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Allergology and Immunology

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of allergic and immunologic diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. In this review, we report the developments across pediatric subspecialties that have been published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2021. We highlight advances in allergy and immunology, critical care,...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Ettore Piro, Simona Basilicata, Valeria Delle Cave, Marilena Cipullo, Sergio Bernasconi and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:189
  2. The impact of socio-economic status on the risk of allergy in African children is not clear.

    Authors: Chiara Zuiani, Michele Arigliani, Ramatu Zubair, Livingstone Gayus Dogara, Luigi Castriotta, Ashel Dache Sunday, Reward Christopher Audu, Habibah Dadan-Garba, Zakary Sani, Baba Inusa and Paola Cogo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:151
  3. Primary Synovial Chondromatosis (PSC) is a rare benign tumor of the synovial membrane in which cartilage metaplasia produces calcific loose bodies within the articular space. Only a few cases are reported in t...

    Authors: Matteo Trevisan, Luca Di Lenarda, Serena Pastore, Alessia Saccari, Gianluca Canton, Umberto Lucangelo, Andrea Taddio and Luigi Murena
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:139
  4. The bacterial load of the human lower respiratory tract is at least several times lower than that of the other parts of the body. This study aimed to identify the bacterial composition and colony structure of ...

    Authors: Jiawei Yao, Tao Ai, Wanmin Xia, Yinghong Fan, Cheng Xie and Lei Zhang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:120
  5. E-cigarettes are devices which allow to aerosolize liquids containing nicotine or other substances. Ever since they were released on the market in 2006, the number of users have been constantly increasing, esp...

    Authors: Chiara Casamento Tumeo, Alessandra Schiavino, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Francesca Petreschi, Alessandra Ottavianelli, Alessandro Onofri, Claudio Cherchi, Paolo Tomà and Renato Cutrera
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:119
  6. Available guidelines for asthma management represent an important and suitable tool to make the entire medical process evidence-based, effective, and safe for patients. Their purpose is to help doctors and pat...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mattia Giovannini, Simona Barni and Francesca Mori
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:110
  7. Currently, there are a few detailed guidelines on the overall management of children and adolescents with moderate-severe atopic dermatitis. AD ​​is a complex disease presenting with different clinical phenoty...

    Authors: Elena Galli, Anna Belloni Fortina, Giampaolo Ricci, Nunzia Maiello, Iria Neri, Ermanno Baldo, Irene Berti, Domenico Bonamonte, Lucetta Capra, Elena Carboni, Rossella Carello, Francesca Caroppo, Giovanni Cavagni, Iolanda Chinellato, Francesca Cipriani, Pasquale Comberiati…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:95
  8. Epidemiologic data suggest an increased prevalence of pediatric food allergies and intolerances (FAIs) during the last decades. This changing scenario has led to an increase in the overall healthcare costs, du...

    Authors: Roberto Berni Canani, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Alberto Martelli, Laura Carucci, Tommaso Cozzolino, Patrizia Alvisi, Carlo Agostoni, Paolo Lionetti and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:87
  9. Children’s HIV-positive status disclosure is an essential component of chronic care & long-term disease management. The modalities of status disclosure are complex and vary across different communities. Althou...

    Authors: Belete Gelaw Walle, Chalie Marew Tiruneh, Tigabu Dessie, Nigusie Selomon, Amare Kassaw, Bogale Chekole, Moges Wubneh, Tadele Lankrew and Wubet Alebachew Bayih
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:86
  10. BNT162b2 vaccine, developed by BioNTech and Pfizer ha recently approved for use in children aged 5 to 11 years. Recent data show evidence of safety on the administration and serious adverse events have been ra...

    Authors: Elio Novembre, Mariangela Tosca, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Fabio Cardinale, Riccardo Castagnoli, Elena Chiappini, Claudio Cravidi, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Marzia Duse, Amelia Licari, Sara Manti, Alberto Martelli, Giampaolo Ricci, Giuseppe Pingitore and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:76
  11. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak pushed the Italian government to start a strict lockdown, replacing school attendance with long-distance learning. This caused reduced exposure to sunlight but increased exposure to scr...

    Authors: Marzio Masini, Giulia Brindisi, Mattia Giovannini, Elia Pignataro, Laura Di Grande, Cinzia De Libero, Marcella Nebbioso, Francesca Mori, Roberto Caputo and Anna Maria Zicari
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:74
  12. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inborn error of immunity. It is characterized by recurrent bacterial or fungal infections, including infections by Burkholderia species. This is due to respiratory burst ...

    Authors: Qianqian Zhao, Jing Yin, Jijun Ma, Xiaoxue Liu, Jiawen Wu and Chongwei Li
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:55
  13. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a rare disease in childhood with the prevalence of 4 cases per 1 million children and an incidence of 2 cases per year. The average age of diagnosis at pediatric age is app...

    Authors: Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Stefania Arasi, Simona Barni, Lucia Caminiti, Riccardo Castagnoli, Mattia Giovannini, Lucia Liotti, Francesca Mori, Francesca Saretta, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:51
  14. The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparin...

    Authors: Giulia Brindisi, Anna Maria Zicari, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Lucia Diaferio, Cristiana Indolfi, Giuseppe Marchese, Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Angela Klain, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Michele Miraglia Del Giudice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2022 48:1
  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic clinical-pathologic disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium with esophageal dysfunction symptoms.

    Authors: Simona Barni, Stefania Arasi, Carla Mastrorilli, Luca Pecoraro, Mattia Giovannini, Francesca Mori, Lucia Liotti, Francesca Saretta, Riccardo Castagnoli, Lucia Caminiti, Antonella Cianferoni and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:230
  16. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading global cause of respiratory infections in infants and the second most frequent cause of death during the first year of life. This highly contagious seasonal vir...

    Authors: Chiara Azzari, Eugenio Baraldi, Paolo Bonanni, Elena Bozzola, Alessandra Coscia, Marcello Lanari, Paolo Manzoni, Teresa Mazzone, Fabrizio Sandri, Giovanni Checcucci Lisi, Salvatore Parisi, Giorgio Piacentini and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:198
  17. Solar urticaria represents an uncomfortable form of chronic inducible urticaria. First and second-line treatments are ineffective in some patients, leading to an impairment in their quality of life. Omalizumab...

    Authors: Mauro Iannelli, Stefano Passanisi, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Stefania Arasi, Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppina Zirilli and Giovanni B. Pajno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:195
  18. Physicians play a key role in driving vaccine acceptance and their recommendations are crucial to address vaccine hesitancy. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, awareness and attitude of Italian Pedi...

    Authors: Elisabetta Del Duca, Loredana Chini, Simona Graziani, Mayla Sgrulletti and Viviana Moschese
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:183
  19. Amino acid-based formula (AAF) is a relevant dietary strategy for paediatric patients affected by cow’s milk allergy (CMA). The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoallergenicity of a new AAF in chil...

    Authors: Rita Nocerino, Carmen Di Scala, Serena Coppola, Veronica Giglio, Laura Carucci, Linda Cosenza, Luana Voto, Anna Maria Iannicelli, Anna Luzzetti and Roberto Berni Canani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:151
  20. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal therapy for IgE-mediated allergy. There is less evidence about the safety and efficacy of AIT especially subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in children under 5 ye...

    Authors: Yaqi Yang, Dongxia Ma, Nan Huang, Wenjing Li, Qing Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Lin Yang and Rongfei Zhu
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:101
  21. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of unknown origin of small and medium caliber blood vessels, especially involving coronary arteries and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood in deve...

    Authors: Alice Annalisa Medaglia, Lucia Siracusa, Claudia Gioè, Salvatore Giordano, Antonio Cascio and Claudia Colomba
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:95
  22. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common immune-mediated skin disease in childhood. Several treatment options for pediatric AD, both topical and systemic, are currently available. We carried out a single-cent...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Manuela Pace, Francesca Mori, Elio Novembre, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:92
  23. Several studies have investigated the efficacy of balneotherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD), including a pediatric open randomized clinical trial conducted at the Comano thermal spring water center, which showed...

    Authors: Davide Geat, Mattia Giovannini, Ezio Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Stefania Farina, Manuela Pace, Cesare Filippeschi, Giampiero Girolomoni, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:91
  24. We reported the case of a two-old-year boy with a painful acute hemorrhagic edema. This is a self-limited benign condition: usually, affected children are well appearing and this strongly support the diagnosis...

    Authors: Sarah Contorno, Giorgio Cozzi, Irene Berti, Egidio Barbi and Andrea Taddio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:61
  25. Preschool children with clinically-diagnosed asthma have a higher rate of emergency department visits and consume more resources for management than older children. However, no clinical trials have yet been pe...

    Authors: Sebastiano Guarnaccia, Cristina Quecchia, Andrea Festa, Michele Magoni, Giuseppe Zenoni, Emanuele D’Agata, Valentina Brivio, Elena Zanardini, Carmelo Scarcella, Valeria Gretter, Susanna Facchetti, Cinzia Gasparotti, Ada Pluda, Malica Frassine, Rosa Maria Limina, Raffaele Spiazzi…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:60
  26. A national consensus document on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use in childhood, produced by the main Italian pediatric scientific societies, has been recently released. The aim of this study was to gather inf...

    Authors: Giovanni Cerimoniale, Paolo Becherucci, Maria Carmen Verga, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Luciana Indinnimeo, Alberto Villani, Mariangela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Marzia Duse, Paolo Biasci, Mattia Doria, Diego Peroni, Giorgio Piacentini, Maria Di Cicco, Gabriella Pozzobon and Riccardo Lubrano
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:34
  27. The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immun...

    Authors: Giorgio Costagliola, Erika Spada, Pasquale Comberiati and Diego G. Peroni
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2021 47:32
  28. There is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children than in adults and asthma and allergy, the most common chronic disorders in children, are not included in the top 10 comorbidities...

    Authors: Lucia Diaferio, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Giulia Brindisi, Cristiana Indolfi, Giuseppe Marchese, Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni, Anna Maria Zicari, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Michele Miraglia del Giudice
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:146
  29. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a non IgE-mediated food allergy that generally affects children in the first year of life. Usually symptoms break out when formula milk or solid foods are...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Martina Bevacqua, Cristiana Corrado, Daniela Nisticò, Laura Cesca, Valentina Declich, Roberto Dall’Amico and Egidio Barbi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:144
  30. Allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) are immunological reactions after transfusion. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a critical regulator for human diseases. We performed this study to investigate the association of t...

    Authors: Wenjing Hu, Li Feng, Meng Li, Ting Li, Yudong Dai and Xiaowei Wang
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:109
  31. Digital health technologies carry the great potential of assisting physicians in making well-informed diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. In allergy care, electronic clinical diaries have been recently used ...

    Authors: Salvatore Tripodi, Andrea Giannone, Ifigenia Sfika, Simone Pelosi, Stephanie Dramburg, Annamaria Bianchi, Antonio Pizzulli, Jakob Florack, Valeria Villella, Ekaterina Potapova and Paolo Maria Matricardi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:105
  32. During the last decade several paediatric studies have been published with different possible indications for probiotics, leading to a global increase of probiotics’ market. Nevertheless, different study desig...

    Authors: Massimo Martinelli, Giuseppe Banderali, Marisa Bobbio, Elisa Civardi, Alberto Chiara, Sofia D’Elios, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Mattia Olivero, Diego Peroni, Claudio Romano, Mauro Stronati, Renato Turra, Irene Viola, Annamaria Staiano and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:104

    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:116

  33. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) are the most frequent causative disorders of nasal obstruction in children, leading to recurrent respiratory infections. Both nasal cavities are colonized ...

    Authors: Giulia Brindisi, Anna Maria Zicari, Laura Schiavi, Alessandra Gori, Maria Pia Conte, Massimiliano Marazzato, Giovanna De Castro, Lucia Leonardi and Marzia Duse
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:93
  34. The COVID-19 pandemic has surprised the entire population. The world has had to face an unprecedented pandemic. Only, Spanish flu had similar disastrous consequences. As a result, drastic measures (lockdown) h...

    Authors: Fabio Cardinale, Giorgio Ciprandi, Salvatore Barberi, Roberto Bernardini, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Giovanni Cavagni, Elena Galli, Domenico Minasi, Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Viviana Moschese, Elio Novembre, Francesco Paravati, Diego G. Peroni, Maria Angela Tosca, Giovanni Traina…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:84
  35. Atopic eczema (AE) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in infancy and its prevalence is rising worldwide. It has a wide social impact on the affected children and their families’ lives. AE can have a ...

    Authors: Mattia Giovannini, Davide Geat, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Francesca Mori, Cesare Filippeschi, Elio Novembre, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:50
  36. Recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) are defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: (i) > 6 annual respiratory infections (RIs); (ii) > 1 monthly RIs involving the upper airways from...

    Authors: Sara Manti, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Maria Papale, Amelia Licari, Carmelo Salpietro, Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Salvatore Leonardi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:42
  37. Chronic cough is a common symptom in children and protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is one of the causes of chronic cough. However, the understanding of this disease remains limited. The present study aims...

    Authors: Xiao-bo Zhang, Xiao Wu and Guang-min Nong
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:38
  38. Child vaccination is an instrument for saving millions of lives. Only one in twenty children has access to childhood vaccination in hard to reach areas in developing countries. Although studies have been done ...

    Authors: Ayal Debie and Ayenew Molla Lakew
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:28
  39. The upper airways (UA) should be considered as a functional unit. Current functional anatomy divides URT in three, mutually dependent, “junction boxes”: i) the ostio-meatal complex (OMC), ii) the spheno-ethmoi...

    Authors: Attilio Varricchio, Ignazio La Mantia, Francesco Paolo Brunese and Giorgio Ciprandi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:18
  40. Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions (DHRs) are considered adverse effects of medications that resemble allergy symptoms. The reported positive clinical history of pediatric drug reactions is about 10%, however, af...

    Authors: A. Piccorossi, G. Liccioli, S. Barni, L. Sarti, M. Giovannini, A. Verrotti, E. Novembre and F. Mori
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:5
  41. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. However, its mechanism of pathogenesis is not fully understood, and microRNAs might play a role. This study aimed to explor...

    Authors: Chu Chu, Xiaoli Lei, Yuqin Li, Yali Luo, Ying Ding, Weifang Zhou and Wei Ji
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:163
  42. Severe asthma has a substantial epidemiological impact on children and biological treatments can be an option to take into account, as they target specific molecules and pathways involved in its pathogenesis. ...

    Authors: Mattia Giovannini, Francesca Mori, Simona Barni, Maurizio de Martino and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:151
  43. Hexavalent vaccines, protecting against six diseases (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTaP], poliovirus, hepatitis B virus [HBV], and Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib], are routinely the standard of care in Eur...

    Authors: E. Chiappini, C. Petrolini, C. Caffarelli, M. Calvani, F. Cardinale, M. Duse, A. Licari, S. Manti, A. Martelli, D. Minasi, M. Miraglia Del Giudice, GB. Pajno, C. Pietrasanta, L. Pugni, MA. Tosca, F. Mosca…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:145
  44. Familial Mediterranean Fever is a monogenic autoinflammatory disease, secondary to mutation of MEFV gene, and typically expressed with recurrent attacks of fever, serositis, rash, aphthous changes in lips and/...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Carmelo Fabiano and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:129
  45. Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autoinflammatory disease typically expressed with recurrent attacks of fever, serositis, aphthous stomatitis, rash. Only a few reports describe the association with hepatic i...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Maria Castiglia and Giovanni Corsello
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:121
  46. Tryptophan metabolic pathway is involved in pathogenic mechanisms of asthma. This study aimed to evaluate tryptophan metabolites and neopterin in a group of asthmatic children. Tryptophan metabolites and neopt...

    Authors: Amelia Licari, Dietmar Fuchs, Gianluigi Marseglia and Giorgio Ciprandi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:114

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