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Allergology and Immunology

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of allergic and immunologic diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. There is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children than in adults and asthma and allergy, the most common chronic disorders in children, are not included in the top 10 comorbidities...

    Authors: Lucia Diaferio, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Giulia Brindisi, Cristiana Indolfi, Giuseppe Marchese, Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni, Anna Maria Zicari, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Michele Miraglia del Giudice

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:146

    Content type: Research

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  2. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a non IgE-mediated food allergy that generally affects children in the first year of life. Usually symptoms break out when formula milk or solid foods are...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Martina Bevacqua, Cristiana Corrado, Daniela Nisticò, Laura Cesca, Valentina Declich, Roberto Dall’Amico and Egidio Barbi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:144

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) are immunological reactions after transfusion. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a critical regulator for human diseases. We performed this study to investigate the association of t...

    Authors: Wenjing Hu, Li Feng, Meng Li, Ting Li, Yudong Dai and Xiaowei Wang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:109

    Content type: Research

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  4. Digital health technologies carry the great potential of assisting physicians in making well-informed diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. In allergy care, electronic clinical diaries have been recently used ...

    Authors: Salvatore Tripodi, Andrea Giannone, Ifigenia Sfika, Simone Pelosi, Stephanie Dramburg, Annamaria Bianchi, Antonio Pizzulli, Jakob Florack, Valeria Villella, Ekaterina Potapova and Paolo Maria Matricardi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:105

    Content type: Review

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  5. During the last decade several paediatric studies have been published with different possible indications for probiotics, leading to a global increase of probiotics’ market. Nevertheless, different study desig...

    Authors: Massimo Martinelli, Giuseppe Banderali, Marisa Bobbio, Elisa Civardi, Alberto Chiara, Sofia D’Elios, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Mattia Olivero, Diego Peroni, Claudio Romano, Mauro Stronati, Renato Turra, Irene Viola, Annamaria Staiano and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:104

    Content type: Review

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:116

  6. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) are the most frequent causative disorders of nasal obstruction in children, leading to recurrent respiratory infections. Both nasal cavities are colonized ...

    Authors: Giulia Brindisi, Anna Maria Zicari, Laura Schiavi, Alessandra Gori, Maria Pia Conte, Massimiliano Marazzato, Giovanna De Castro, Lucia Leonardi and Marzia Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:93

    Content type: Research

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  7. The COVID-19 pandemic has surprised the entire population. The world has had to face an unprecedented pandemic. Only, Spanish flu had similar disastrous consequences. As a result, drastic measures (lockdown) h...

    Authors: Fabio Cardinale, Giorgio Ciprandi, Salvatore Barberi, Roberto Bernardini, Carlo Caffarelli, Mauro Calvani, Giovanni Cavagni, Elena Galli, Domenico Minasi, Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Viviana Moschese, Elio Novembre, Francesco Paravati, Diego G. Peroni, Maria Angela Tosca, Giovanni Traina…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:84

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  8. Atopic eczema (AE) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in infancy and its prevalence is rising worldwide. It has a wide social impact on the affected children and their families’ lives. AE can have a ...

    Authors: Mattia Giovannini, Davide Geat, Gabriele Barlocco, Riccardo Pertile, Francesca Mori, Cesare Filippeschi, Elio Novembre, Mario Cristofolini and Ermanno Baldo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:50

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  9. Recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) are defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: (i) > 6 annual respiratory infections (RIs); (ii) > 1 monthly RIs involving the upper airways from...

    Authors: Sara Manti, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Maria Papale, Amelia Licari, Carmelo Salpietro, Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Gian Luigi Marseglia and Salvatore Leonardi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:42

    Content type: Research

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  10. Chronic cough is a common symptom in children and protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is one of the causes of chronic cough. However, the understanding of this disease remains limited. The present study aims...

    Authors: Xiao-bo Zhang, Xiao Wu and Guang-min Nong

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:38

    Content type: Research

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  11. Child vaccination is an instrument for saving millions of lives. Only one in twenty children has access to childhood vaccination in hard to reach areas in developing countries. Although studies have been done ...

    Authors: Ayal Debie and Ayenew Molla Lakew

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:28

    Content type: Research

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  12. The upper airways (UA) should be considered as a functional unit. Current functional anatomy divides URT in three, mutually dependent, “junction boxes”: i) the ostio-meatal complex (OMC), ii) the spheno-ethmoi...

    Authors: Attilio Varricchio, Ignazio La Mantia, Francesco Paolo Brunese and Giorgio Ciprandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:18

    Content type: Commentary

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  13. Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions (DHRs) are considered adverse effects of medications that resemble allergy symptoms. The reported positive clinical history of pediatric drug reactions is about 10%, however, af...

    Authors: A. Piccorossi, G. Liccioli, S. Barni, L. Sarti, M. Giovannini, A. Verrotti, E. Novembre and F. Mori

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2020 46:5

    Content type: Research

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  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. However, its mechanism of pathogenesis is not fully understood, and microRNAs might play a role. This study aimed to explor...

    Authors: Chu Chu, Xiaoli Lei, Yuqin Li, Yali Luo, Ying Ding, Weifang Zhou and Wei Ji

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:163

    Content type: Research

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  15. Severe asthma has a substantial epidemiological impact on children and biological treatments can be an option to take into account, as they target specific molecules and pathways involved in its pathogenesis. ...

    Authors: Mattia Giovannini, Francesca Mori, Simona Barni, Maurizio de Martino and Elio Novembre

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:151

    Content type: Review

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  16. Hexavalent vaccines, protecting against six diseases (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTaP], poliovirus, hepatitis B virus [HBV], and Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib], are routinely the standard of care in Eur...

    Authors: E. Chiappini, C. Petrolini, C. Caffarelli, M. Calvani, F. Cardinale, M. Duse, A. Licari, S. Manti, A. Martelli, D. Minasi, M. Miraglia Del Giudice, GB. Pajno, C. Pietrasanta, L. Pugni, MA. Tosca, F. Mosca…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:145

    Content type: Review

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  17. Familial Mediterranean Fever is a monogenic autoinflammatory disease, secondary to mutation of MEFV gene, and typically expressed with recurrent attacks of fever, serositis, rash, aphthous changes in lips and/...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Carmelo Fabiano and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:129

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autoinflammatory disease typically expressed with recurrent attacks of fever, serositis, aphthous stomatitis, rash. Only a few reports describe the association with hepatic i...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Maria Castiglia and Giovanni Corsello

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:121

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Tryptophan metabolic pathway is involved in pathogenic mechanisms of asthma. This study aimed to evaluate tryptophan metabolites and neopterin in a group of asthmatic children. Tryptophan metabolites and neopt...

    Authors: Amelia Licari, Dietmar Fuchs, Gianluigi Marseglia and Giorgio Ciprandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:114

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  20. Vaccination represents one of the most effective means of preventing infections for the population and for the public health in general. Recently there has been a decline in vaccinations, also among healthcare...

    Authors: Carlotta Tomboloni, Chiara Tersigni, Maurizio de Martino, Donata Dini, José Rafael González-López, Filippo Festini, Stella Neri and Daniele Ciofi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:104

    Content type: Research

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  21. The therapeutic strategy for children with cow’s milk allergy (CMA) consists in the elimination of cow’s milk (CM) from their diet. Donkey’s milk (DM) has been reported to be an adequate alternative, mainly to...

    Authors: Lucrezia Sarti, Mina Martini, Giovanni Brajon, Simona Barni, Federica Salari, Iolanda Altomonte, Giuseppe Ragona, Francesca Mori, Neri Pucci, Giada Muscas, Fina Belli, Franco Corrias and Elio Novembre

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:102

    Content type: Research

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  22. The aim of this guidance is to provide recommendations to clinicians and other interested parties on chronic urticaria in children. The Italian Society for Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian Society for Allergy and...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Francesco Paravati, Maya El Hachem, Marzia Duse, Marcello Bergamini, Giovanni Simeone, Massimo Barbagallo, Roberto Bernardini, Paolo Bottau, Filomena Bugliaro, Silvia Caimmi, Fernanda Chiera, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Cristiana De Ranieri, Dora Di Mauro, Andrea Diociaiuti…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:101

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  23. To investigate the relationship between symptom of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic rhinitis (AR) in AR children of different genders and ages.

    Authors: Keyang Chen, Xiuxiu Zheng, Ziyue Li, Haijie Xiang, Bobei Chen and Hui Zhang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:99

    Content type: Research

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  24. Lertal®, an oral nutraceutical, contains extract of Perilla, quercetin, and Vitamin D3. The current polycentric, randomized, parallel-group, controlled study aimed in the Phase II to evaluate the efficacy and ...

    Authors: Gianluigi Marseglia, Amelia Licari, Salvatore Leonardi, Maria Papale, Anna Maria Zicari, Laura Schiavi and Giorgio Ciprandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe disease with a prevalence of < 1 case out of 10,000 in Europe, which occurs mainly in pediatric age and is characterized by a severe and often bilateral chronic in...

    Authors: A. M. Zicari, G. Capata, M. Nebbioso, G. De Castro, F. Midulla, L. Leonardi, L. Loffredo, A. Spalice, L. Perri and M. Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:64

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Recent studies demonstrated that the incidence of severe or fatal M. pneumoniae was gradually in...

    Authors: Qing-ling Li, Yin-yin Wu, Hui-ming Sun, Wen-jing Gu, Xin-xing Zhang, Mei-juan Wang, Yong-dong Yan, Chuang-li Hao, Wei Ji and Zheng-rong Chen

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:61

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. To report the clinical features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Their diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were also discussed.

    Authors: Ji Li, Jing-Jing Jiang, Chang-Yan Wang, Shan Jian, Yu Zhou, Ming-Sheng Ma, Xiao-Yan Tang, Lin Wang, Mei-Ying Quan, Yu Zhang, Juan Xiao, Yan-Yan He and Hong-Mei Song

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:55

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is very common among youth worldwide. The burden of this illness is very high not only considering financial costs but also on emotional and social functioning. Gu...

    Authors: Antonietta Cappuccio, Filomena Bugliaro, Silvia Maria Elena Caimmi, Valeria Caldarelli, Lucia Caminiti, Enza D’Auria, Emanuela di Palmo, Marzia Duse, Alessandro Giovanni Fiocchi, Francesco Gesualdo, Ahmad Kantar, Enrico Lombardi, Anna Lucania, Margherita Marchiani, Maria Giulia Marini, Gianluigi Marseglia…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:31

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Clinically, asthma in children under 5 years old is under estimated because lack of diagnostic criteria. The current study was, therefore, designed to identify the predicting factors for recurrent wheezing in ...

    Authors: Jia Zhai, Yingxue Zou, Jie Liu, Xingnan Jin, Cuian Ma, Jiao Li, Run Guo and Bing Huang

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:19

    Content type: Research

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  30. Asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis are common chronic diseases in childhood. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a gene association analysis with current asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis in a cohort of Sic...

    Authors: Gianluca Sottile, Giuliana Ferrante, Marta Torregrossa, Fabio Cibella, Giovanna Cilluffo, Salvatore Fasola, Riccardo Alessandro, Gregorio Seidita, Giovanni Viegi and Stefania La Grutta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:16

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  31. Currently, severe allergic asthma and food allergy in children represent an important public health problem with medical, psychosocial and economic impacts. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibo...

    Authors: Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Caminiti, Fernanda Chiera, Stefania Arasi, Giuseppina Salzano, Ilenia Panasiti, Andrea Barbalace and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:13

    Content type: Research

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  32. Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in childhood are mainly caused by betalactam or non-betalactam antibiotics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Laboratory tests for identifying children ...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Fabrizio Franceschini, Davide Caimmi, Francesca Mori, Lucia Diaferio, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Stefania Arasi, Simona Barni, Paolo Bottau, Silvia Caimmi, Fabio Cardinale, Pasquale Comberiati, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Liotti, Umberto Pelosi…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:147

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  33. Corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of allergic reactions but paradoxically themselves may induce acute, delayed, local or systemic allergic reactions and even anaphylaxis with Kounis syndrome. T...

    Authors: Nicholas G. Kounis, Ioanna Koniari, George D. Soufras and Emmanouil Chourdakis

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:143

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:5

  34. Viral respiratory infections may promote bacterial super-infection decreasing the host immune response efficiency. However, using a mice model we recently demonstrated that preventive treatment with the bacter...

    Authors: Giovanni A. Rossi, Wolfgang Bessler, Stefania Ballarini and Christian Pasquali

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:112

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. The relation between nasal flow and malocclusion represents a practical concern to pediatricians, otorhinolaryngologists, orthodontists, allergists and speech therapists. If naso-respiratory function may influ...

    Authors: Francesca Occasi, Ludovica Perri, Matteo Saccucci, Gabriele Di Carlo, Gaetano Ierardo, Valeria Luzzi, Giovanna De Castro, Giulia Brindisi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Marzia Duse, Antonella Polimeni and Anna Maria Zicari

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:100

    Content type: Review

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  36. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a serious life-treating condition characterized by skin eruption, fever, haematologic abnormalities, and multi-organ involvement that c...

    Authors: Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Susanna Esposito, Laura Elisabetta Claut, Valeria Daccò and Carla Colombo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:93

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only currently available immune-modifying and aetiological treatment for patients suffering from IgE-mediated diseases. In childhood, it represents a suitable therapeutic op...

    Authors: Stefania Arasi, Giovanni Corsello, Alberto Villani and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:80

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. The relationship between the timing of introduction of complementary foods and later allergy is a topic of current discussion. Although the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrit...

    Authors: Elvira Verduci, Annamaria Bianchi, Marta Brambilla and Mauro Calvani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:77

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  39. The impact of proper aspiration of nasal secretions during upper respiratory infection on the frequency and severity of symptoms of lower airways has never been investigated. The study was aimed at testing if ...

    Authors: Antonio Pizzulli, Serena Perna, Anja Bennewiz, Holger Roeblitz, Salvatore Tripodi, Jakob Florack, Petra Wagner, Stephanie Hofmaier and Paolo Maria Matricardi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:68

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:78

  40. FPIES (Food Protein Induced Eneterolitis Syndrome) is a rare non IgE- mediated food allergy, usually affecting infants and children after first months of life. Clinical presentation is heterogeneous, usually c...

    Authors: Antonella Peduto, Mario Rocca, Cinzia De Maio, Federica Gallarotti, Giulia Pomero and Paolo Gancia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:52

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. Acute asthma attack is a frequent condition in children. It is one of the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization. Appropriate care is fundamental, considering both the high...

    Authors: Luciana Indinnimeo, Elena Chiappini and Michele Miraglia del Giudice

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:46

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  42. Prevalence of allergy has steeply increased during the past few decades, particularly in high-income countries. The development of atopy could present different characteristics in internationally adopted child...

    Authors: Hyppolite K. Tchidjou, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Jessica Serafinelli, Rosaria Giampaolo, Alessandro Jenkner, Mathurin C. Tadonkeng, Luca Avellis, Alessandro Fiocchi, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Rezza and Paolo Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2018 44:3

    Content type: Research

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  43. Medications with methyl-prednisolone sodium succinate containing lactose, which potentially contains traces of cow’s milk proteins (CMP), could cause allergic reactions or compromise treatment of acute allergi...

    Authors: Federica Porcaro, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Antonella Diamanti, Francesca Petreschi, Alessandra Schiavino, Valentina Negro, Valentina Pecora, Alessandro Fiocchi and Renato Cutrera

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:104

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2019 45:5

  44. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy is often based on anamnesis, and on specific IgE (sIgE) levels and/or Skin Prick Tests (SPT), which have both a good sensitivity but a low specificity, often ca...

    Authors: Barbara Cuomo, Giovanni Cosimo Indirli, Annamaria Bianchi, Stefania Arasi, Davide Caimmi, Arianna Dondi, Stefania La Grutta, Valentina Panetta, Maria Carmen Verga and Mauro Calvani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:93

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  45. Upper and lower airways diseases share in part their pathogenic mechanisms and frequently occur simultaneously as “United Airway Disease.” Local treatment with nebulizers delivers anti-symptomatic drugs in eit...

    Authors: Daniela Posa, Antonio Pizzulli, Petra Wagner, Serena Perna, Stephanie Hofmaier, Paolo Maria Matricardi and Susanne Lau

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:89

    Content type: Research

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  46. The efficacy of low-dose medicine (LDM) in childhood mild/moderate eczema is not known. We conducted a double-blind, two-stage, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, lasting 23 months, to address this...

    Authors: R. Carello, L. Ricottini, V. Miranda, P. Panei, L. Rocchi, R. Arcieri and E. Galli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:78

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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