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Allergology and Immunology

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of allergic and immunologic diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. Content type: Research

    Epidemiological studies show that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common worldwide and associated with many diseases including asthma. Our aim was to evaluate vitamin D insufficiency and its clinica...

    Authors: Metin Uysalol, Levent Cem Mutlu, Gamze Varol Saracoglu, Erkut Karasu, Savas Guzel, Semra Kayaoglu and Nedret Uzel

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:78

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  2. Content type: Commentary

    At the end of 1990s, acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) were called the 'forgotten pandemic’, with a clear dichotomy between developing and industrialised countries in mortality and morbidity, the main...

    Authors: Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti and Chiara Mameli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:75

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  3. Content type: Case report

    We report on pediatric patient with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a rare DNA repair disorder characterized by microcephaly, immunodeficiency and predisposition to malignant lymphomas, who developed juvenil...

    Authors: Srdjan Pasic, Maja Cupic, Tanja Jovanovic, Slobodanka Djukic, Maja Kavaric and Ivana Lazarevic

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:59

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID). Complications of BCG vaccination, especially disseminated infection and its most severe forms, are kno...

    Authors: Pérsio Roxo-Junior, Jorgete Silva, Mauro Andrea, Larissa Oliveira, Fernando Ramalho, Thiago Bezerra and Altacílio A Nunes

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:54

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  5. Content type: Review

    Skin prick tests are the first investigation in allergy diagnostics and their use is described in all the guidelines on atopic eczema. However, the clinical usefulness of skin prick tests is the subject of gre...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Arianna Dondi, Carlotta Povesi Dascola and Giampaolo Ricci

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:48

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  6. Content type: Review

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-charac...

    Authors: Anna Maria Castellazzi, Chiara Valsecchi, Silvia Caimmi, Amelia Licari, Alessia Marseglia, Maria Chiara Leoni, Davide Caimmi, Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Salvatore Leonardi, Mario La Rosa and Gian Luigi Marseglia

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:47

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  7. Content type: Case report

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow’s milk or soy proteins, but may also be tri...

    Authors: Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppina Salzano, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Federica Porcaro and Giovanni Battista Pajno

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:31

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  8. Content type: Research

    Recurrent respiratory infections are one of the most important causes of morbidity in childhood. When immune functions are still largely immature, the airway epithelium plays a primary defensive role since, be...

    Authors: Sonia Carta, Michela Silvestri and Giovanni A Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:29

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  9. Content type: Review

    Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical res...

    Authors: Mario La Rosa, Elena Lionetti, Michele Reibaldi, Andrea Russo, Antonio Longo, Salvatore Leonardi, Stefania Tomarchio, Teresio Avitabile and Alfredo Reibaldi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:18

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  10. Content type: Review

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciti...

    Authors: Antonio Di Mauro, Josef Neu, Giuseppe Riezzo, Francesco Raimondi, Domenico Martinelli, Ruggiero Francavilla and Flavia Indrio

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:15

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  11. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Palamaro et al. describe a child with recurrent bronchopneumonia and very high IgE levels in which a variation, R156H, was found in the IL12RB1 gene that encodes the IL-12Rβ1 chain. Based on the absence of this v...

    Authors: Esther van de Vosse, Jaap T van Dissel, Loredana Palamaro, Giuliana Giardino, Francesca Santamaria, Rosa Romano, Anna Fusco, Silvia Montella, Mariacarolina Salerno, Matilde Valeria Ursini and Claudio Pignata

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:12

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  12. Content type: Research

    Children who were <1000 g (ELBW extremely low birth weight) at birth more frequently present with wheezing which is the most common reason that pediatric consultation is sought. Therefore asthma is diagnosed v...

    Authors: Przemko Kwinta, Grzegorz Lis, Malgorzata Klimek, Andrzej Grudzien, Tomasz Tomasik, Karolina Poplawska and Jacek Jozef Pietrzyk

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:4

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  13. Content type: Review

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non invasive method for assessing the inflammatory status of children with airway disease. Different ways to measure FeNO levels are currently available. The possibi...

    Authors: Angelo Manna, Carlo Caffarelli, Margherita Varini, Carlotta Povesi Dascola, Silvia Montella, Marco Maglione, Francesco Sperlì and Francesca Santamaria

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:74

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  14. Content type: Case report

    Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age.

    Authors: Giovanna Vitaliti, Ignazio Morselli, Valeria Di Stefano, Angela Lanzafame, Mario La Rosa and Salvatore Leonardi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:71

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  15. Content type: Review

    It’s well established that asthma, allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are three closely related disease. In pediatrics, these conditions represent a common issue in daily practice. The scientific community h...

    Authors: Davide Caimmi, Alessia Marseglia, Giovanni Pieri, Serena Benzo, Luca Bosa and Silvia Caimmi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:60

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  16. Content type: Review

    Nasal cytology is a very useful diagnostic tool in nasal disorders, being able to detect both the cellular modifications of the nasal epithelium caused by either allergen exposure or irritative stimuli (that m...

    Authors: Matteo Gelardi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Amelia Licari, Massimo Landi, Ilaria Dell’Albani, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Franco Frati and Nicola Quaranta

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:51

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  17. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    The sensitization to more allergens, such as polysenitization, is becoming a frequent characteristic of allergic patients, since the childhood. However, this phenomenon is considered an obstacle to prescribe i...

    Authors: Giorgio Ciprandi, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Paola Puccinelli, Ilaria Dell’Albani and Franco Frati

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:50

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  18. Content type: Case report

    The Hyper-immunoglobulin M syndromes (HIGM) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders resulting in defects of immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Affected patients show humoral immunodeficiency and...

    Authors: Silvia Montella, Marco Maglione, Giuliana Giardino, Angela Di Giorgio, Loredana Palamaro, Virginia Mirra, Matilde Valeria Ursini, Mariacarolina Salerno, Claudio Pignata, Carlo Caffarelli and Francesca Santamaria

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:45

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  19. Content type: Case report

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is involved in cellular immune responses against intracellular pathogens by promoting the generation of T naive in T helper 1 (Th1) cells and by increasing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) p...

    Authors: Loredana Palamaro, Giuliana Giardino, Francesca Santamaria, Rosa Romano, Anna Fusco, Silvia Montella, Mariacarolina Salerno, Matilde Valeria Ursini and Claudio Pignata

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:46

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  20. Content type: Review

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a distinct form of physical allergy. The development of anaphylaxis during exertion often requires the concomitant exposure to triggering factors such as intake of foods (...

    Authors: Carlotta Povesi Dascola and Carlo Caffarelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:43

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  21. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Clustering of Autoimmune Diseases (CAD) is now emerging as a novel clinical entity within monogenic immune defects with a high familial occurrence. Aim of this study is to evaluate the regulatory mechanisms go...

    Authors: Loredana Palamaro, Giuliana Giardino, Francesca Santamaria, Ugo Ramenghi, Umberto Dianzani and Claudio Pignata

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:42

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  22. Content type: Review

    The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) are gastrointestinal. CMPA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells and ...

    Authors: Giovanna Vitaliti, Carla Cimino, Alfina Coco, Andrea Domenico Praticò and Elena Lionetti

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:35

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 39:82

  23. Content type: Review

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and vario...

    Authors: Silvia Montella, Marco Maglione, Sara De Stefano, Angelo Manna, Angela Di Giorgio and Francesca Santamaria

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:29

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  24. Content type: Review

    Atopic eczema is a common and distressing disease. This study aims to review PubMed indexed research statistics on atopic eczema over a-10 year period to investigate the clinical relevance and research interes...

    Authors: Kam-Lun Ellis Hon, Vivien Yong and Ting-Fan Leung

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:26

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  25. Content type: Review

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and miner...

    Authors: Diego G. Peroni, Beatrice Bonomo, Serena Casarotto, Attilio L. Boner and Giorgio L. Piacentini

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:22

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  26. Content type: Case report

    An 8-year-old child during the first year of life manifested severe atopic dermatitis and chronic diarrhea with mucorrhea and rectal bleeding; a fish-free diet was started based on weakly positive skin-prick t...

    Authors: Katia Pellegrino, Leila Emma D’Urbano, Maria Cristina Artesani, Carla Riccardi, Sandro Mancini, Sergio Bella, Federico Alghisi and Giovanni Cavagni

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:16

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  27. Content type: Research

    Severe combined immunodeficiency is within a heterogeneous group of inherited defects throughout the development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. Mutations in recombinase-activating genes 1 or 2 (RAG1/2) represent ...

    Authors: Necil Kutukculer, Nesrin Gulez, Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Guzide Aksu and Afig Berdeli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:8

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  28. Content type: Research

    The impact of atopic dermatitis (AD) on children's quality of life (QoL) in US and European countries is relatively well known, though rarely evaluated in the Italian population. Moreover, the association betw...

    Authors: Fiorella Monti, Francesca Agostini, Francesca Gobbi, Erica Neri, Sandra Schianchi and Fabio Arcangeli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:59

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  29. Content type: Research

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most frequent food allergy in childhood; the trend of CMA is often characterized by a progressive improvement to achieve tolerance in the first 4 to 5 years of life.

    Authors: Federica Bellini, Giampaolo Ricci, Arianna Dondi, Valentina Piccinno, Federico Angelini and Andrea Pession

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:52

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder that is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype. Matched donor bone marrow transplantation is currently the only curative therapeuti...

    Authors: Kostas N Syrigos, Nektaria Makrilia, Jeffrey Neidhart, Michael Moutsos, Sotirios Tsimpoukis, Maria Kiagia and Muhammad W Saif

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:42

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  31. Content type: Research

    Few data are available on the usefulness of short term treatment with low-medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in pre-school children with wheezing exacerbations.

    Authors: Alberto Papi, Gabriele Nicolini, Attilio L Boner, Eugenio Baraldi, Renato Cutrera, Leonardo M Fabbri and Giovanni A Rossi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:39

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  32. Content type: Research

    The prevalence of Paediatric HIV infection is largely unknown in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, clinical pattern of HIV infection and outcome among ne...

    Authors: Babatunde O Ogunbosi, Regina E Oladokun, Biobele J Brown and Kikelomo I Osinusi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:29

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  33. Content type: Research

    Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for higher prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of asth...

    Authors: Tahereh Ziaei Kajbaf, Shideh Asar and Mohammad Reza Alipoor

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2011 37:1

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  34. Content type: Review

    Human SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency) is a prenatal disorder of T lymphocyte development, that depends on the expression of numerous genes. The knowledge of the genetic basis of SCID is essential for d...

    Authors: Fausto Cossu

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:76

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  35. Content type: Research

    Allergy places a considerable cost burden on society. Specific immunoglobulin E (spIgE) testing may improve the management of allergy patients. There is therefore a reason to quantify the economic consequences...

    Authors: Niklas Zethraeus, Carl Johan Petersson, Massimiliano Dozzi, Magnus P Borres, Giulio Vignati and Alessandro Fiocchi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:61

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  36. Content type: Case report

    We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with autoimmune hepatitis lacking common serologic markers and normal gammaglobulinemia associated with immune thrombocytopenia and family history of psoriasis. He present...

    Authors: Henedina Antunes, Ruben Rocha, Nicole Silva, Teresa Pontes, Ana Antunes and Sofia Martins

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:42

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  37. Content type: Case report

    Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL) rarely represents the first clinical manifestation of vertical HIV infection in adolescent in Western Europe. We report the case of a 17 year-old boy with two week history of fever and ...

    Authors: Veronica Santilli, Nadia Mora, Angela Aquilani, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Giuseppe Pontrelli, Rita De Vito, Alessandra Lombardi, Stefania Bernardi and Paolo Palma

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:34

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  38. Content type: Case report

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a complex multisystem disorder characterized by progressive neurological impairment, variable immunodeficiency and oculo-cutaneous telangiectasia. A-T is a member of chromosomal ...

    Authors: Laura Folgori, Alessia Scarselli, Giulia Angelino, Francesca Ferrari, Antonio Antoccia, Luciana Chessa and Andrea Finocchi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:29

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  39. Content type: Review

    A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice ...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Francesco Baldi, Barbara Bendandi, Luigi Calzone, Miris Marani and Pamela Pasquinelli

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:5

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  40. Content type: Review

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms.

    Authors: Paolo Pigatto, Alberto Martelli, Chiara Marsili and Alessandro Fiocchi

    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2010 36:2

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