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Allergology and Immunology

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of allergic and immunologic diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. The basophil activation test (BAT), has been proposed as a possible assay for the diagnosis of immediate-type allergy to beta-lactams (BLs).

    Authors: Simona Barni, Francesca Mori, Claudia Valleriani, Giusi Mangone, Sergio Testi, Francesca Saretta, Lucrezia Sarti, Neri Pucci, Maurizio de Martino, Chiara Azzari and Elio Novembre

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:42

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  2. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma are caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Probiotics may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory activity. Thus, this study aimed at investigating wh...

    Authors: Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Cristiana Indolfi, Michele Capasso, Nunzia Maiello, Fabio Decimo and Giorgio Ciprandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:25

    Content type: Research

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  3. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one cent...

    Authors: Giovanni Battista Pajno, Roberto Bernardini, Diego Peroni, Stefania Arasi, Alberto Martelli, Massimo Landi, Giovanni Passalacqua, Antonella Muraro, Stefania La Grutta, Alessandro Fiocchi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Carlo Caffarelli, Elisabetta Calamelli, Pasquale Comberiati and Marzia Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:13

    Content type: Review

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  4. Despite obtaining evidences on association between vitamin D and development of lung in fetus, little is known about vitamin D level and its impact on severity of asthma in children. The present study aimed to...

    Authors: Nasrin Esfandiar, Fariba Alaei, Shahrzad Fallah, Delara Babaie and Niloofar Sedghi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:108

    Content type: Research

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  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly diagnosed disease, especially in the western world. Although its pathogenesis remains poorly understood, there is strong evidence that the eosinophilic inflamm...

    Authors: Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli and Gian Luigi Marseglia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:96

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Recently, there has been growing interest in the relationship between allergic and autoimmune diseases. Allergy and autoimmunity can be considered two potential outcomes of dysregulated immunity and analysis o...

    Authors: Gabriella D’Angelo, Lucia Marseglia, Sara Manti, Laura Colavita, Caterina Cuppari, Pietro Impellizzeri, Salvatore Arena, Teresa Arrigo, Carmelo Salpietro and Eloisa Gitto

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:95

    Content type: Review

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  7. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of small and middle size arteries; 15-25 % of untreated patients and 5 % of patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) develop coronary artery...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Giovanni Corsello, Eugenia Prinzi and Rolando Cimaz

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:92

    Content type: Research

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  8. Both haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute necrotizing encephalopathy are life-threatening condition. It presents major diagnostic difficulties, since it may have a diversity in clinical picture and wi...

    Authors: Dongling Dai, Feiqiu Wen, Sixi Liu and Shaoming Zhou

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:79

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Hypogammaglobulinemia in early childhood is a common feature characterized by distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors leading to disturbed peripheral blood lymphocyte homeostasis. Detailed flow cytometric imm...

    Authors: Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Katarzyna Tapolska-Jozwiak and Husam Samara

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:71

    Content type: Research

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  10. In a cohort of children in Cyprus, we recently reported low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to be associated with asthma. We examined whether genetic polymorphisms that were previously l...

    Authors: Panayiotis K. Yiallouros, Panayiotis Kouis, Ourania Kolokotroni, Sonia Youhanna, Savvas C. Savva, Kleanthi Dima, Aikaterini Zerva, Danielle Platt, Nicos Middleton and Pierre Zalloua

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:67

    Content type: Research

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  11. Enuresis Nocturna (EN) is a common disorders in childhood. Although many different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain EN, its etiology is multifactorial. Some reports demons...

    Authors: Emin Ozkaya, Seren Calıs Aydın, Mebrure Yazıcı and Rusen Dundaröz

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:59

    Content type: Research

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  12. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan fibroinflammatory condition with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells. The immunopathogenesis of the disease ...

    Authors: Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Irena Wojsyk-Banaszak, Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna and Anna Breborowicz

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:58

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Since the fundamental principles of the medical profession were clearly defined in a physician charter in 2002, special considerations have been expressed about the adequate distribution of health care resourc...

    Authors: Roberto Bernardini, Giampaolo Ricci, Francesca Cipriani, Flavio Civitelli, Luciana Indinnimeo, Domenico Minasi, Luigi Terracciano and Marzia Duse

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:55

    Content type: Commentary

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  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been defined as “asthma of the esophagus” for the large number of similarities between the two diseases. Omalizumab is an anti-Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody currently appro...

    Authors: Stefania Arasi, Stefano Costa, Giuseppe Magazzù, Antonio Ieni, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Caminiti, Fernanda Chiera, Mario Vaccaro, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:32

    Content type: Case report

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  15. The Italian Consensus Conference on clinical management of atopic dermatitis in children reflects the best and most recent scientific evidence, with the aim to provide specialists with a useful tool for managi...

    Authors: Elena Galli, Iria Neri, Giampaolo Ricci, Ermanno Baldo, Maurizio Barone, Anna Belloni Fortina, Roberto Bernardini, Irene Berti, Carlo Caffarelli, Elisabetta Calamelli, Lucetta Capra, Rossella Carello, Francesca Cipriani, Pasquale Comberiati, Andrea Diociaiuti, Maya El Hachem…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:26

    Content type: Review

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  16. Very few studies have explored the distinguishing features of severe asthma in childhood in Europe, and only one study was conducted in Southern Europe. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characte...

    Authors: Silvia Montella, Eugenio Baraldi, Salvatore Cazzato, Raffaele Aralla, Mariangela Berardi, Luigia Maria Brunetti, Fabio Cardinale, Renato Cutrera, Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Emanuela di Palmo, Sabrina Di Pillo, Grazia Fenu, Stefania La Grutta, Enrico Lombardi, Giorgio Piacentini, Francesca Santamaria…

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:9

    Content type: Research

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  17. Data on specific IgE sensitization prevalence in children with allergy-like symptoms seen in the primary care setting are rare. Early diagnosis of allergic diseases is important to prevent clinical manifestati...

    Authors: Alessandro Fiocchi, Valentina Pecora, Carl Johan Petersson, Lamia Dahdah, Magnus P. Borres, Maria J. Amengual, Johannes Huss-Marp, Oscar Mazzina and Francesco Di Girolamo

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:96

    Content type: Research

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  18. Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder elicited by gluten and related prolamines in genetically susceptible individuals and it is the result of the interaction between genetic and environm...

    Authors: Marco Sarno, Valentina Discepolo, Riccardo Troncone and Renata Auricchio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:57

    Content type: Review

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  19. Food allergies are perceived as a significant problem in school environments; as a result, a teacher’s ability to recognise and deal with allergic reactions is of fundamental importance to protect children’s h...

    Authors: Licia Ravarotto, Giulia Mascarello, Anna Pinto, Maria Rita Schiavo, Marina Bagni and Lucia Decastelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:100

    Content type: Research

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  20. Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI), such as the presence of at least one of the following criteria: i) >6 RI per year; ii) >1 RI per month involving upper airways from September to April; iii) >3 RI involv...

    Authors: Alfonso Maria Varricchio, Michele Capasso, Antonio della Volpe, Luigi Malafronte, Nicola Mansi, Attilio Varricchio and Giorgio Ciprandi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:93

    Content type: Research

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  21. Severe Congenital Neutropenia type 4 (SCN4, OMIM 612541) is a rare autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the G6PC3 gene. The phenotype comprises neutropenia of variable severity and other anomalies incl...

    Authors: Lucia Dora Notarangelo, Gianfranco Savoldi, Sara Cavagnini, Veronica Bennato, Sabrina Vasile, Alba Pilotta, Alessandro Plebani and Fulvio Porta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:80

    Content type: Case report

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  22. The syndrome of immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the FOXP3 gene. Diarrhea, diabetes and dermatitis are the hallmark of the diseas...

    Authors: Daniele Zama, Ilaria Cocchi, Riccardo Masetti, Fernando Specchia, Patrizia Alvisi, Eleonora Gambineri, Mario Lima and Andrea Pession

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:68

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and can be the first step of the atopic march.

    Authors: Giampaolo Ricci, Arianna Dondi, Iria Neri, Lorenza Ricci, Annalisa Patrizi and Andrea Pession

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:46

    Content type: Research

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  24. During the last century, mass vaccination programs have achieved considerable success across the world in immunizing against several serious infectious diseases. However, vaccinations are threatened by their o...

    Authors: Luciana Nicolosi, Annachiara Vittucci, Rossella Mancini, Elena Bozzola, Alberto Cagigi, Annalisa Grandin and Alberto Villani

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:31

    Content type: Research

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  25. The low uptake of tetanus vaccine and its resultant high burden of tetanus in Nigeria suggest the need to improve routine and booster vaccination in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological evidence ...

    Authors: Adebola E Orimadegun, Akinlolu A Adepoju and Olusegun O Akinyinka

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:29

    Content type: Research

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  26. Asthma is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic variants that confer susceptibility. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1 and GSTM1) are phase II enzymes thought to pro...

    Authors: Nihal El Rifai, Nadia Moustafa, Nelly Degheidy and Manal Wilson

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:22

    Content type: Research

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  27. Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Among primary immunodefiencies, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has the highest prevalence of invasive...

    Authors: Eda Kepenekli, Ahmet Soysal, Canan Kuzdan, Nezih Onur Ermerak, Mustafa Yüksel and Mustafa Bakır

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:2

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with fo...

    Authors: Marcello Giovannini, Enza D'Auria, Carlo Caffarelli, Elvira Verduci, Salvatore Barberi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Iride Dello Iacono, Alberto Martelli, Enrica Riva and Roberto Bernardini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:1

    Content type: Review

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  29. Epidemiological studies show that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common worldwide and associated with many diseases including asthma. Our aim was to evaluate vitamin D insufficiency and its clinica...

    Authors: Metin Uysalol, Levent Cem Mutlu, Gamze Varol Saracoglu, Erkut Karasu, Savas Guzel, Semra Kayaoglu and Nedret Uzel

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:78

    Content type: Research

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  30. At the end of 1990s, acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) were called the 'forgotten pandemic’, with a clear dichotomy between developing and industrialised countries in mortality and morbidity, the main...

    Authors: Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti and Chiara Mameli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:75

    Content type: Commentary

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  31. We report on pediatric patient with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a rare DNA repair disorder characterized by microcephaly, immunodeficiency and predisposition to malignant lymphomas, who developed juvenil...

    Authors: Srdjan Pasic, Maja Cupic, Tanja Jovanovic, Slobodanka Djukic, Maja Kavaric and Ivana Lazarevic

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:59

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID). Complications of BCG vaccination, especially disseminated infection and its most severe forms, are kno...

    Authors: Pérsio Roxo-Junior, Jorgete Silva, Mauro Andrea, Larissa Oliveira, Fernando Ramalho, Thiago Bezerra and Altacílio A Nunes

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:54

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Skin prick tests are the first investigation in allergy diagnostics and their use is described in all the guidelines on atopic eczema. However, the clinical usefulness of skin prick tests is the subject of gre...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Arianna Dondi, Carlotta Povesi Dascola and Giampaolo Ricci

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:48

    Content type: Review

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  34. The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-charac...

    Authors: Anna Maria Castellazzi, Chiara Valsecchi, Silvia Caimmi, Amelia Licari, Alessia Marseglia, Maria Chiara Leoni, Davide Caimmi, Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Salvatore Leonardi, Mario La Rosa and Gian Luigi Marseglia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:47

    Content type: Review

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  35. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow’s milk or soy proteins, but may also be tri...

    Authors: Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppina Salzano, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Federica Porcaro and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:31

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Recurrent respiratory infections are one of the most important causes of morbidity in childhood. When immune functions are still largely immature, the airway epithelium plays a primary defensive role since, be...

    Authors: Sonia Carta, Michela Silvestri and Giovanni A Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:29

    Content type: Research

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  37. Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical res...

    Authors: Mario La Rosa, Elena Lionetti, Michele Reibaldi, Andrea Russo, Antonio Longo, Salvatore Leonardi, Stefania Tomarchio, Teresio Avitabile and Alfredo Reibaldi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:18

    Content type: Review

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  38. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciti...

    Authors: Antonio Di Mauro, Josef Neu, Giuseppe Riezzo, Francesco Raimondi, Domenico Martinelli, Ruggiero Francavilla and Flavia Indrio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:15

    Content type: Review

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  39. Palamaro et al. describe a child with recurrent bronchopneumonia and very high IgE levels in which a variation, R156H, was found in the IL12RB1 gene that encodes the IL-12Rβ1 chain. Based on the absence of this v...

    Authors: Esther van de Vosse, Jaap T van Dissel, Loredana Palamaro, Giuliana Giardino, Francesca Santamaria, Rosa Romano, Anna Fusco, Silvia Montella, Mariacarolina Salerno, Matilde Valeria Ursini and Claudio Pignata

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:12

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  40. Children who were <1000 g (ELBW extremely low birth weight) at birth more frequently present with wheezing which is the most common reason that pediatric consultation is sought. Therefore asthma is diagnosed v...

    Authors: Przemko Kwinta, Grzegorz Lis, Malgorzata Klimek, Andrzej Grudzien, Tomasz Tomasik, Karolina Poplawska and Jacek Jozef Pietrzyk

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:4

    Content type: Research

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  41. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non invasive method for assessing the inflammatory status of children with airway disease. Different ways to measure FeNO levels are currently available. The possibi...

    Authors: Angelo Manna, Carlo Caffarelli, Margherita Varini, Carlotta Povesi Dascola, Silvia Montella, Marco Maglione, Francesco Sperlì and Francesca Santamaria

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:74

    Content type: Review

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  42. Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age.

    Authors: Giovanna Vitaliti, Ignazio Morselli, Valeria Di Stefano, Angela Lanzafame, Mario La Rosa and Salvatore Leonardi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:71

    Content type: Case report

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  43. It’s well established that asthma, allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are three closely related disease. In pediatrics, these conditions represent a common issue in daily practice. The scientific community h...

    Authors: Davide Caimmi, Alessia Marseglia, Giovanni Pieri, Serena Benzo, Luca Bosa and Silvia Caimmi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:60

    Content type: Review

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  44. Nasal cytology is a very useful diagnostic tool in nasal disorders, being able to detect both the cellular modifications of the nasal epithelium caused by either allergen exposure or irritative stimuli (that m...

    Authors: Matteo Gelardi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Amelia Licari, Massimo Landi, Ilaria Dell’Albani, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Franco Frati and Nicola Quaranta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:51

    Content type: Review

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  45. The sensitization to more allergens, such as polysenitization, is becoming a frequent characteristic of allergic patients, since the childhood. However, this phenomenon is considered an obstacle to prescribe i...

    Authors: Giorgio Ciprandi, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Paola Puccinelli, Ilaria Dell’Albani and Franco Frati

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:50

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  46. The Hyper-immunoglobulin M syndromes (HIGM) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders resulting in defects of immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Affected patients show humoral immunodeficiency and...

    Authors: Silvia Montella, Marco Maglione, Giuliana Giardino, Angela Di Giorgio, Loredana Palamaro, Virginia Mirra, Matilde Valeria Ursini, Mariacarolina Salerno, Claudio Pignata, Carlo Caffarelli and Francesca Santamaria

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:45

    Content type: Case report

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