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Allergology and Immunology

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of allergic and immunologic diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. Content type: Review

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe disease with a prevalence of < 1 case out of 10,000 in Europe, which occurs mainly in pediatric age and is characterized by a severe and often bilateral chronic in...

    Authors: A. M. Zicari, G. Capata, M. Nebbioso, G. De Castro, F. Midulla, L. Leonardi, L. Loffredo, A. Spalice, L. Perri and M. Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:64

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  2. Content type: Research

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Recent studies demonstrated that the incidence of severe or fatal M. pneumoniae was gradually in...

    Authors: Qing-ling Li, Yin-yin Wu, Hui-ming Sun, Wen-jing Gu, Xin-xing Zhang, Mei-juan Wang, Yong-dong Yan, Chuang-li Hao, Wei Ji and Zheng-rong Chen

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:61

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  3. Content type: Research

    To report the clinical features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Their diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were also discussed.

    Authors: Ji Li, Jing-Jing Jiang, Chang-Yan Wang, Shan Jian, Yu Zhou, Ming-Sheng Ma, Xiao-Yan Tang, Lin Wang, Mei-Ying Quan, Yu Zhang, Juan Xiao, Yan-Yan He and Hong-Mei Song

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:55

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  4. Content type: Research

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is very common among youth worldwide. The burden of this illness is very high not only considering financial costs but also on emotional and social functioning. Gu...

    Authors: Antonietta Cappuccio, Filomena Bugliaro, Silvia Maria Elena Caimmi, Valeria Caldarelli, Lucia Caminiti, Enza D’Auria, Emanuela di Palmo, Marzia Duse, Alessandro Giovanni Fiocchi, Francesco Gesualdo, Ahmad Kantar, Enrico Lombardi, Anna Lucania, Margherita Marchiani, Maria Giulia Marini, Gianluigi Marseglia…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:31

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  5. Content type: Research

    Clinically, asthma in children under 5 years old is under estimated because lack of diagnostic criteria. The current study was, therefore, designed to identify the predicting factors for recurrent wheezing in ...

    Authors: Jia Zhai, Yingxue Zou, Jie Liu, Xingnan Jin, Cuian Ma, Jiao Li, Run Guo and Bing Huang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:19

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  6. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis are common chronic diseases in childhood. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a gene association analysis with current asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis in a cohort of Sic...

    Authors: Gianluca Sottile, Giuliana Ferrante, Marta Torregrossa, Fabio Cibella, Giovanna Cilluffo, Salvatore Fasola, Riccardo Alessandro, Gregorio Seidita, Giovanni Viegi and Stefania La Grutta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:16

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  7. Content type: Research

    Currently, severe allergic asthma and food allergy in children represent an important public health problem with medical, psychosocial and economic impacts. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibo...

    Authors: Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Caminiti, Fernanda Chiera, Stefania Arasi, Giuseppina Salzano, Ilenia Panasiti, Andrea Barbalace and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:13

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  8. Content type: Review

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in childhood are mainly caused by betalactam or non-betalactam antibiotics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Laboratory tests for identifying children ...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Fabrizio Franceschini, Davide Caimmi, Francesca Mori, Lucia Diaferio, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Stefania Arasi, Simona Barni, Paolo Bottau, Silvia Caimmi, Fabio Cardinale, Pasquale Comberiati, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Liotti, Umberto Pelosi…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:147

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  9. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of allergic reactions but paradoxically themselves may induce acute, delayed, local or systemic allergic reactions and even anaphylaxis with Kounis syndrome. T...

    Authors: Nicholas G. Kounis, Ioanna Koniari, George D. Soufras and Emmanouil Chourdakis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:143

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    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:5

  10. Content type: Research

    Viral respiratory infections may promote bacterial super-infection decreasing the host immune response efficiency. However, using a mice model we recently demonstrated that preventive treatment with the bacter...

    Authors: Giovanni A. Rossi, Wolfgang Bessler, Stefania Ballarini and Christian Pasquali

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:112

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  11. Content type: Review

    The relation between nasal flow and malocclusion represents a practical concern to pediatricians, otorhinolaryngologists, orthodontists, allergists and speech therapists. If naso-respiratory function may influ...

    Authors: Francesca Occasi, Ludovica Perri, Matteo Saccucci, Gabriele Di Carlo, Gaetano Ierardo, Valeria Luzzi, Giovanna De Castro, Giulia Brindisi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Marzia Duse, Antonella Polimeni and Anna Maria Zicari

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:100

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  12. Content type: Case report

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a serious life-treating condition characterized by skin eruption, fever, haematologic abnormalities, and multi-organ involvement that c...

    Authors: Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Susanna Esposito, Laura Elisabetta Claut, Valeria Daccò and Carla Colombo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:93

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  13. Content type: Review

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only currently available immune-modifying and aetiological treatment for patients suffering from IgE-mediated diseases. In childhood, it represents a suitable therapeutic op...

    Authors: Stefania Arasi, Giovanni Corsello, Alberto Villani and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:80

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  14. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    The relationship between the timing of introduction of complementary foods and later allergy is a topic of current discussion. Although the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrit...

    Authors: Elvira Verduci, Annamaria Bianchi, Marta Brambilla and Mauro Calvani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:77

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  15. Content type: Research

    The impact of proper aspiration of nasal secretions during upper respiratory infection on the frequency and severity of symptoms of lower airways has never been investigated. The study was aimed at testing if ...

    Authors: Antonio Pizzulli, Serena Perna, Anja Bennewiz, Holger Roeblitz, Salvatore Tripodi, Jakob Florack, Petra Wagner, Stephanie Hofmaier and Paolo Maria Matricardi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:68

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:78

  16. Content type: Case report

    FPIES (Food Protein Induced Eneterolitis Syndrome) is a rare non IgE- mediated food allergy, usually affecting infants and children after first months of life. Clinical presentation is heterogeneous, usually c...

    Authors: Antonella Peduto, Mario Rocca, Cinzia De Maio, Federica Gallarotti, Giulia Pomero and Paolo Gancia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:52

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  17. Content type: Review

    Acute asthma attack is a frequent condition in children. It is one of the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization. Appropriate care is fundamental, considering both the high...

    Authors: Luciana Indinnimeo, Elena Chiappini and Michele Miraglia del Giudice

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:46

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  18. Content type: Research

    Prevalence of allergy has steeply increased during the past few decades, particularly in high-income countries. The development of atopy could present different characteristics in internationally adopted child...

    Authors: Hyppolite K. Tchidjou, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Jessica Serafinelli, Rosaria Giampaolo, Alessandro Jenkner, Mathurin C. Tadonkeng, Luca Avellis, Alessandro Fiocchi, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Rezza and Paolo Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:3

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  19. Content type: Case report

    Medications with methyl-prednisolone sodium succinate containing lactose, which potentially contains traces of cow’s milk proteins (CMP), could cause allergic reactions or compromise treatment of acute allergi...

    Authors: Federica Porcaro, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Antonella Diamanti, Francesca Petreschi, Alessandra Schiavino, Valentina Negro, Valentina Pecora, Alessandro Fiocchi and Renato Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:104

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    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:5

  20. Content type: Review

    The diagnosis of IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy is often based on anamnesis, and on specific IgE (sIgE) levels and/or Skin Prick Tests (SPT), which have both a good sensitivity but a low specificity, often ca...

    Authors: Barbara Cuomo, Giovanni Cosimo Indirli, Annamaria Bianchi, Stefania Arasi, Davide Caimmi, Arianna Dondi, Stefania La Grutta, Valentina Panetta, Maria Carmen Verga and Mauro Calvani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:93

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  21. Content type: Research

    Upper and lower airways diseases share in part their pathogenic mechanisms and frequently occur simultaneously as “United Airway Disease.” Local treatment with nebulizers delivers anti-symptomatic drugs in eit...

    Authors: Daniela Posa, Antonio Pizzulli, Petra Wagner, Serena Perna, Stephanie Hofmaier, Paolo Maria Matricardi and Susanne Lau

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:89

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  22. Content type: Research

    The efficacy of low-dose medicine (LDM) in childhood mild/moderate eczema is not known. We conducted a double-blind, two-stage, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, lasting 23 months, to address this...

    Authors: R. Carello, L. Ricottini, V. Miranda, P. Panei, L. Rocchi, R. Arcieri and E. Galli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:78

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  23. Content type: Research

    Due to the lack of real life clinical and educational studies, “Io e l’Asma” Centre performed this implementation research (IR).

    Authors: Sebastiano Guarnaccia, Gaia Pecorelli, Marina Bianchi, Massimo Cartabia, Gianluigi Casadei, Ada Pluda, Cristina Quecchia, Valeria Gretter and Maurizio Bonati

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:58

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  24. Content type: Review

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are rare systemic diseases that usually occur in adulthood. They comprise granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener’s), microscopic poly...

    Authors: Marta Calatroni, Elena Oliva, Davide Gianfreda, Gina Gregorini, Marco Allinovi, Giuseppe A. Ramirez, Enrica P. Bozzolo, Sara Monti, Claudia Bracaglia, Giulia Marucci, Monica Bodria, Renato A. Sinico, Federico Pieruzzi, Gabriella Moroni, Serena Pastore, Giacomo Emmi…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:46

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  25. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    The basophil activation test (BAT), has been proposed as a possible assay for the diagnosis of immediate-type allergy to beta-lactams (BLs).

    Authors: Simona Barni, Francesca Mori, Claudia Valleriani, Giusi Mangone, Sergio Testi, Francesca Saretta, Lucrezia Sarti, Neri Pucci, Maurizio de Martino, Chiara Azzari and Elio Novembre

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:42

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  26. Content type: Research

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma are caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Probiotics may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory activity. Thus, this study aimed at investigating wh...

    Authors: Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Cristiana Indolfi, Michele Capasso, Nunzia Maiello, Fabio Decimo and Giorgio Ciprandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:25

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  27. Content type: Review

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one cent...

    Authors: Giovanni Battista Pajno, Roberto Bernardini, Diego Peroni, Stefania Arasi, Alberto Martelli, Massimo Landi, Giovanni Passalacqua, Antonella Muraro, Stefania La Grutta, Alessandro Fiocchi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Carlo Caffarelli, Elisabetta Calamelli, Pasquale Comberiati and Marzia Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:13

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  28. Content type: Research

    Despite obtaining evidences on association between vitamin D and development of lung in fetus, little is known about vitamin D level and its impact on severity of asthma in children. The present study aimed to...

    Authors: Nasrin Esfandiar, Fariba Alaei, Shahrzad Fallah, Delara Babaie and Niloofar Sedghi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:108

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  29. Content type: Case report

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly diagnosed disease, especially in the western world. Although its pathogenesis remains poorly understood, there is strong evidence that the eosinophilic inflamm...

    Authors: Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli and Gian Luigi Marseglia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:96

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  30. Content type: Review

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the relationship between allergic and autoimmune diseases. Allergy and autoimmunity can be considered two potential outcomes of dysregulated immunity and analysis o...

    Authors: Gabriella D’Angelo, Lucia Marseglia, Sara Manti, Laura Colavita, Caterina Cuppari, Pietro Impellizzeri, Salvatore Arena, Teresa Arrigo, Carmelo Salpietro and Eloisa Gitto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:95

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  31. Content type: Research

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of small and middle size arteries; 15-25 % of untreated patients and 5 % of patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) develop coronary artery...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Giovanni Corsello, Eugenia Prinzi and Rolando Cimaz

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:92

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Both haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute necrotizing encephalopathy are life-threatening condition. It presents major diagnostic difficulties, since it may have a diversity in clinical picture and wi...

    Authors: Dongling Dai, Feiqiu Wen, Sixi Liu and Shaoming Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:79

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  33. Content type: Research

    Hypogammaglobulinemia in early childhood is a common feature characterized by distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors leading to disturbed peripheral blood lymphocyte homeostasis. Detailed flow cytometric imm...

    Authors: Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Katarzyna Tapolska-Jozwiak and Husam Samara

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:71

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  34. Content type: Research

    In a cohort of children in Cyprus, we recently reported low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to be associated with asthma. We examined whether genetic polymorphisms that were previously l...

    Authors: Panayiotis K. Yiallouros, Panayiotis Kouis, Ourania Kolokotroni, Sonia Youhanna, Savvas C. Savva, Kleanthi Dima, Aikaterini Zerva, Danielle Platt, Nicos Middleton and Pierre Zalloua

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:67

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  35. Content type: Research

    Enuresis Nocturna (EN) is a common disorders in childhood. Although many different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain EN, its etiology is multifactorial. Some reports demons...

    Authors: Emin Ozkaya, Seren Calıs Aydın, Mebrure Yazıcı and Rusen Dundaröz

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:59

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  36. Content type: Case report

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan fibroinflammatory condition with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells. The immunopathogenesis of the disease ...

    Authors: Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Irena Wojsyk-Banaszak, Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna and Anna Breborowicz

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:58

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  37. Content type: Commentary

    Since the fundamental principles of the medical profession were clearly defined in a physician charter in 2002, special considerations have been expressed about the adequate distribution of health care resourc...

    Authors: Roberto Bernardini, Giampaolo Ricci, Francesca Cipriani, Flavio Civitelli, Luciana Indinnimeo, Domenico Minasi, Luigi Terracciano and Marzia Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:55

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  38. Content type: Case report

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been defined as “asthma of the esophagus” for the large number of similarities between the two diseases. Omalizumab is an anti-Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody currently appro...

    Authors: Stefania Arasi, Stefano Costa, Giuseppe Magazzù, Antonio Ieni, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Caminiti, Fernanda Chiera, Mario Vaccaro, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:32

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  39. Content type: Review

    The Italian Consensus Conference on clinical management of atopic dermatitis in children reflects the best and most recent scientific evidence, with the aim to provide specialists with a useful tool for managi...

    Authors: Elena Galli, Iria Neri, Giampaolo Ricci, Ermanno Baldo, Maurizio Barone, Anna Belloni Fortina, Roberto Bernardini, Irene Berti, Carlo Caffarelli, Elisabetta Calamelli, Lucetta Capra, Rossella Carello, Francesca Cipriani, Pasquale Comberiati, Andrea Diociaiuti, Maya El Hachem…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:26

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  40. Content type: Research

    Very few studies have explored the distinguishing features of severe asthma in childhood in Europe, and only one study was conducted in Southern Europe. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characte...

    Authors: Silvia Montella, Eugenio Baraldi, Salvatore Cazzato, Raffaele Aralla, Mariangela Berardi, Luigia Maria Brunetti, Fabio Cardinale, Renato Cutrera, Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Emanuela di Palmo, Sabrina Di Pillo, Grazia Fenu, Stefania La Grutta, Enrico Lombardi, Giorgio Piacentini, Francesca Santamaria…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:9

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  41. Content type: Research

    Data on specific IgE sensitization prevalence in children with allergy-like symptoms seen in the primary care setting are rare. Early diagnosis of allergic diseases is important to prevent clinical manifestati...

    Authors: Alessandro Fiocchi, Valentina Pecora, Carl Johan Petersson, Lamia Dahdah, Magnus P. Borres, Maria J. Amengual, Johannes Huss-Marp, Oscar Mazzina and Francesco Di Girolamo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:96

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  42. Content type: Review

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder elicited by gluten and related prolamines in genetically susceptible individuals and it is the result of the interaction between genetic and environm...

    Authors: Marco Sarno, Valentina Discepolo, Riccardo Troncone and Renata Auricchio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:57

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  43. Content type: Research

    Food allergies are perceived as a significant problem in school environments; as a result, a teacher’s ability to recognise and deal with allergic reactions is of fundamental importance to protect children’s h...

    Authors: Licia Ravarotto, Giulia Mascarello, Anna Pinto, Maria Rita Schiavo, Marina Bagni and Lucia Decastelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:100

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  44. Content type: Research

    Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI), such as the presence of at least one of the following criteria: i) >6 RI per year; ii) >1 RI per month involving upper airways from September to April; iii) >3 RI involv...

    Authors: Alfonso Maria Varricchio, Michele Capasso, Antonio della Volpe, Luigi Malafronte, Nicola Mansi, Attilio Varricchio and Giorgio Ciprandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:93

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  45. Content type: Case report

    Severe Congenital Neutropenia type 4 (SCN4, OMIM 612541) is a rare autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the G6PC3 gene. The phenotype comprises neutropenia of variable severity and other anomalies incl...

    Authors: Lucia Dora Notarangelo, Gianfranco Savoldi, Sara Cavagnini, Veronica Bennato, Sabrina Vasile, Alba Pilotta, Alessandro Plebani and Fulvio Porta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:80

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  46. Content type: Case report

    The syndrome of immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the FOXP3 gene. Diarrhea, diabetes and dermatitis are the hallmark of the diseas...

    Authors: Daniele Zama, Ilaria Cocchi, Riccardo Masetti, Fernando Specchia, Patrizia Alvisi, Eleonora Gambineri, Mario Lima and Andrea Pession

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:68

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