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This section considers studies regarding all aspects of endocrinology and diabetology in children and adolescents.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    Overgrowth syndromes are known as a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by a generalized or segmental, symmetric or asymmetric, overgrowth that may involve several tissues. These disorders, which p...

    Authors: Alice Maguolo, Franco Antoniazzi, Alice Spano, Elena Fiorini, Rossella Gaudino, Margherita Mauro, Gaetano Cantalupo, Paolo Biban, Silvia Maitz and Paolo Cavarzere

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:110

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  2. Content type: Review

    The Italian Consensus Position Statement on Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents integrates and updates the previous guidelines to deliver an evidence based approach to th...

    Authors: Giuliana Valerio, Claudio Maffeis, Giuseppe Saggese, Maria Amalia Ambruzzi, Antonio Balsamo, Simonetta Bellone, Marcello Bergamini, Sergio Bernasconi, Gianni Bona, Valeria Calcaterra, Teresa Canali, Margherita Caroli, Francesco Chiarelli, Nicola Corciulo, Antonino Crinò, Procolo Di Bonito…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:88

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  3. Content type: Research

    Predictors of hypovitaminosis D were extensively studied in the adult population, leading to an approximately complete understanding of them, while there is a lack of studies in the pediatric population, espec...

    Authors: Gilda Salerno, Manuela Ceccarelli, Chiara de Waure, Marianna D’Andrea, Danilo Buonsenso, Valerio Faccia, Davide Pata and Piero Valentini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:86

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  4. Content type: Review

    Cryptorchidism, the most common male genital abnormality observed in paediatrics, might often be associated with long-term functional consequences and can even reoccur after a successful orchidopexy. Serum mar...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Marta Cofini, Donato Rigante, Alberto Leonardi, Laura Lucchetti, Clelia Cipolla, Lucia Lanciotti and Laura Penta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:81

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  5. Content type: Review

    Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in the regulation of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, particularly during pediatric age when nutritional rickets and impaired bone mass acquisition may occur.

    Authors: Giuseppe Saggese, Francesco Vierucci, Flavia Prodam, Fabio Cardinale, Irene Cetin, Elena Chiappini, Gian Luigi de’ Angelis, Maddalena Massari, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Diego Peroni, Luigi Terracciano, Rino Agostiniani, Domenico Careddu, Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni, Gianni Bona…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:51

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  6. Content type: Commentary

    Aim of this commentary is to analyze the relationships between genotypic bases and phenotypic expression of congenital “multiple pituitary hormone deficiency” (MPHD) syndrome and to indicate some reliable crit...

    Authors: Giuseppe Crisafulli, Tommaso Aversa, Giuseppina Zirilli, Filippo De Luca, Romina Gallizzi and Malgorzata Wasniewska

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:47

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  7. Content type: Case report

    The simultaneous occurrence of Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is an exceptional event: there are just three case reports (two children and a 51 years old man) describing mal...

    Authors: Giada Zanella, Gianluca Tornese, Elisabetta Mascheroni, Elena Faleschini, Alessandro Ventura and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:43

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  8. Content type: Commentary

    Aim of this commentary is to report the main peculiarities that have been found to characterize the phenotypic expression of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) in children with Down’s syndrome (DS). According...

    Authors: Tommaso Aversa, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Giuseppina Zirilli, Filippo De Luca, Romina Gallizzi and Mariella Valenzise

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:39

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  9. Content type: Research

    Vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) play a crucial role in calcium homeostasis and bone health of children. Serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) is considered to be the most accurate marker ...

    Authors: Ozlem Naciye Sahin, Muhittin Serdar, Mustafa Serteser, Ibrahim Unsal and Aysel Ozpinar

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:40

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  10. Content type: Commentary

    Aim of this commentary is to report current knowledges on the main clinical and metabolic abnormalities which might be observed in children with longstanding and untreated subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and t...

    Authors: R. Gallizzi, C. Crisafulli, T. Aversa, G. Salzano, F. De Luca, M. Valenzise and G. Zirilli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:25

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  11. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Puberty is a critical age for patients with Turner syndrome (TS): infertility is reported to be linked to karyotype and spontaneous puberty and menarche occur in approximately 30% of patients, especially in mo...

    Authors: M. C. Maggio, A. De Pietro, P. Porcelli, F. Serraino, T. Angileri, A. Di Peri and G. Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:24

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  12. Content type: Commentary

    Aim of this commentary is to summarize the salient literature views on the relationships between presentation and evolution patterns of thyroid function in children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT).

    Authors: Giuseppe Crisafulli, Romina Gallizzi, Tommaso Aversa, Giuseppina Salzano, Mariella Valenzise, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Filippo De Luca and Giuseppina Zirilli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:22

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  13. Content type: Research

    The available studies concerning the influence of age on the phenotypical expression of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) have hitherto compared DTC presentation either between pre-pubertal and pubertal c...

    Authors: Giuseppina Zirilli, Laura Cannavò, Francesco Vermiglio, Maria Antonia Violi, Filippo De Luca and Malgorzata Wasniewska

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:13

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  14. Content type: Commentary

    Aim of this commentary is to analyze the current views about the phenotypic features of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD) in Turner syndrome (TS) girls, in terms of epidemiology, clinical a...

    Authors: Tommaso Aversa, Romina Gallizzi, Giuseppina Salzano, Giuseppina Zirilli, Filippo De Luca and Mariella Valenzise

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:12

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  15. Content type: Research

    Neonatal screening for 21 hydroxylase deficiency is designed to detect classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). It is still unclear whether newborns who result false positives at neonatal screen...

    Authors: Paolo Cavarzere, Margherita Mauro, Monica Vincenzi, Silvana Lauriola, Francesca Teofoli, Rossella Gaudino, Diego Alberto Ramaroli, Rocco Micciolo, Marta Camilot and Franco Antoniazzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:10

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  16. Content type: Research

    There is increasing recognition that sleep is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-reported sleep duration, sleep-related probl...

    Authors: Leonardo Pulido-Arjona, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Cesar Agostinis-Sobrinho, Jorge Mota, Rute Santos, María Correa-Rodríguez, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso and Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:9

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Mutations localized in the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) gene are often associated with the pathogenesis of Laron Syndrome, an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder characterized by severe growth retardation...

    Authors: Stefania Moia, Daniele Tessaris, Silvia Einaudi, Luisa de Sanctis, Gianni Bona, Simonetta Bellone and Flavia Prodam

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:94

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  18. Content type: Review

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a relatively uncommon and heterogeneous endocrine disorder presenting in childhood with short stature. However, during the neonatal period, the metabolic effects of GHD may t...

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Perla Scalini, Giovanni Farello and Alberto Verrotti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:81

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  19. Content type: Research

    Although the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS-3) is the commonest APS that may be encountered in pediatric age, last year literature includes only few studies aiming to specifically ascertain the ...

    Authors: Mariella Valenzise, Tommaso Aversa, Angiola Saccomanno, Filippo De Luca and Giuseppina Salzano

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:69

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  20. Content type: Review

    Referral for an assessment of tall stature is less common than for short stature. Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age. The majority of subjects with tal...

    Authors: Cristina Meazza, Chiara Gertosio, Roberta Giacchero, Sara Pagani and Mauro Bozzola

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:66

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Short stature (SS) is a relatively early sign of poor health. Only in 5% of cases we can explain it through the presence of endocrinological pathologies. Therefore, if SS is present since the first months of l...

    Authors: Paolo Cavarzere, Valentina Bortolotti, Michela Capogna, Margherita Guarnieri, Francesca Lucca, Rossella Gaudino, Stefano Marzini, Claudia Banzato and Franco Antoniazzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:64

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  22. Content type: Case Report

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (OMIM n. 201710) is the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. It is characterized by severe adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis impairment due to a def...

    Authors: Carla Bizzarri, Elisa Pisaneschi, Mafalda Mucciolo, Stefania Pedicelli, Daniela Galeazzi, Antonio Novelli and Marco Cappa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:57

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  23. Content type: Commentary

    Aim of this commentary is to report the most recent views about natural history of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) according to the different etiologies. In children with idiopathic SH the natural evolution is...

    Authors: Mariella Valenzise, Tommaso Aversa, Giuseppina Zirilli, Giuseppina Salzano, Domenico Corica, Simona Santucci and Filippo De Luca

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:2

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  24. Content type: Research

    To investigate the association of serum uric acid (SUA) with cardiometabolic abnormalities in Caucasian overweight/obese children (<10 years of age) versus adolescents (≥10 years of age) by drawing age and gen...

    Authors: Rosa Luciano, Blegina Shashaj, MariaRita Spreghini, Andrea Del Fattore, Carmela Rustico, Rita Wietrzykowska Sforza, Giuseppe Stefano Morino, Bruno Dallapiccola and Melania Manco

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:3

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  25. Content type: Research

    The objective of the research was to investigate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the context of lipid metabolism and amount of yeast-like fungi colonizing the digestive tract in children an...

    Authors: Katarzyna Zorena, Beata Kowalewska, Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko, Piotr Wąż and Małgorzata Myśliwiec

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:107

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  26. Content type: Research

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations in the GNAS locus are responsible for the Gsα protein dysfunctions causing Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia/c and Ib, respectively. For these heterogeneous diseases charac...

    Authors: L. de Sanctis, F. Giachero, G. Mantovani, G. Weber, M. Salerno, G. I. Baroncelli, F. M. Elli, P. Matarazzo, M. Wasniewska, L. Mazzanti, G. Scirè and D. Tessaris

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:101

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  27. Content type: Research

    PATRO Children is an ongoing observational, longitudinal, non-interventional, global post-marketing surveillance study, which is investigating the long-term safety and effectiveness of Omnitrope®, a somatropin...

    Authors: Lorenzo Iughetti, Gianluca Tornese, Maria Elisabeth Street, Flavia Napoli, Claudia Giavoli, Franco Antoniazzi, Stefano Stagi, Caterina Luongo, Sara Azzolini, Letizia Ragusa, Gianni Bona, Clara Zecchino, Tommaso Aversa, Luca Persani, Laura Guazzarotti, Emiliano Zecchi…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:93

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  28. Content type: Review

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography provides an automatical scan analysis of trabecular and cortical bone compartments, calculating not only their bone mineral density (BMD), but also bone geometrical ...

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Loredana Cavalli, Tiziana Cavalli, Maurizio de Martino and Maria Luisa Brandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:88

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  29. Content type: Research

    Salt-wasting represents a relatively common cause of emergency admission in infants and may result in life-threatening complications. Neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the ...

    Authors: Carla Bizzarri, Nicole Olivini, Stefania Pedicelli, Romana Marini, Germana Giannone, Paola Cambiaso and Marco Cappa

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:73

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  30. Content type: Review

    The current treatment approach for type 1 diabetes is based on daily insulin injections, combined with blood glucose monitoring. However, administration of exogenous insulin fails to mimic the physiological ac...

    Authors: Bernard Okere, Laura Lucaccioni, Massimo Dominici and Lorenzo Iughetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:62

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  31. Content type: Case report

    In infants under 3 years of age acquired primary hypothyroidism caused by autoimmune thyroiditis is very rare. Hypothyroidism can manifest with different signs and symptoms and has a wide range of presentation...

    Authors: Pierluigi Marzuillo, Anna Grandone, Silverio Perrotta, Laura Ruggiero, Carlo Capristo, Caterina Luongo, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice and Laura Perrone

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:61

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Abnormalities of chromosome 22q11, including deletions and translocations, have been described in association with different birth defects and malformations occurring in many combinations and degrees of severity.

    Authors: Grazia Bossi, Chiara Gertosio, Cristina Meazza, Giovanni Farello and Mauro Bozzola

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:14

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Costello syndrome is a rare syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies. The typical clinical traits include dysmorphic craniofacial features, skin hyperpigmentation and excess, feeding difficulties leading to ...

    Authors: Ewa Blachowska, Elżbieta Petriczko, Anita Horodnicka-Józwa, Agata Skórka, Magdalena Pelc, Małgorzata Krajewska-Walasek and Mieczysław Walczak

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:10

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  34. Content type: Research

    Growth hormone (GH) has a strong positive influence on bone, stimulating both bone elongation and increase in size. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two different GH dosages on final height an...

    Authors: Fiorenzo Lupi, Mauro Bozzola, Silvia Longhi, Giovanni Farello and Giorgio Radetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:5

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  35. Content type: Research

    It is known that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) may progress to Graves’ disease (GD) and that this phenomenon may be more frequent in the patients with Down syndrome (DS).

    Authors: Tommaso Aversa, Mariella Valenzise, Mariacarolina Salerno, Andrea Corrias, Lorenzo Iughetti, Giorgio Radetti, Filippo De Luca and Malgorzata Wasniewska

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:87

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  36. Content type: Research

    Linear growth and final height are reported as normal in congenital hypothyroid patients in the neonatal screening era.

    Authors: Maurizio Delvecchio, Maria Cristina Vigone, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Giovanna Weber, Rosa Lapolla, Pietro Pio Popolo, Giulia Maria Tronconi, Raffaella Di Mase, Filippo De Luca, Luciano Cavallo, Mariacarolina Salerno and Maria Felicia Faienza

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:82

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  37. Content type: Research

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by specific features including short stature, distinctive facial dysmorphic features, congenital heart defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,...

    Authors: Niki Zavras, Cristina Meazza, Alba Pilotta, Chiara Gertosio, Sara Pagani, Carmine Tinelli and Mauro Bozzola

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:71

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  38. Content type: Research

    Ectopic hepatic lipid accumulation is closely related to the development of insulin resistance, which is regarded as one of the most significant risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The c...

    Authors: Monika Kłusek-Oksiuta, Irena Bialokoz-Kalinowska, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Malgorzata Wojtkowska, Irena Werpachowska and Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:84

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is relatively rare in children and, if unrecognized, may present with cardiovascular collapse, making it a potentially life-threatening entity.

    Authors: Stefano Stagi, Paolo Del Greco, Franco Ricci, Chiara Iurato, Giovanni Poggi, Salvatore Seminara and Maurizio de Martino

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:78

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  40. Content type: Research

    Early discharge of healthy late preterm and full term newborn infants has become common practice because of the current social and economic necessities. Severe jaundice, and even kernicterus, has developed in ...

    Authors: Costantino Romagnoli, Eloisa Tiberi, Giovanni Barone, Mario De Curtis, Daniela Regoli, Piermichele Paolillo, Simonetta Picone, Stefano Anania, Maurizio Finocchi, Valentina Cardiello, Lucia Giordano, Valentina Paolucci and Enrico Zecca

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:6

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  41. Content type: Review

    An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardio...

    Authors: Lorenzo Iughetti and Patrizia Bruzzi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:38

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  42. Content type: Commentary

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become over the last decade the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adults. Thus, establishing the diagnosis of NAFLD is of utmost importance...

    Authors: Valerio Nobili, Claudia Della Corte, Lidia Monti, Anna Alisi and Ariel Feldstein

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:36

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  43. Content type: Research

    Recently, hepcidin expression in adipose tissue has been described and shown to be increased in patients with severe obesity. We tried to assess the effect of obesity on hepcidin serum levels and treatment out...

    Authors: Mohammed Sanad, Mohammed Osman and Amal Gharib

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:34

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  44. Content type: Case report

    despite recent progress in imaging, it is still difficult to distinguish between pituitary adenoma and hyperplasia, even using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with gadolinium injection. We describe an example...

    Authors: Roberto Franceschi, Umberto Rozzanigo, Riccarda Failo, Maria Bellizzi and Annunziata Di Palma

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:15

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