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Allergology and Immunology

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of allergic and immunologic diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy is often based on anamnesis, and on specific IgE (sIgE) levels and/or Skin Prick Tests (SPT), which have both a good sensitivity but a low specificity, often ca...

    Authors: Barbara Cuomo, Giovanni Cosimo Indirli, Annamaria Bianchi, Stefania Arasi, Davide Caimmi, Arianna Dondi, Stefania La Grutta, Valentina Panetta, Maria Carmen Verga and Mauro Calvani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:93
  2. Upper and lower airways diseases share in part their pathogenic mechanisms and frequently occur simultaneously as “United Airway Disease.” Local treatment with nebulizers delivers anti-symptomatic drugs in eit...

    Authors: Daniela Posa, Antonio Pizzulli, Petra Wagner, Serena Perna, Stephanie Hofmaier, Paolo Maria Matricardi and Susanne Lau
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:89
  3. The efficacy of low-dose medicine (LDM) in childhood mild/moderate eczema is not known. We conducted a double-blind, two-stage, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, lasting 23 months, to address this...

    Authors: R. Carello, L. Ricottini, V. Miranda, P. Panei, L. Rocchi, R. Arcieri and E. Galli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:78
  4. Due to the lack of real life clinical and educational studies, “Io e l’Asma” Centre performed this implementation research (IR).

    Authors: Sebastiano Guarnaccia, Gaia Pecorelli, Marina Bianchi, Massimo Cartabia, Gianluigi Casadei, Ada Pluda, Cristina Quecchia, Valeria Gretter and Maurizio Bonati
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:58
  5. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are rare systemic diseases that usually occur in adulthood. They comprise granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener’s), microscopic poly...

    Authors: Marta Calatroni, Elena Oliva, Davide Gianfreda, Gina Gregorini, Marco Allinovi, Giuseppe A. Ramirez, Enrica P. Bozzolo, Sara Monti, Claudia Bracaglia, Giulia Marucci, Monica Bodria, Renato A. Sinico, Federico Pieruzzi, Gabriella Moroni, Serena Pastore, Giacomo Emmi…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:46
  6. The basophil activation test (BAT), has been proposed as a possible assay for the diagnosis of immediate-type allergy to beta-lactams (BLs).

    Authors: Simona Barni, Francesca Mori, Claudia Valleriani, Giusi Mangone, Sergio Testi, Francesca Saretta, Lucrezia Sarti, Neri Pucci, Maurizio de Martino, Chiara Azzari and Elio Novembre
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:42
  7. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma are caused by an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction. Probiotics may exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory activity. Thus, this study aimed at investigating wh...

    Authors: Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Cristiana Indolfi, Michele Capasso, Nunzia Maiello, Fabio Decimo and Giorgio Ciprandi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:25
  8. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one cent...

    Authors: Giovanni Battista Pajno, Roberto Bernardini, Diego Peroni, Stefania Arasi, Alberto Martelli, Massimo Landi, Giovanni Passalacqua, Antonella Muraro, Stefania La Grutta, Alessandro Fiocchi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Carlo Caffarelli, Elisabetta Calamelli, Pasquale Comberiati and Marzia Duse
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2017 43:13
  9. Despite obtaining evidences on association between vitamin D and development of lung in fetus, little is known about vitamin D level and its impact on severity of asthma in children. The present study aimed to...

    Authors: Nasrin Esfandiar, Fariba Alaei, Shahrzad Fallah, Delara Babaie and Niloofar Sedghi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:108
  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly diagnosed disease, especially in the western world. Although its pathogenesis remains poorly understood, there is strong evidence that the eosinophilic inflamm...

    Authors: Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:96
  11. Recently, there has been growing interest in the relationship between allergic and autoimmune diseases. Allergy and autoimmunity can be considered two potential outcomes of dysregulated immunity and analysis o...

    Authors: Gabriella D’Angelo, Lucia Marseglia, Sara Manti, Laura Colavita, Caterina Cuppari, Pietro Impellizzeri, Salvatore Arena, Teresa Arrigo, Carmelo Salpietro and Eloisa Gitto
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:95
  12. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of small and middle size arteries; 15-25 % of untreated patients and 5 % of patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) develop coronary artery...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Maggio, Giovanni Corsello, Eugenia Prinzi and Rolando Cimaz
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:92
  13. Both haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute necrotizing encephalopathy are life-threatening condition. It presents major diagnostic difficulties, since it may have a diversity in clinical picture and wi...

    Authors: Dongling Dai, Feiqiu Wen, Sixi Liu and Shaoming Zhou
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:79
  14. Hypogammaglobulinemia in early childhood is a common feature characterized by distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors leading to disturbed peripheral blood lymphocyte homeostasis. Detailed flow cytometric imm...

    Authors: Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Katarzyna Tapolska-Jozwiak and Husam Samara
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:71
  15. In a cohort of children in Cyprus, we recently reported low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to be associated with asthma. We examined whether genetic polymorphisms that were previously l...

    Authors: Panayiotis K. Yiallouros, Panayiotis Kouis, Ourania Kolokotroni, Sonia Youhanna, Savvas C. Savva, Kleanthi Dima, Aikaterini Zerva, Danielle Platt, Nicos Middleton and Pierre Zalloua
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:67
  16. Enuresis Nocturna (EN) is a common disorders in childhood. Although many different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain EN, its etiology is multifactorial. Some reports demons...

    Authors: Emin Ozkaya, Seren Calıs Aydın, Mebrure Yazıcı and Rusen Dundaröz
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:59
  17. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan fibroinflammatory condition with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells. The immunopathogenesis of the disease ...

    Authors: Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Irena Wojsyk-Banaszak, Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna and Anna Breborowicz
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:58
  18. Since the fundamental principles of the medical profession were clearly defined in a physician charter in 2002, special considerations have been expressed about the adequate distribution of health care resourc...

    Authors: Roberto Bernardini, Giampaolo Ricci, Francesca Cipriani, Flavio Civitelli, Luciana Indinnimeo, Domenico Minasi, Luigi Terracciano and Marzia Duse
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:55
  19. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been defined as “asthma of the esophagus” for the large number of similarities between the two diseases. Omalizumab is an anti-Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody currently appro...

    Authors: Stefania Arasi, Stefano Costa, Giuseppe Magazzù, Antonio Ieni, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Lucia Caminiti, Fernanda Chiera, Mario Vaccaro, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice and Giovanni Battista Pajno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:32
  20. The Italian Consensus Conference on clinical management of atopic dermatitis in children reflects the best and most recent scientific evidence, with the aim to provide specialists with a useful tool for managi...

    Authors: Elena Galli, Iria Neri, Giampaolo Ricci, Ermanno Baldo, Maurizio Barone, Anna Belloni Fortina, Roberto Bernardini, Irene Berti, Carlo Caffarelli, Elisabetta Calamelli, Lucetta Capra, Rossella Carello, Francesca Cipriani, Pasquale Comberiati, Andrea Diociaiuti, Maya El Hachem…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:26
  21. Very few studies have explored the distinguishing features of severe asthma in childhood in Europe, and only one study was conducted in Southern Europe. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characte...

    Authors: Silvia Montella, Eugenio Baraldi, Salvatore Cazzato, Raffaele Aralla, Mariangela Berardi, Luigia Maria Brunetti, Fabio Cardinale, Renato Cutrera, Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Emanuela di Palmo, Sabrina Di Pillo, Grazia Fenu, Stefania La Grutta, Enrico Lombardi, Giorgio Piacentini, Francesca Santamaria…
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2016 42:9
  22. Data on specific IgE sensitization prevalence in children with allergy-like symptoms seen in the primary care setting are rare. Early diagnosis of allergic diseases is important to prevent clinical manifestati...

    Authors: Alessandro Fiocchi, Valentina Pecora, Carl Johan Petersson, Lamia Dahdah, Magnus P. Borres, Maria J. Amengual, Johannes Huss-Marp, Oscar Mazzina and Francesco Di Girolamo
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:96
  23. Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder elicited by gluten and related prolamines in genetically susceptible individuals and it is the result of the interaction between genetic and environm...

    Authors: Marco Sarno, Valentina Discepolo, Riccardo Troncone and Renata Auricchio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2015 41:57
  24. Food allergies are perceived as a significant problem in school environments; as a result, a teacher’s ability to recognise and deal with allergic reactions is of fundamental importance to protect children’s h...

    Authors: Licia Ravarotto, Giulia Mascarello, Anna Pinto, Maria Rita Schiavo, Marina Bagni and Lucia Decastelli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:100
  25. Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI), such as the presence of at least one of the following criteria: i) >6 RI per year; ii) >1 RI per month involving upper airways from September to April; iii) >3 RI involv...

    Authors: Alfonso Maria Varricchio, Michele Capasso, Antonio della Volpe, Luigi Malafronte, Nicola Mansi, Attilio Varricchio and Giorgio Ciprandi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:93
  26. Severe Congenital Neutropenia type 4 (SCN4, OMIM 612541) is a rare autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the G6PC3 gene. The phenotype comprises neutropenia of variable severity and other anomalies incl...

    Authors: Lucia Dora Notarangelo, Gianfranco Savoldi, Sara Cavagnini, Veronica Bennato, Sabrina Vasile, Alba Pilotta, Alessandro Plebani and Fulvio Porta
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:80
  27. The syndrome of immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the FOXP3 gene. Diarrhea, diabetes and dermatitis are the hallmark of the diseas...

    Authors: Daniele Zama, Ilaria Cocchi, Riccardo Masetti, Fernando Specchia, Patrizia Alvisi, Eleonora Gambineri, Mario Lima and Andrea Pession
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:68
  28. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and can be the first step of the atopic march.

    Authors: Giampaolo Ricci, Arianna Dondi, Iria Neri, Lorenza Ricci, Annalisa Patrizi and Andrea Pession
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:46
  29. During the last century, mass vaccination programs have achieved considerable success across the world in immunizing against several serious infectious diseases. However, vaccinations are threatened by their o...

    Authors: Luciana Nicolosi, Annachiara Vittucci, Rossella Mancini, Elena Bozzola, Alberto Cagigi, Annalisa Grandin and Alberto Villani
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:31
  30. The low uptake of tetanus vaccine and its resultant high burden of tetanus in Nigeria suggest the need to improve routine and booster vaccination in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological evidence ...

    Authors: Adebola E Orimadegun, Akinlolu A Adepoju and Olusegun O Akinyinka
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:29
  31. Asthma is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic variants that confer susceptibility. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1 and GSTM1) are phase II enzymes thought to pro...

    Authors: Nihal El Rifai, Nadia Moustafa, Nelly Degheidy and Manal Wilson
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:22
  32. Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Among primary immunodefiencies, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has the highest prevalence of invasive...

    Authors: Eda Kepenekli, Ahmet Soysal, Canan Kuzdan, Nezih Onur Ermerak, Mustafa Yüksel and Mustafa Bakır
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:2
  33. Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with fo...

    Authors: Marcello Giovannini, Enza D'Auria, Carlo Caffarelli, Elvira Verduci, Salvatore Barberi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Iride Dello Iacono, Alberto Martelli, Enrica Riva and Roberto Bernardini
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014 40:1
  34. Epidemiological studies show that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common worldwide and associated with many diseases including asthma. Our aim was to evaluate vitamin D insufficiency and its clinica...

    Authors: Metin Uysalol, Levent Cem Mutlu, Gamze Varol Saracoglu, Erkut Karasu, Savas Guzel, Semra Kayaoglu and Nedret Uzel
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:78
  35. At the end of 1990s, acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) were called the 'forgotten pandemic’, with a clear dichotomy between developing and industrialised countries in mortality and morbidity, the main...

    Authors: Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti and Chiara Mameli
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:75
  36. We report on pediatric patient with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a rare DNA repair disorder characterized by microcephaly, immunodeficiency and predisposition to malignant lymphomas, who developed juvenil...

    Authors: Srdjan Pasic, Maja Cupic, Tanja Jovanovic, Slobodanka Djukic, Maja Kavaric and Ivana Lazarevic
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:59
  37. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID). Complications of BCG vaccination, especially disseminated infection and its most severe forms, are kno...

    Authors: Pérsio Roxo-Junior, Jorgete Silva, Mauro Andrea, Larissa Oliveira, Fernando Ramalho, Thiago Bezerra and Altacílio A Nunes
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:54
  38. Skin prick tests are the first investigation in allergy diagnostics and their use is described in all the guidelines on atopic eczema. However, the clinical usefulness of skin prick tests is the subject of gre...

    Authors: Carlo Caffarelli, Arianna Dondi, Carlotta Povesi Dascola and Giampaolo Ricci
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:48
  39. The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-charac...

    Authors: Anna Maria Castellazzi, Chiara Valsecchi, Silvia Caimmi, Amelia Licari, Alessia Marseglia, Maria Chiara Leoni, Davide Caimmi, Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Salvatore Leonardi, Mario La Rosa and Gian Luigi Marseglia
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:47
  40. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow’s milk or soy proteins, but may also be tri...

    Authors: Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppina Salzano, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Federica Porcaro and Giovanni Battista Pajno
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:31
  41. Recurrent respiratory infections are one of the most important causes of morbidity in childhood. When immune functions are still largely immature, the airway epithelium plays a primary defensive role since, be...

    Authors: Sonia Carta, Michela Silvestri and Giovanni A Rossi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:29
  42. Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical res...

    Authors: Mario La Rosa, Elena Lionetti, Michele Reibaldi, Andrea Russo, Antonio Longo, Salvatore Leonardi, Stefania Tomarchio, Teresio Avitabile and Alfredo Reibaldi
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:18
  43. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciti...

    Authors: Antonio Di Mauro, Josef Neu, Giuseppe Riezzo, Francesco Raimondi, Domenico Martinelli, Ruggiero Francavilla and Flavia Indrio
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:15
  44. Palamaro et al. describe a child with recurrent bronchopneumonia and very high IgE levels in which a variation, R156H, was found in the IL12RB1 gene that encodes the IL-12Rβ1 chain. Based on the absence of this v...

    Authors: Esther van de Vosse, Jaap T van Dissel, Loredana Palamaro, Giuliana Giardino, Francesca Santamaria, Rosa Romano, Anna Fusco, Silvia Montella, Mariacarolina Salerno, Matilde Valeria Ursini and Claudio Pignata
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:12
  45. Children who were <1000 g (ELBW extremely low birth weight) at birth more frequently present with wheezing which is the most common reason that pediatric consultation is sought. Therefore asthma is diagnosed v...

    Authors: Przemko Kwinta, Grzegorz Lis, Malgorzata Klimek, Andrzej Grudzien, Tomasz Tomasik, Karolina Poplawska and Jacek Jozef Pietrzyk
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013 39:4
  46. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non invasive method for assessing the inflammatory status of children with airway disease. Different ways to measure FeNO levels are currently available. The possibi...

    Authors: Angelo Manna, Carlo Caffarelli, Margherita Varini, Carlotta Povesi Dascola, Silvia Montella, Marco Maglione, Francesco Sperlì and Francesca Santamaria
    Citation: Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2012 38:74

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