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Allergology and Immunology

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of allergic and immunologic diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. Short-acting bronchodilators are a class of medications commonly used to treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other respiratory conditions. The use of these medications has evolved over tim...

    Authors: Amelia Licari, Sara Manti, Francesco Mastellone, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Maria Angela Tosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:104
  2. Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kδ) Syndrome (APDS) is an inborn error of immunity (IEI) with a variable clinical presentation, characterized by infection susceptibility and immune dysregulation that m...

    Authors: Vassilios Lougaris, Federico Le Piane, Caterina Cancrini, Francesca Conti, Alberto Tommasini, Raffaele Badolato, Antonino Trizzino, Marco Zecca, Antonio De Rosa, Federica Barzaghi and Claudio Pignata
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:103
  3. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) shows a significant overlap of symptoms with other hyper-inflammatory diseases such as Kawasaki disease (KD), but the real difference of the two conditions...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Alessio Lembo, Francesca Finazzo, Annalisa Alaimo, Guglielmo Francesco Benfratello and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:91
  4. Pollution of the indoor environment represents a concern for human health, mainly in case of prolonged exposure such as in the case of women, children, the elderly, and the chronically ill, who spend most of t...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Rino Agostiniani, Laura Pacifici Noja, Jibin Park, Paolo Lauriola, Tiziana Nicoletti, Domenica Taruscio, Giovanni Taruscio and Alberto Mantovani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:69
  5. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is characterized by the narrowing of airways during or after physical activity, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Distinguishin...

    Authors: Angela Klain, Mattia Giovannini, Luca Pecoraro, Simona Barni, Francesca Mori, Lucia Liotti, Carla Mastrorilli, Francesca Saretta, Riccardo Castagnoli, Stefania Arasi, Lucia Caminiti, Mariannita Gelsomino, Cristiana Indolfi, Michele Miraglia del Giudice and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:47
  6. Asthma is one of the most common non-communicable diseases, and its prevalence and morbidity are influenced by a wide array of factors that are only partially understood. In addition to individual predispositi...

    Authors: Laura Bisoffi, Giovanni Sassudelli, Fabio Agostinis, Annalisa Cogo, Renato Cutrera, Irene Dalpiaz, Maria Elisa Di Cicco, Battista Guidi, Stefania La Grutta, Andrea Miceli, Francesca Mori, Giorgio Piacentini, Diego Peroni, Deborah Snjiders, Mattia Giovannini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:42
  7. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening reaction characterized by the acute onset of symptoms involving different organ systems and requiring immediate medical intervention. The incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis i...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mariannita Gelsomino, Lucia Liotti, Simona Barni, Francesca Mori, Mattia Giovannini, Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Francesca Saretta, Riccardo Castagnoli, Stefania Arasi, Lucia Caminiti, Angela Klain and Michele Miraglia del Giudice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:40
  8. Imported allergens are involved in many allergic reactions, with unexpected and unusual implications. They can be involved in developing asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, Hymenoptera venom allergies and fo...

    Authors: Luca Pecoraro, Mattia Giovannini, Francesca Mori, Simona Barni, Riccardo Castagnoli, Stefania Arasi, Carla Mastrorilli, Francesca Saretta, Lucia Liotti, Lucia Caminiti, Angela Klain, Mariannita Gelsomino, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:36
  9. Notifications of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections have significantly increased in many European Countries compared to the previous season. In Italy, there has been an increase in streptococcal ...

    Authors: Maria De Filippo, Angela Klain, Ilaria Brambilla, Silvia Caimmi, Riccardo Castagnoli, Cristiana Indolfi, Giulio Dinardo, Amelia Licari, Alberto Martelli, Maria Angela Tosca, Martina Votto, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Michele Miraglia del Giudice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:29
  10. Within 6 months of the coronavirus pandemic, a new disease entity associated with a multisystem hyperinflammation syndrome as a result of a previous infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus is increasingly being id...

    Authors: Chih-Jen Chen, Hsu-Yen Kao, Ching-Hua Huang, Chia-Jung Li, Cheng-Hsien Hung and Su-Boon Yong
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:18
  11. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology that predominantly affects children, and no specific diagnostic biomarkers for KD are available. Platelet-derived growth factor CC (PDG...

    Authors: Jing Zhang, Penghui Yang, Yihao Liu, Zhuo Chen, Jinhui Wu, Siqi Feng and Qijian Yi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2024 50:16
  12. To study whether the four locus gene model consisting of ADRB2 rs1042713, IL4 rs2243250, FCER1B rs569108 and L13 rs20541 can predict asthma of the Kazak children in Xinjiang, China.

    Authors: Shasha Bai, Jun Lu, Li Hua, Quanhua Liu, Mengxue Chen, Yutong Gu, Jianhua Zhang, Dongjun Ma and Yixiao Bao
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:162
  13. Coronary status at one month after Kawasaki disease (KD) onset had a great significance. The present study aimed to establish a prediction model for coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) at one month in children wit...

    Authors: Yunjia Tang, Chuxin Ding, Qiuqin Xu, Wanping Zhou, Yiming Qin, Meihua Lu and Haitao Lv
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:146
  14. Maternal diabetes might be related to a high risk of allergic disease in offspring. However, it remains unknown if maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is also associated with a high incidence of child...

    Authors: Xufeng Huang, Zhengguo Huang, Jing Zhang and You Jiang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:139
  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been the mainstay of treatment for Kawasaki disease (KD) over the past decades. However, 10–20% of KD patients are resistant to IVIG treatment which puts those patients at...

    Authors: Rui Zhang, Shuping Shuai, Hongxi Zhang, Jianghui Cai, Na Cui, Mi Tang, Shasha Xing, Yu Gao, Xia Liu and Xiao Yang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:78
  16. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a medium vessel vasculitis, of unknown etiology, typically presenting in children younger than 5 years of age. Prolonged fever (at least five days) is a major clinical criterion of KD,...

    Authors: Wenyan Jiao, Li Wei, Fuyong Jiao, Dorina Pjetraj, Jianying Feng, Jvyan Wang, Carlo Catassi and Simona Gatti
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:60
  17. The optimal therapeutic window to start intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for Kawasaki disease (KD) is highly debatable. We aimed to summarize the existing literature to evaluate the therapeutic window of IVIG...

    Authors: Zheng Li, Jianghui Cai, Jing Lu, Mingju Wang, Chenmei Yang, Zheng Zeng, Qian Tang, Jianhong Li, Wen Tang, Huiling Luo, Gaofeng Pan and Xingmao Zeng
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:45
  18. In Sicily, the first wave of COVID-19 showed a low epidemic impact in paediatric population, while the second and the third waves had a higher impact on clinical presentation of COVID-19 in children and a sign...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Salvatore Giordano, Maria Concetta Failla, Martina Gioacchina Campione, Annalisa Alaimo and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:37
  19. Pediatric Mastocytosis is a rare and heterogeneous disease, characterized by accumulation of mast cells in the skin (Cutaneous Mastocytosis) and/or, less frequently, in other organs, mainly liver, spleen, bone...

    Authors: Grazia Bossi, Valeria Brazzelli, Mara De Amici, Daniela Pietra, Chiara Raviola, Matteo Naso, Corrado Regalbuto, Federica Boselli, Valeria Fortina and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2023 49:6
  20. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness of unknown etiology and predictors for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance have been widely explored in recent decades. Neutrophil to lymphocyte plate...

    Authors: Yuyao Lu, Yunjia Tang, Bo Wang, Xuan Li, Qiuqin Xu, Hui Chu, Haitao Lv, Meihua Lu and Yiming Qin
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:208
  21. Urticarial lesions develop as a result of the activation of mast cells which, through the release of mediators, influence the formation of local inflammatory infiltrates. Changes in the expression of many cyto...

    Authors: Anna Góra, Maciej Przybył, Elżbieta Świętochowska and Edyta Machura
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:201
  22. Nephrotic syndrome is the one of the commonest renal disorders in children. Children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are at a high risk of atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia, hypertension. Carotid intima media...

    Authors: Ashraf Sayed Kamel, Mohamed Mohamed Ezzat AlGhawass, Muhammad Adel Sayed and Sara Aly Roby
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:195
  23. In this review, we report the developments across pediatric subspecialties that have been published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2021. We highlight advances in allergy and immunology, critical care,...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Ettore Piro, Simona Basilicata, Valeria Delle Cave, Marilena Cipullo, Sergio Bernasconi and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:189
  24. The impact of socio-economic status on the risk of allergy in African children is not clear.

    Authors: Chiara Zuiani, Michele Arigliani, Ramatu Zubair, Livingstone Gayus Dogara, Luigi Castriotta, Ashel Dache Sunday, Reward Christopher Audu, Habibah Dadan-Garba, Zakary Sani, Baba Inusa and Paola Cogo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:151
  25. Primary Synovial Chondromatosis (PSC) is a rare benign tumor of the synovial membrane in which cartilage metaplasia produces calcific loose bodies within the articular space. Only a few cases are reported in t...

    Authors: Matteo Trevisan, Luca Di Lenarda, Serena Pastore, Alessia Saccari, Gianluca Canton, Umberto Lucangelo, Andrea Taddio and Luigi Murena
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:139
  26. The bacterial load of the human lower respiratory tract is at least several times lower than that of the other parts of the body. This study aimed to identify the bacterial composition and colony structure of ...

    Authors: Jiawei Yao, Tao Ai, Wanmin Xia, Yinghong Fan, Cheng Xie and Lei Zhang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:120
  27. E-cigarettes are devices which allow to aerosolize liquids containing nicotine or other substances. Ever since they were released on the market in 2006, the number of users have been constantly increasing, esp...

    Authors: Chiara Casamento Tumeo, Alessandra Schiavino, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Francesca Petreschi, Alessandra Ottavianelli, Alessandro Onofri, Claudio Cherchi, Paolo Tomà and Renato Cutrera
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:119
  28. Available guidelines for asthma management represent an important and suitable tool to make the entire medical process evidence-based, effective, and safe for patients. Their purpose is to help doctors and pat...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mattia Giovannini, Simona Barni and Francesca Mori
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:110
  29. Currently, there are a few detailed guidelines on the overall management of children and adolescents with moderate-severe atopic dermatitis. AD ​​is a complex disease presenting with different clinical phenoty...

    Authors: Elena Galli, Anna Belloni Fortina, Giampaolo Ricci, Nunzia Maiello, Iria Neri, Ermanno Baldo, Irene Berti, Domenico Bonamonte, Lucetta Capra, Elena Carboni, Rossella Carello, Francesca Caroppo, Giovanni Cavagni, Iolanda Chinellato, Francesca Cipriani, Pasquale Comberiati…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:95
  30. Epidemiologic data suggest an increased prevalence of pediatric food allergies and intolerances (FAIs) during the last decades. This changing scenario has led to an increase in the overall healthcare costs, du...

    Authors: Roberto Berni Canani, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Alberto Martelli, Laura Carucci, Tommaso Cozzolino, Patrizia Alvisi, Carlo Agostoni, Paolo Lionetti and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:87
  31. Children’s HIV-positive status disclosure is an essential component of chronic care & long-term disease management. The modalities of status disclosure are complex and vary across different communities. Althou...

    Authors: Belete Gelaw Walle, Chalie Marew Tiruneh, Tigabu Dessie, Nigusie Selomon, Amare Kassaw, Bogale Chekole, Moges Wubneh, Tadele Lankrew and Wubet Alebachew Bayih
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:86
  32. BNT162b2 vaccine, developed by BioNTech and Pfizer ha recently approved for use in children aged 5 to 11 years. Recent data show evidence of safety on the administration and serious adverse events have been ra...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mariangela Tosca, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Fabio Cardinale, Riccardo Castagnoli, Elena Chiappini, Claudio Cravidi, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Marzia Duse, Amelia Licari, Sara Manti, Alberto Martelli, Giampaolo Ricci, Giuseppe Pingitore and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:76
  33. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak pushed the Italian government to start a strict lockdown, replacing school attendance with long-distance learning. This caused reduced exposure to sunlight but increased exposure to scr...

    Authors: Marzio Masini, Giulia Brindisi, Mattia Giovannini, Elia Pignataro, Laura Di Grande, Cinzia De Libero, Marcella Nebbioso, Francesca Mori, Roberto Caputo and Anna Maria Zicari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:74
  34. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inborn error of immunity. It is characterized by recurrent bacterial or fungal infections, including infections by Burkholderia species. This is due to respiratory burst ...

    Authors: Qianqian Zhao, Jing Yin, Jijun Ma, Xiaoxue Liu, Jiawen Wu and Chongwei Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:55
  35. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a rare disease in childhood with the prevalence of 4 cases per 1 million children and an incidence of 2 cases per year. The average age of diagnosis at pediatric age is app...

    Authors: Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Stefania Arasi, Simona Barni, Lucia Caminiti, Riccardo Castagnoli, Mattia Giovannini, Lucia Liotti, Francesca Mori, Francesca Saretta, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:51
  36. The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparin...

    Authors: Giulia Brindisi, Anna Maria Zicari, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Lucia Diaferio, Cristiana Indolfi, Giuseppe Marchese, Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Angela Klain, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Michele Miraglia Del Giudice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:1
  37. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic clinical-pathologic disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium with esophageal dysfunction symptoms.

    Authors: Simona Barni, Stefania Arasi, Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Mattia Giovannini, Francesca Mori, Lucia Liotti, Francesca Saretta, Riccardo Castagnoli, Lucia Caminiti, Antonella Cianferoni and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:230
  38. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading global cause of respiratory infections in infants and the second most frequent cause of death during the first year of life. This highly contagious seasonal vir...

    Authors: Chiara Azzari, Eugenio Baraldi, Paolo Bonanni, Elena Bozzola, Alessandra Coscia, Marcello Lanari, Paolo Manzoni, Teresa Mazzone, Fabrizio Sandri, Giovanni Checcucci Lisi, Salvatore Parisi, Giorgio Piacentini and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:198
  39. Solar urticaria represents an uncomfortable form of chronic inducible urticaria. First and second-line treatments are ineffective in some patients, leading to an impairment in their quality of life. Omalizumab...

    Authors: Mauro Iannelli, Stefano Passanisi, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Stefania Arasi, Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppina Zirilli and Giovanni B. Pajno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:195
  40. Physicians play a key role in driving vaccine acceptance and their recommendations are crucial to address vaccine hesitancy. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, awareness and attitude of Italian Pedi...

    Authors: Elisabetta Del Duca, Loredana Chini, Simona Graziani, Mayla Sgrulletti and Viviana Moschese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:183
  41. Amino acid-based formula (AAF) is a relevant dietary strategy for paediatric patients affected by cow’s milk allergy (CMA). The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoallergenicity of a new AAF in chil...

    Authors: Rita Nocerino, Carmen Di Scala, Serena Coppola, Veronica Giglio, Laura Carucci, Linda Cosenza, Luana Voto, Anna Maria Iannicelli, Anna Luzzetti and Roberto Berni Canani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:151
  42. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal therapy for IgE-mediated allergy. There is less evidence about the safety and efficacy of AIT especially subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in children under 5 ye...

    Authors: Yaqi Yang, Dongxia Ma, Nan Huang, Wenjing Li, Qing Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Lin Yang and Rongfei Zhu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:101
  43. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of unknown origin of small and medium caliber blood vessels, especially involving coronary arteries and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood in deve...

    Authors: Alice Annalisa Medaglia, Lucia Siracusa, Claudia Gioè, Salvatore Giordano, Antonio Cascio and Claudia Colomba
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:95
  44. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common immune-mediated skin disease in childhood. Several treatment options for pediatric AD, both topical and systemic, are currently available. We carried out a single-cent...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Manuela Pace, Francesca Mori, Elio Novembre, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:92
  45. Several studies have investigated the efficacy of balneotherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD), including a pediatric open randomized clinical trial conducted at the Comano thermal spring water center, which showed...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Ezio Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Stefania Farina, Manuela Pace, Cesare Filippeschi, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:91
  46. We reported the case of a two-old-year boy with a painful acute hemorrhagic edema. This is a self-limited benign condition: usually, affected children are well appearing and this strongly support the diagnosis...

    Authors: Sarah Contorno, Giorgio Cozzi, Irene Berti, Egidio Barbi and Andrea Taddio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:61

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