabarty, Ruth Halstead, Mohit Sahni, Jayanti Rangasami, Ashish Puliyel, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, David A Green and Jacob M Puliyel

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:35

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